Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 2 Grounds of Induction

Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 2 Grounds of Induction The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapter Assam Board Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 2 Grounds of Induction and select needs one.

Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 2 Grounds of Induction

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E) Long type answers :- 5 marks each.

1) What do you mean by the principle of the uniformity of nature ? Why is it called the formal ground of induction ?

Ans:- We know that Nature is uniform. That means, Nature behaves in the same way under similar circumstances. If the same circumstances occur, the same events will follow. At first sight, it may appear that the nature is not always uniform. In nature various kinds of phenomenon occur, which are subject to definite laws. If the conditions be repeated, it will occur again. So, there are uniformities or laws in Nature. Nature is not a disorganised jumble of parts but the parts are organically related to the whole. All its parts are parts of one system.

The Law of Uniformity of Nature is an assumption in every case of Induction. We can not pass from the known to the unknown, from the particular to the general, unless we take for granted that Nature will behave in the same way under similar circumstances. So, Mill holds that the Uniformity of Nature is the guarantee, the ultimate major premise of all induction. Every Induction can be thrown into a syllogism, with a major premise, which is a special from of Uniformity of Nature. So, it is said that the principle of Uniformity of Nature is the Formal ground of Induction.

2) What is cause ? What are the qualitative marks of cause ?

Ans:- Cause is the immediate, unconditional, invariable antecedent of the effect.

Qualitative marks of causation :-

a) The cause is relative to a given phenomenon called the effect. Cause and effect are relative to each other. This means, without cause the effect is impossible and without effect cause is also impossible. Both of them depend on each other. Again, the same cause sometimes may be a cause and sometimes as an effect. The same phenomenon may be a cause in relation to a succeeding thing and may be an effect in relation to a preceding thing.

b) The cause and effect are always events in time. An event in time means that there is a change in the existing state of things. If there are changes in existing state of things, then the causational question will come to our mind, why does a change happen ? Likewise, we also enquire into the cause of flood, war, political revolution and so on.

c) Cause is antecedent to the effect. Cause and effect are successively related. When two events happen successively, then the preceding one is called, ‘antecedent’ and the following one as the ‘consequent’ . The cause is always antecedent and the effect in always consequent.

d) Cause is invariable antecedent to the effect. Every effect has a cause. This cause always precedes the effect means the cause is antecedent, but irregular antecedent to the effect can not be cause. Only invariable antecedent is regarded as the cause of an effect. Invariable antecedent is that which is always followed by the effect. If we regard any antecedent of an effect as its cause, then we commit the fallacy of post hoc ergo Propter hoc. So, only invariable antecedent can be the cause of the effect.

e) Cause is unconstitutional, invariable antecedent to the effect. Mill states that, the cause is not merely invariable antecedent. The antecedent must be unconditional also. It means that a cause must be sufficient by itself to produce the effect. The same conditions, sufficient by themselves, will be present, the same effect will necessarily follow. For Mill, the cause not only precedes the effect but also produces it. So, relation between cause and effect is necessary.

f) Cause is unconstitutional, invariable, immediate antecedent to the effect. The cause is an immediate antecedent to the effect, not remote from the effect. This immediacy follows from the principle that cause must be unconditional antecedent. If the cause has to wait for another antecedent to produce the effect, it will loose its unconditionality. So, as soon as the cause appears, without delay, the effect must follow.

3) What do you mean by the doctrine of plurality of causes ? Is it scientifically tenable ?

Ans:- The doctrine of plurality of causes means that the same effect may be produced by different causes in different cases. For example – death may be caused in one case by disease, in another by violence, in a third by poison or in a fourth by old age. But the doctrine of plurality of causes does not mean that a plurality of conditions taken together constituents the cause.

But from scientific point of view plurality of causes is untenable. The doctrine of plurality of causes is inconsistent with the definition of cause as the invariable antecedent. According to this definition, the same effect can be produced by same cause. The effect ‘death’is produced by disease in one case and by suicide in another case. It means that death is sometimes preceded by disease, sometimes by suicide, sometimes by old age etc. So, neither disease nor suicide can be said to be the invariable antecedent. So, we may conclude that plurality of causes is unacceptable and untenable from scientific point of view. It is only the misconception about cause effect relation.

4) How many kinds of cause are there according to Aristotle ? Explain each of them with example.

Ans:- According to Aristotle, there are four kinds of causes. They are material cause, formal cause, efficient cause and final cause.

The material cause :- The material or substance from which a thing is made is called the material cause. For example, threads are the material cause of cloth.

The formal cause :- The new form or shape which is imposed on the object produced is called the formal cause. For example, the weaver takes a bundle of threads and impress on it the form of a particular cloth.

The efficient cause :- The labour, skill or energy spent in making a thing is called the efficient cause. For example, strength or skill which the weaver applies to the material in making cloth is the efficient cause of the effect. Sometimes the agent is called the efficient cause.

The final cause :- The purpose for which the processes are directed in making a thing is called the final cause. The final cause is originally present in the form of an idea in the material cause. For example, the purpose for which a cloth is made.

5) What is observation ? What are its characteristics ?

Ans:- Observation is regulated perception of facts and circumstances with a definite purpose in view.

The characteristics of observation are :-

a) Observation is perception :- Observation involves perception. In perception, we obtain knowledge through our different sense organs such as eye, ear, nose etc. In observation, our sense organs come in contact with various things and events and we get knowledge directly.

b) Observation is regulated perception with a definite purpose :- Though observation is perception, any kind of perception can not be observation. Everyday, we perceive so many things and events. But all of them can not be kept in our minds because without any preparation and interest, we only perceive them. A careless and casual perception can not be observation. Observation is a regulated perception. In the regulated perception, our mind is concentrated towards a definite object withdrawing if from other irrelevant objects. There must be a definite purpose also. So, the regulated perception with a definite purpose is called observation.

c) Observation is regulated perception with a definite purpose :- Though observation is perception, any kind of perception can not be observation. Everyday, we perceive so many things and events. But all of them can not be kept in our minds because without any preparation and interest, we only perceive them. A careless and casual perception can not be observation. Observation is a regulated perception. In the regulated perception, our mind is concentrated towards a definite object withdrawing if from other irrelevant objects. There must be a definite purpose also. So, the regulated perception with a definite purpose is called observation.

c) Observation is always selective :- To be observation, there must be a definite purpose in view and according to purpose. First, we select the object of perception. Observation is selective in the sense that observer pays attention to significant things and aspects of things. We neglect all other circumstances which have no connection with our purpose. Thus, it must not be random or haphazard.

d) Observation is well organised :- In observation, there must be a definite purpose in view and according to the purpose we select the object of perception. After selecting the object of perception, we carefully and in organised manner concentrate our mind towards that selected object. We withdraw our mind from other unnecessary or irrelevant objects. Thus, we systematically and methodically perceive the object and this perception is known as observation.

6) What is experiment ? What are the advantages of experiment oversimple observation ?

Ans:- Experiment is the artificial reproduction of events, under conditions pre – arranged and selected by ourselves and observation of them when thus reproduced. In experiment, events are artificially reproduced by the investigator in a laboratory. The investigator can vary the circumstances as he likes.

Advantages of Experiment over observation are as follows :-

i) Firstly, experiment enable us to multiply our instances indefinitely.

ii) Secondly, experiment often enable us to isolate the phenomenon we are studying.

iii) Thirdly, experiment enables us to vary the surrounding circumstances indefinitely.

iv) Lastly, experiment enables us to examine things with coolness and circumspection.

7) ‘Observation and experiment differ in degree not in kind’ – Explain the statement.

Ans:- According to some writers, simple observation is natural, while experiment is artificial. But this remark may mislead us. In observation, we depend on nature for the events. But by applying our natural powers also, we can not solve our problem. So, we must take the help of scientific instrument also. Thus simple observation is not wholly natural. Again, experiment is not wholly artificial. Because, in experiment we have to make use of our natural power in observing the event produced.

Some other Logicians remark that, simple observation is passive experience but experiment is active experience. In observation, we are totally depend on Nature. We watch events and changes as they occur in the ordinary on nature. We watch events and changes as they occur in the ordinary course of Nature, without interfering in the activity of nature and without any attempt to control them. But in experiment, the investigator prepares the special circumstances where events and changes occur. In experiment, the investigator is more active than in observation. But actually, it is not true that even in simple observation, the observer is completely passive. Observation is selective, so the observer observes those facts which are relevant to our enquiry and rejects the irrelevant and unnecessary facts. So, for this selection and rejection, the observer requires mental activity. So, even in observation there is an element of activity though in experiment the degree of activity is greater. Therefore, we can say that there is no real opposition between simple observation and experiment. They are not differ in kind. So, Jevons states that the difference between simple observation and experiment is the difference of degree only, not in kind.

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