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Class 11 History Chapter 8 Confrontation of Cultures
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Confrontation of Cultures
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
Q.1. Compare the civilization of the Aztecs with that of the Mesopotamians.
Ans :- The Mesopotamian Civilization flourished in modern Iraq around 5000 BC, while the Aztecs civilization flourished in Central America, modern Mexico between 1200 to 1400 AD. Both the civilizations supported huge empires, society was Rierardical, religion involved worship of a number of gods, had surplus agriculture undertook irrigation facilities built impressive palaces and temples, knew the art of melting metals, and were skilled in various crafts.
Aztecs :- ( i ) Significant features of Aztecs civilization were the chinampas, artificial is lands in lake Mexico and the palaces and pyramids that rose dramatically out of the lake.
( ii ) The empire rested on a rural base. Agriculture included cultivation of crops like corn, beans, squash, pumpkins, mario roots. Peasants were attached to the land owned by the nobility and cultivated them in exchange for part of the harvest. Slavery was knovn but slaves could buy back their freedom.
( iii ) The Aztecs were a warrior tribe, who expanded their empire by defeating other tribes who were forced to pay tribute.
( iv ) The vast empire with its two capital cities Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco covered an area of about 2,00,000 Sq. Kms. was divided into provinces ruled by a governor, assisted by a garrison and tax collectors.
( v ) The Aztecs knew the smell of metal smelting, Ornaments were made of gold but the tools they made were quite simple.
( vi ) Unlike the Mesopotamian they did not know the use of the wheel, but their pottery showed a wide range variety. Cotton weaving, use of semi precious stones and gold work were highly developed crafts.
( vii ) The Aztec language ‘Nahuatl’ is still a living language, society was hierarchical and constituted of warriors, priests, nobles, merchants, craftsman peasants and slaves.
( viii ) Aztecs worshipped a number of God like the sun God, war God and corn goddess. The calendar consisted of 260 days and was connected with the performance of religions ceremonies.
( ix ) They laid great importance or education and made sure all children went to school . Boys were specially trained for military agriculture and other trades. While girls were trained in domestic skills.
( x ) Explorations were followed by conquests by mid 15th century cortes (Spanish) and his soldiers occupied Mexico. Use of military, repression, forced calour and revenges of disease led to the dismemberment of the Aztec civilization.
( a ) Mesopotamians : ( i ) The civilization flourished in the land between the rivers tigris and Euphrates, modern day Iraq. Significant features of the civilization were its prosperity, city life, its voluminous and rich literature, its mathematics and astronomy.
( ii ) Agriculture supported by irrigation facilities consisted of cultivation of wheat, barley pears and lentils. Meat, milk fish date palms added to rural prosperity. The Mesopotamians unlike the Aztecs domesticated animals.
( iii ) The civilization was marked by urbanization Supported by surplus agricultures development of trade, services and manufactures, system of writing and well developed social organization. Among the important urban central were Ur Kish, Uruk, The Mesopotamians valued and took pride in the city life.
( iv ) Like under the Aztecs, temples were residences of gods- moon gods, Ur, Goddess of love and war, they were known as ziggurats and were not only four of worship but main urban institutions and statements of power, status and influence.
( v ) The Mesopotamians were probably the first to use potters wheel glass ware use written cold of leone, and device arches domes and pillars to support roots in the absence of large quantities of wood and stone.
( vi ) Society was divided into three classes and marked by differentiation. The being followed by priest and government officials represented the highest class. The slaves formed the lowest class and had a wretched existence. Women were respected.
( vii ) The other momentous achievements of Mesopotamians was the art of writing cuneiform script that enabled remarkable developments in mathematics and astronomy e.g. their devision of hour into 60 minutes, minute in to 60 seconds and circle into 360° degrees are practices followed even today.
( viii ) Online the Aztecs of Mexico, the Mesopotamian Civilization was open to different people cultures and the vitality of the civilization was perhaps due to this intermixture.
Q.2. What were the new developments helping European navigation in the 15th Century?
Ans :- The new developments helping European navigation in the 15th century can be summarized as 3G’s gold, Glory and God (economic, political and religious)
( i ) The European Economy went through a decline from mid 14th to the mid 15th centuries. Plagul and wars led to depopulation in many parts of Europe, trade grew slade and there was shortage of gold and silver for making European coins.
( ii ) Turkish occupation of Constantinople in 1453 led to decline is long distance trade. Italian cities managed to do trade with the Turkis, but had to pay higher taxes. New European states thus sought means to break. Arab Venetian monopolies, and by pass Turkish hostility.
( iii ) Prospects of huge profits led governments and financiers to encourage individuals to become knights of the ocean, e.g. prince Henry of Portugal called the ‘Navigator. Moreover private ambitions were formed by success of Recoanista and contracts known as capitulations e.g. Spain.
( iv ) The Renaissance had generated a spirit of adventure and curiosity at among people.
( v ) The religious zeal the possibility that more people could be brought into the fold of Christianity made many devout Christian Europeans ready to face adventure.
( vi ) The Europeans were well equipped to venture across the Atlantic man as great advances were made in science of navigation. The Knowledge of the compares astrolabe, art of mapping larger ships and travel literature led many to venture forth beyond the known seas.
Q.3. Give reason for Spain and Portugal being the first in the 15th century to venture across the Atlantic.
Ans :- A combination of three motives economic, political and religious or 3es. Gold, Glory and God were main reserve for Spain and Portugal being the first to venture across the Atlantic.
( i ) Unto the end of the 15th Century Spain was the major sea power of Europe. Portugal too had gained independence from Spain in 1193 and developed fishing and Sailing Skills.
( ii ) The old trading routes between the East and West came under Turkish rule after the ottoman conquest of Asia Minor and Capture constantinople in 1453.
( iii ) The merchants or Venice and Genoa monopolized trade Elysees Europe and Asia and refused let now nation states especially Spain and Portugal have a share in the trade through these old routes.
( iv ) Spain and Portugal to break Arab-venstion monopolies, bypass Turkish hostility and to open direct trade relations with the East Ventured out. Their appetites were wetted by the huge profits and prosperity generated by trade with the east in Italian cities.
( v ) The Spanish and Portuguese were all equipped to venture across the Atlantic as great advances were made in science of navigation e.g. compass astrolabe, art of mapping and ship building.
( vi ) Renaissance had generated a spirit of adventure and curiosity among the people.
( vii ) The adventurers were supported by their governments and financiers becomes of prospects of huge profits.
Example :- ( i ) Columbus, and Italian, was Sanctioned by the Spanish authorities.
( ii ) In Portugal, Prince Henry the Navigation encouraged maritime activities of Sailors by making maps based on trips to the African coast.
( iii ) Spanish ruler encourage individuals to become knights of the become by giving contracts known as capitulaciones. Yet another reason which made many Spanish and Portuguese ready to face adventure was the religious Zeal the possibility that move people could be brought into the bold of Christianity.
|Chapter 1||From The Beginning be of Time|
|Chapter 2||Writing & City Life|
|Chapter 3||An Empire Across Three Continents|
|Chapter 4||The Central Islamic Lands|
|Chapter 5||Nomadic Empires|
|Chapter 6||The Three Orders|
|Chapter 7||Changing Cultural Traditions|
|Chapter 8||Confrontation of Cultures|
|Chapter 9||The Industrial Revolution|
|Chapter 10||Displacing Indigenous People|
|Chapter 11||Paths to Modernization|
Q.4. What new food items were trans items were transmitted form south America to the rest of the world?
Ans : (i) Potatoes .
(ii) Chillis .
(iii) Tobacco .
(iv) Sugar .
(v) Cocoa .
(vi) Came- Sugar .
(vii) Rubber .
These crops were later taken by Europeans to other Countries like India.
Q.5. How did the discovery of South Africa.
Ans :- The desire/need for alternate route to the cast because of the prosperous spice trade led accidently to the discovery of America.
These discoveries energized other European nations to undertake similar explorations e.g. in 1498 Vas-co-da Gama found the route to India, form Englishman Explores North American coast. The entire world for the first time became known and also for the first time all areas of the world were brought together into regular arg physical contact with one another. Driven by the Prime motives of gold, glory and God, these explorations had far reaching consequences as they led to foundation of vast colonial empires by Portugal, Spain, Holland, England and France.
( i ) The first steps in the explorations were taken by Portuguese and Spanish sailors Spain occupied most of south America excluding Brazil which was occupied by Portugal. The Brutal exploitation of gold and silver mines through enslavement of the local population natives, led to expansion of international trade and influx of gold and silver is Spain e.g. between 1560-1600 a hundred ships each year carried silver from south American mines to Spain. This enormous wealth, to which and religious zeal, whetted the appetite of other European nations to follow suit.
( ii ) Spain and Portugal failed to invest the huge income to furth er trade and to build a marcentrary. The other countries bordering the Atlantic particular by England, France, Belgium took advantage of the discovery. Their marchants formed joint stock companies sent trading, expedition and established colonies. E.g. British East India Company (1600) led to the colonization of India, and the Dutch East India company (1602) successfully colonized the spice Islands, i.e. Indonesia.
( iii ) The merchants introduced many new products to the European produced in the new world tobacco, sugarcane, patalo, Cocoa, rubber and Chillis. These led to increase in Volume trade as well as articles of trade, adding to the prosperity of European nation states.
( iv ) The explorations were supported by governments and financiers. Though profit was the prime motive, the explorations were followed by European settlements, the flag of the nation and its missionaries ventrally leading to the colonization of the nations.
( v ) The indigenous civilization were subjugated by display of superior military. Strengths, enslavement dissemination of the population due to diseases and brutal onslaughts ruin of their way of life, and subjugation of the economy to needs of the mother country e.g. sugar and rubber plantation in south America, and exploration of forest resources.
( vi ) Need for cheap labour to work on plantations sugar and rubber in South America, lad to slave trade and ultimately the colonization anibu of the African by various European power.
( vii ) Exploitation of newly discovered lands, led to accumulation of wealth gave an impetus to the industrial revolutions in Europe, in and fresh phase. The colonies served as a source of cheap raw materials markets for finished goods and areas for Capital ng investment, e.g. India Latin America. Thus the discovery of South America was a factor in the development of European colonialism.
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