**Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 1 Nature of Inductive Enquiry Various Kinds of Induction** The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapter Assam Board

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**Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 1 Nature of Inductive Enquiry Various Kinds of Induction****Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 1 Nature of Inductive Enquiry Various Kinds of Induction**

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**D) Long type answers – 4 marks each.**

**1) Explain briefly the four stages of induction procedure.**

Ans:- The four stages of induction procedure are :-

**a) Observation :-** Observation is well – regulated perception. Observation supplies us with the materials of induction. Observation is undertaken for a definite purpose. So it involves Analysis and Elimination. Analysis breaks up to complex fact into its constituent factors. It also reveals that some factors of the complex whole are merely accidental and irrelevant for investigation, while others are relevant to the enquiry. Elimination means exclusion or rejection of accidental and irrelevant circumstances as distinguished from essential circumstances which point to a causal connection. After analysis we proceed to eliminate the accidental circumstances, in order that we may concentrate circumstances, in order that we may concentrate our attention on relevant issue.

**b) Formation of Hypothesis :-** A hypothesis means a provisional supposition. At first it may appear that several explanation of the phenomenon under investigation are possible. In order to determine what the real explanation it, we fix upon one to the possible explanations for further investigation and this is called ‘forming a hypothesis’.

**C) Generalisation :- **The next step is Generalisation or inference of a general proposition on the observation of particular instances. Generalisation is made possible by the employment of the Experimental Methods which enables us to establish a causal connection when it is already suggested by a hypothesis.

**d) Verification :-** The general propositions which we arrive at is next adopted at the basis of further investigation with a view to determine whether it explains other similar cases. If it is found to be unsatisfactory, it is discarded in favour of another hypothesis. If it is verified, i.e. found to be the correct explanation of the phenomenon under investigation, it is raised to the dignity of a law.

Sl. No. | Contents |

Chapter 1 | Nature of Inductive Enquiry Various Kinds of Induction |

Chapter 2 | Grounds of Induction |

Chapter 3 | Hypothesis |

Chapter 4 | Mill’s Method of Experimental Enquiry |

Chapter 5 | Realism – Naive Realism & Scientific Realism |

Chapter 6 | Idealism |

Chapter 7 | Ethics & Purusarthas |

Chapter 8 | Religion |

**2) State four points of dissimilarity between scientific I and unscientific induction.**

Ans:- **Points of dissimilarity :-**

a) Scientific induction is based on both simple observation and experiment. But unscientific induction is based on simple observation only.

b) Scientific induction is grounded on the principle of the Uniformity of Nature and the Law of Causation whereas unscientific induction is grounded on mere uniform or Uncontradicted experience.

c) The process of scientific induction is complex but the process of unscientific induction is simple.

d) The conclusion of scientific induction is certain but the conclusion of unscientific induction is probable.

**3) Distinguish between good analogy and bad analogy.**

Ans:- The strength of Analogy depends on the number and the importance of the points of similarity as contrasted with the number and the importance of the points of the difference and the number of the unknown points. So, Good Analogy means an argument in which a conclusion is drawn from the presence of essential resemblance between two things.

A Bad Analogy is one in which the conclusion is drawn from superficial points of resemblance. A Bad Analogy or False Analogy is a fallacious analogical argument in which we confuse between essential and inessential points similarity.

**4) Write short note on ‘inductive leap’.**

Ans:- According to Mill, induction is a process “from the known to the unknown”. Bain calls this the “Inductive leap”. So, Inductive leap consists in passing from the observed cases to the unobserved cases. But this passage from the observed to the unobserved involves some risk. For Mill and Bain, “Inductive leap” is the very essence of Induction. If there is no “Inductive leap”, the process can not be called Induction all.

**5) What is scientific induction ? What are its three main characteristics ?**

Ans:- Scientific induction is the establishment of a general real proposition, based on observation of particular instance, in reliance on the principle of the uniformity of nature and the law of causation.

For example :-

Ram is mortal.

Rahim is mortal.

Richard is mortal.

All men are mortal.

**The characteristics of scientific induction are as follows :-**

**i) Scientific Induction establishes general real propositions :-** A general proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of an indefinite number of individuals. Again, a Real proposition does not merely analyse the connotation of a term but adds something new to our knowledge.

**ii) Scientific Induction is based on observation of facts :- **The general propositions established by Induction are based on an observation of particulars instances. For example – the general proposition “All men are mortal” is based on observation of particular cases of death of persons we have come across.

**iii) In scientific induction, there is an ‘Inductive leap’ :- **‘Inductive leap’ is the essence of Induction. ‘Inductive leap’is the process from known to the unknown. If this characteristic be wanting the process can not be called Induction at all.

iv) Scientific Induction is based on two presuppositions viz, the Law of causation and the Principle of the Uniformity of nature. The Law of Causation states that every event must have a cause. The principle of uniformity of nature states that under similar conditions, the same cause produces the same effect. These two fundamental principles are called the formal grounds of scientific induction.

**6) Write a short note on Problem of Induction.**

Ans:- Induction seeks to establish the material truth of universal real propositions. In induction, we establish a universal real proposition based on the observation of particular instances. But how are we justified in establishing a universal real proposition from particular instances? As experience provides us with particular facts and not with universal propositions. In our experience, we experience some person mortality. It is not possible for us to observe all cases of death of all men of past, present, and future. But the general proposition when established covers observed as well as unobserved cases. But how we are justified in passing from the observation of some cases to the universal proposition? This is what is called the Problem of Induction.

**E) Long type answers – 5 marks each.**

**1) What is induction ? What are its general characteristics ?**

Ans:- Induction is the establishment of a general real proposition, based on observation of particular instances in reliance on the uniformity of nature and law of causation.

**The characteristics of scientific induction are as follows :-**

**i) Scientific Induction establishes general real propositions :-** A general proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of an indefinite number of individuals. Again, a Real proposition does not merely analyse the connotation of a term but adds something new to our knowledge.

**ii) Scientific Induction is based on observation of facts :-** The general propositions established by Induction are based on an observation of particulars insurance. For example – the general proposition “All men are mortal” is based on observation of particular cases of death of persons we have come across.

**iii) In scientific induction, there is an ‘Inductive leap’ :- **‘Inductive leap’is the essence of Induction. ‘Inductive leap’is the process from known to the unknown. If this characteristic be wanting the process can not be called Induction at all.

iv) Scientific Induction is based on two presuppositions viz, the Law of causation and the Principle of the Uniformity of nature. The Law of Causation states that every event must have a cause. The principle of uniformity of nature states that under similar conditions, the same cause produces the same effect. These two fundamental principles are called the formal grounds of scientific induction.

**2) What do you mean by inductive procedure ? Describe different stages of this procedure.**

Ans:- Induction procedure is process in which the conclusion is drawn from less general premises and arrived at more general premises. Here a general conclusion is established on the basis of some observed facts.

**Four stages of Inductive procedure :-**

Scientific Induction is the establishment of a general real proposition, based on observation of particular instances, in reliance on the principle of the Uniformity of Nature and the Law of Causation.

**The Characteristics Scientific Induction are as follows :-**

**i) Scientific Induction establishes general real propositions :-** A general proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of an indefinite number of individuals. Again, a Real proposition does not merely analyse the connotation of a term but adds something new to our knowledge.

**ii) Scientific Induction is based on observation of facts :- **The general propositions established by Induction are based on an observation of particular instances. For example – the general proposition ‘All men are mortal’ is based on an observation of particular cases of death of persons we have come across.

**iii) In Scientific Induction, there is an’Inductive leap’ :- **‘Inductive leap’ is the essence of Induction. ‘Inductive leap’is the process from known to the unknown. If this characteristic be wanting the process can not be called Induction at all.

iv) Scientific Induction is based on two presuppositions, viz. The law of causation and the Principle of the Uniformity of Nature – The low of Causation states that every event must have a cause. The principle of the Uniformity of Nature states that under similar conditions, the same cause produces the same effect. These two fundamental principles are called the formal grounds of Scientific Induction.

**3) What is scientific induction ? What are its characteristics ?**

Ans:- Scientific induction is establishment of a general real proposition based on the observation of particular instances in reliance on the principle of uniformity of nature and the law of causation.

**Characteristics of scientific induction :-**

i) Scientific induction establishes general real proposition.

a) Scientific induction establishes a proposition. A proposition is a statement of a certain relation between two terms. Scientific Induction establishes such a proposition and not an idea or concept.

b) The proposition established by scientific induction is a general proposition.

c) The general proposition which a scientific induction establishes is a real proposition and not a verbal one.

ii) Scientific induction is based on observation of facts. So, they are distinguished from Axioms and from Deduction. Axioms are self – evident general proposition, which can not be proved but assumed to be true. But general propositions in Induction are proved. Again, in Deduction, general propositions are derived from propositions more general, which the general propositions in Induction are derived from observation of particular instances.

iii) In induction, there is an ‘Induction leap or hazard’. According to Mill, Induction is a process from the known to the unknown Bain calls this the’Inductive leap’ or ‘hazard of Induction’. Inductive leap consists in passing from the observed cases to the unobserved cases. But this passage from the known to the unknown, from the observed to the unobserved, involves some risk or hazard. Mill states that, this inductive leap or hazard constitutes the very essence of Induction, if this characteristic be wanting, the process can not be called Induction at all.

iv) Scientific Induction is based on two presuppositions, viz, the law of causation and the principle of the Uniformity of Nature. These two principles are called the formal grounds of Scientific Induction. Because Scientific Induction must take them for granted in order that a general proposition may be established on an observation of particular instances. The law of causation states that, every event must have a cause. Again, the principle of Uniformity of Nature states that under similar conditions, the same cause produces the same effect. Induction is based on these two fundamental principles.

Thus, Scientific Induction establishes general real propositions, on the evidence of particular instances, in reliance on the principles of causation and the uniformity of nature.

**4) What is unscientific induction ? What are its characteristics ?**

Ans:- Unscientific induction is the establishment of a general real proposition on the ground of mere uniform or uncontradicted experience without any attempt at explaining a causal connection.

**The characteristics of Unscientific induction are :-**

a) Unscientific induction establishes general real propositions. Induction establishes proposition. A proposition states a relation between two terms. We seek to prove a connection between two terms and establish a proposition. But the proposition which we derive in the conclusion are general propositions. As we know, general proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of an indefinite number of individuals. But the general proposition, which induction established are not verbal. They are real propositions. A verbal proposition merely states the connection or a part of the connotation of a term. But a real proposition, does not merely analyses the connotation of a term but adds something new to our knowledge.

b) The conclusion of unscientific induction is based on mere uniform or Uncontradicted experience. Unscientific induction draws its conclusion on the ground of mere enumeration or counting instances. So far as our experience goes, we have never come across any contradictory cases. On the strength of this uniform or uncontradicted experience, we arrive at the general proposition.

c) In unscientific induction, there is no knowledge of any causal connection. Hence, the conclusions are merely probable. Probability is a matter of degrees, ranging from zero to what very nearly approaches scientific certainty. But however high the degree of probability, unscientific induction can never reach the certainty of scientific induction.

**5) What is analogy ? What are its characteristics ?**

Ans:- Analogy is a kind of Induction argument based on imperfect resemblance between two things. When we find that the Earth and the planet Mars resemble each other in possessing similar kind of atmosphere, land, water etc. We suppose that the planet Mars will resemble the Earth in being inhabited by living creatures.

**Characteristics of analogy :-**

a) Analogy is a kind of induction proper because there is inductive leap in analog. In inductive leap, we pass from the known truth to the unknown truth.

b) Analogy is a kind of inference in which we pass from particular to particular and not from particular to general.

c) Analogy is based on resemblance of certain properties between two things. This resemblance or similarity is imperfect.

d) Analogy is not based on causal connection. So, its conclusion is probable and not certain.

**6) What is the value of unscientific induction ?**

Ans:- Unscientific induction establishes a general proposition on the basis of mere uniform or uncontradicted experience. There is no attempt at explaining causal connection in unscientific induction. So, its conclusion is probable only. So, the question arises, what is the value of unscientific induction ? Bacon states that unscientific induction has no value at all. But according to some other logicians, unscientific induction has some value. Fowler points out that the value of unscientific induction depends on two consideration.

a) If the number of positive instances, which have occurred in our experience be large, then the value of unscientific induction is comparatively high, while if the number be small, its value is rather low.

b) The absence of negative instances, when experience is of wide range, shows that unscientific induction possesses a high degree of probability.

But it should be noted that however high the degree of probability, unscientific induction can never reach the certainty of scientific induction. Still it cannot be regarded as useless from the scientific point of view as it is the starting point of scientific induction. According to Grumley, the chief value of unscientific induction lies in its power to suggest a causal connection. If a causal connection is discovered and proved, unscientific induction attains the certainty of scientific induction and is elevated to the rank of scientific induction. Hence, unscientific induction is a stepping stone to scientific induction.

So, unscientific induction is not without any value. It is a valuable aid to scientific induction.

**7) Do you agree that deduction and induction differ only in their starting point and not in principle ? Explain.**

Ans:- Inference is classified into Deduction and Induction. In Deduction, the premises are assumed to be true, and the conclusion necessarity follows from the premises. In Induction, the premises are particular facts of experience. The conclusion of Deduction can not be more general then the premises. But the conclusion of Induction is a general proposition.

It is said that, “the difference between. Deduction and Induction is not one of the principles but of starting point.” We have seen in the above paragraph that the starting point is different in two processes. Deduction starts with general proposition, while Induction starts with facts of observation. The procudure is also different. But in principle they are the same. Inferrence always implies and effort on the part of the mind to see how parts are related to the whole, i.e. particular facts are related to the general law. This end is achieved both by Induction and Dedication. Deduction starts will general laws while Induction starts with particular facts. But the result in both cases is same viz, an insight into the connection of facts according to some general principles.

**8) What is the necessity of Induction ?**

Ans:- Logic is the science of reasoning. It sets before itself the ideal of truth and seeks to know the conditions which our reasoning must fulfil in order that the ideal of truth may be attained. Truth is of two types viz. Formal truth and material truth. Deductive inference aims at formal truth only. Formal truth is only one aspect of truth and not the whole truth. An argument to be sound must not be formally true but also materially true. Logic as a whole aims both at formal and material truth.

Every premise is a proposition. According to quantify propositions may be universal or particular. A universal proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of the whole subject. Again, a particular proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of the whole subject. Again, a particular proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of a part of the subject. The truth of a particular proposition can be easily determined by experience. But how are we to establish the material truth of universal propositions ? So, induction is necessary to establish the material truth of such universal propositions.

**According to import, a universal proposition may be of two kinds viz. :-**

i) Analytic or Verbal and

ii) Real or Synthetic.

An analytic or a verbal proposition is one in which the predicate merely states the connotation or a part of the connotation of the subject. On the otherhand, a real or synthetic proposition is one in which the predicate asserts an additional fact which an analysis of the connotation of the subject does not reveal. For example, “All men are mortal”. In this proposition, the predicted does not state the connotation of the subject but given us some new information about the subject. The truth of this proposition cannot be determined by analysing the connotation of the subject.

If universal real propositions are axioms, then they do not require any proof. This is because they are self evident. These axioms are very few in number and the vast majority of universal real propositions are not axioms.

Some universal propositions may be deduction from more general propositions. The truth of these universal propositions can be determined from the truth of more general propositions. But all universal real propositions are not established by deduction.

So, to solve this problem, induction is very much necessary. Induction establishes the vast majority of general propositions. Deduction assumes the material truth of its universal premise, but induction can prove it. A syslogism must have at least one universal premise because from two particular premises no conclusion can be drawn. This universal premise is supplied by induction.

Induction is necessary for the establishment of material truth. Deduction can only give us formal truth. But the aim of Logic is to attain both formal truth and material truth. So, induction is necessary for the establishment of material truth.

**9) “All inferences are analogical” – Discuss.**

Ans:- In our everyday life we infer on the basis of observation of similarity in certain properties among different things. It is inferred that those things will resemble in some other property. Scientific induction is the establishment of a general real proposition based on the observation of particular instances in reliance on the principle of the Uniformity of Nature and the Laws of Causation. But scientific induction and analogy are forms of induction proper. In both there is “Inductive leap” from the known to the unknown. Again both scientific induction and analogy are based on observation. In analogy, we first observe that one thing resembles another in some properties. So, we can infer further resemblance in some other properties between them. Scientific induction is also based on the observation of particular instances for the establishment of a general real proposition.

In unscientific induction, a general real proposition is established on the basis of mere uniform or uncontradicted experience without any attempt at discovering a causal connection. Both analogy and unscientific induction are two froms of induction proper. Both of them are based on observation. In both analogy and unscientific induction there is no attempt to establish a causal connection. Both of them are great sources of hypothesis. But the conclusion of both analogy and unscientific induction are probable. Thus we can say that all inferences are analogical.

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