# Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 1 Nature of Inductive Enquiry Various Kinds of Induction

Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 1 Nature of Inductive Enquiry Various Kinds of Induction The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapter Assam Board Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 1 Nature of Inductive Enquiry Various Kinds of Induction and select needs one.

Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 1 Nature of Inductive Enquiry Various Kinds of Induction

Also, you can read SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 1 Nature of Inductive Enquiry Various Kinds of Induction Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

C) Short types answer :- 3 marks each.

1) What are the general characteristics of induction ?

Ans:- The characteristics of scientific induction are as follows :-

i) Scientific Induction establishes general real proposition :- A general proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of an indefinite number of I individuals. Again, a Real proposition does not merely analyse the connotation of a term but adds something new to our knowledge.

ii) Scientific Induction is based on observation of facts :- The general propositions established by Induction are based on an observation of particulars instances. For example – the general proposition “All men are mortal” is based on observation of particular cases of death of persons, we have come across.

iii) In scientific induction, there is an ‘Inductive leap’ :- ‘Inductive leap’is the essence of Induction. ‘Inductive leap’is the process from known to the unknown. If this characteristic be wanting the process can not be called Induction at all.

iv) Scientific Induction is based on two presuppositions viz, the Law of causation and the Principle of the Uniformity of Nature. The Law of Causation states that every event must have a cause. The Principle of Uniformity of Nature states that under similar conditions, the same cause produces the same effect. These two fundamental principles are called the formal grounds of scientific induction.

2) Mention three points of difference between deduction and induction.

Ans:- Logicians classify inference into Deduction and Induction.

i) In Deduction the premises are assumed to be true, while in Induction the premises are derived from experience.

ii) Deduction aims merely at Formal Truth while Induction aims at Formal and Material Truth. In Deduction the question is whether the conclusion follows necessarily from the given premises. But in induction there is further question whether the conclusion is true as a matter of fact.

iii) In Deduction, the conclusion can not be more general then the premises. But in Induction, the conclusion is always more general then the premises.

3) What is meant by inductive leap ? To remove the difficulty of induction leap scientific induction depends on what ?

Ans:- Inductive leap consists in passing from the observed cases to the unobserved cases.

Inductive leap involves some risk or hazard as we are going beyond the evidence. To remove the difficulty of inductive leap, scientific induction depends on two presuppositions, viz., the Law of Causation and the Principle of the Uniformity of Nature.

4) Scientific induction depends on two principles. What are these two principles ? What are the meanings of these two principles ?

Ans:- Scientific induction depends on two principles – the principle of the uniformity of nature and the law of causation.

The Principle of the uniformity of nature means that nature behaves in the same way under similar circumstances. The law of causation means that every event has a cause.

5) What is unscientific induction ? Give two examples of unscientific induction.

Ans:- Unscientific induction is the establishment of a general real proposition on the ground of mere uniform or uncontradicted experience without any attempt at explaining a causal connection.

a) This raven is black.

That raven is black.

All ravens are black.

b) This student is intelligent.

That student is intelligent.

All students are intelligent.

6) How can the value of analogical argument be determined ?

Ans:- The value of Analogy can be determined by the following conditions :-

i) The extent of known resemblance.

ii) The extent of known difference.

iii) The extent of unexplored region of unknown properties.

7) Explain good analogy and bad analogy with the help of examples.

Ans:- Analogy is a kind of Inductive argument based on imperfect resemblance between two things. Analogy dose not conclusively prove a causal connection but it is most fruit full source of hypothesis. When we find two things resemble each other in certain important attributes, we frame the hypothesis that they will possibly resemble each other in other respects. We find that Earth and the planet Mars resemble each other in possessing similar kind of atmosphere, land water etc. We suppose that the planet Mars will further resemble the earth in being inhabited by living creatures.

Analogy is divided into two kind viz :-

i) Good Analogy and

The strength of Analogy depends on the number and the importance of the points of the difference and the number of the unknown points. So, a Good Analogy means an argument in which a conclusion is drawn from the presence of essential resemblance between two things.

For example :-

When we find that the earth and the planet Mars resemble each other in possessing similar kind of atmosphere, land, water etc. We suppose that the planet Mars will further resemble the Earth in being inhabited by living creatures.

A bad Analogy is one, in which the conclusion is drawn from superficial points of resemblance. For example plants, like men, have birth, growth and decay and death. Men possess intelligence therefore planets also possess intelligence. This is a Bad Analogy, because there is no essential connection between the points of resemblance and the inferred property.

8) Distinguish between deduction and induction.

Ans:- Logicians classify inference into Deduction and Induction :-

i) In Deduction, the premises are assumed to be true, while in Induction, the premises are derived from experience.

ii) Deduction aims merely at Formal Truth while Induction aims at Formal and Material Truth. In Deduction the question is whether the conclusion follows necessarily from the given premises. But in induction there is further question whether the conclusion is true as a matter of fact.

iii) In Deduction, the conclusion can not be more general than the premises. But in Induction the conclusion is always more general than the premises.

iv) Deduction is descending process.

For example :-

All men are mortal.

Ram is a man.

Ram is mortal.

Here, the application of a general principle. “All men are mortal” to a particular case. “Ram” we descend in establishing a particular conclusion “Ram is mortal”.

Induction is an ascending process.

For example :-

Ram is mortal.

Hari is mortal.

All men are mortal.

Here, in attempting to establish a general proposition “All men are mortal” we have to observe as many particulars as possible “Ram, Hari, Karim……………” etc. So, we have to undergo considerable labour to reach the general proposition.

9) Sate three points of similarity between scientific and unscientific induction.

Ans:- The three points of similarity between scientific and unscientific induction are :-

i) Both scientific and unscientific induction establish general real proposition.

ii) Both scientific and unscientific induction are based on observation of facts. In both, we arrive at general real propositions on the observation particular instances.

iii) In both the kinds of induction, there is ‘inductive leap’ – a passage from particular to general, from observed to unobserved cases. So both particular to general, from observed to unobserved cases. So, both scientific and unscientific induction are two forms of induction proper.

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