Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 2 Grounds of Induction The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapter Assam Board Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 2 Grounds of Induction and select needs one.
Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 2 Grounds of Induction
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D) Long type answers :- 4 marks each.
1) ‘The Law of causation is a formal ground of induction’ – why ?
Ans:- The law of causation guarantees the formal truth of inductive generalisations.
There are certain principles, known as Canons of Elimination, which follows deductively from the law of causation and these canons forms the foundation of our enquiries into the cause of a phenomenon. In order to find out whether one event is the real cause of another events, we have to examine whether it conforms to the canons of Elimination. Hence, the formal truth of Induction depends on the observance of the Canons. As these canons are deduced from the Low of Causation, we conclude that the Law of Causation is a formal ground of Induction.
2) State and explain the quantitative marks of a cause.
Ans:- According to the law of conservation of Matter and Energy, the cause is equal to the effect. Because, the total quantity of matter and energy in the world is constant, it can neither increase nor decrease, though it may change in from. So far as matter is concerned, the effect is identical with the cause, only the from may be different. When a certain quantity of Oxygen is combined with a certain quantity of Hydrogen to from water, the from is changed but the weight of water is equal to the weight of the substances combined. Again, so far as Energy is concerned, the quantity of energy is equal to the cause. For example, when a moving body loses its motion, it appears that the energy is lost but actually, it is converted into another energy, viz., Heat. So, it follows that quantitatively cause is equal to the effect.
3) What is condition ? What are different kinds of condition ? Explain with example.
Ans:- According to Carveth Read, condition means any necessary factor of a cause.
Condition are of two kinds – positive and negative. If the effect is to be produced, positive conditions must be present and negative conditions must be absent. On the other hand, if negative conditions are present, the effect would be frustrated. According to Mill, cause is the sum – total of positive and negative conditions.
The condition which helps to produce the effect is called positive condition.
The condition which tends to prevent the effect is called negative condition. For example, a labour falls from the roof of a home and dies. In this example, highness of the roof, hardness of the soil, get hurt in chest are positive conditions. Because, in presence of these conditions, the event occurs. On the other hand, his physical strength, getting anybody’s help and proper treatment are negative conditions. Because, these negative condition must be absent in order that the effect may be produced.
4) Distinguish between cause and condition.
Ans:- Condition means any necessary factor of a cause. While cause is the sum total of the conditions positive and negative taken together. So, the relation between cause and condition is the relation between the whole and its parts. Condition is a part of the cause and all the conditions, positive and negative taken together constitute the cause. For example – a picture falls from the wall. The falling of the picture is the effect. The positive conditions are violent slumming of the door, the weakness of the cord with which the picture was hung up, the heaviness of the picture. The negative conditions are some support other than the weak cord, the presence of some person at the time when the picture fell so that he might have caught hold of it. If these negative conditions had been present, the picture would not have fallen. Both these positive and negative conditions constitute the cause.
5) Distinguish between simple observation and experiment.
Ans:- The events in nature are complex and intermixed with one another. Now, the function of observation and experiment is to detect the secrets. Both observation experiment are the material grounds of induction. The distinction between observation and experiment is two fold. Firstly, in experiment, the phenomenon is artificially reproduced. But in observation the phenomenon is an event in the ordinary course of Nature. If we watch electricity in the from of lightning, it is observation. But if we produce electricity in the laboratory, it is experiment. Secondly, in experiment we can control the circumstances of its happening. But in observation, the circumstances are beyond our control.
6) Find out the difference between conjunction of causes and plurality of causes.
Ans:- The doctrine of plurality of causes means that the same effect may be produced by different causes in different cases. For example – light may be produced by the Sun, the Moon, the Stars, by electricity etc. On the other hand, the acting together of several causes, producing a joint effect, is called conjumction of causes. For example – Hydrogen and Oxygen are mixed together in certain proportion and an electric current passed, the joint effect is water.
The doctrine of conjuction of causes should not be confused with the doctrine of plurality of causes. In Plurality of causes, several causes acting separately and independently to produce the same effect, but in conjuction of causes, several causes acting jointly produce a joint effect which could not have been produced by any one of them acting singly.
7) Write a short note on Paradox of Induction.
Ans:- Mill’s contradictory statement regarding the principle of the Uniformity of Nature is known as the paradox of induction. It means that the ground of induction is itself the result of induction. Mill regards the principle of the Uniformity of Nature as assumption, in another occasion he says that the principle of uniformity of Nature is the result of unscientific induction. Uncontradicted experience is the ground of unscientific induction. Without causal connection, unscientific induction aims at establishing the conclusion.
Regarding the principle of Uniformity of Nature, the two statements made by Mill are contradictory to each other. So, the paradox of induction means that the ground of induction is itself the result of induction.
8) Distinguish between conjunction of causes and intermixture of effects.
Ans:- When several causes acting together produce a joint effect, it is called conjunction of causes.
On the other hand, combining together of separate effects by the joint operation of mere separate causes is called intermixture of effects. For example, tea is prepared combining several ingredients i.e., milk, tea leaves, sugar water etc. Tea is prepared out of the combination of certain ingredients. So, the “combination of certain ingredients” is conjunction of causes and the act to prepare tea is called intermixture of effects.
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