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Class 11 History Chapter 7 Changing Cultural Traditions
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Changing Cultural Traditions
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
Q.1.Which elements Greek and Roman culture were revived in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ?
Ans :- Elements of Greek and Roman culture were revived in 14th and 15th Centuries .
( i ) Written works / Literature :- The Universities that arose in odna Bologna took deep interest in the literature Greeks and Romans Writers like Francesco Patriarch stressed on the reading of the Greco Roman works with a focus on cultural traditions . Infact , it was this focus on grammar , rhetoric , poetry , history , and moral philosophy which led to shift from religion and dogmatic thought to debate and discussion . The Study of ancient Greek and Roman literature laid for the development of humanism . The term was derived from the Latin word humanities used by the Roman lawyer cicero centuries ago .
( ii ) Humanism :- That arose in the 14th and 15th centuries centered on skills of individuals developed by debate and discussion and owed much to the humanis elements emphasized in Greek and Roman thought . The focus was on individual .
The humanist idea of True civilization reflected revival of Greek and Roman culture . Humanists believed they had restored civilization . With men’s minds free to learn, develop new skills and interests just like learning had been emphasised in the Greek and Roman period . Infact , they regarded the intermediate period middle ages between the two civilization as Dark age , as the church had complete control over peoples mind . 14th and 15th centuries saw a revival of philosophy the works of Socrates , plato , Aristotle represented classical Greek philosophy , They were translated by Arabs and made widely available .
Similarly , works in mathematics , natural science , astronomy , medicine and chemistry were also translated and there was further development in these field e.g. vesalius in the 16th century . A professor of medicine was first to dissect Harman body and this led to growth of modern philosophy .
This contributed to the growth of rational thought .
( iii ) Art :- 14th and 15th centuries also saw a revival of Greek and Roman . The fragments of Roman art were carefully studied especially the proportionate figures of human sculptures . This can be seen in the works of Donate llo who made life like statues in 1416. Painters too tried to paint as realistically . This also led to anatomy geometry , and physics combining with art to mark beginning of a new style “ realism ‘ where art is as life like as possible . Humanist thought was reflected in art by focussing on the individual man . Man was regarded as the best creation e.g. Leonard da Vinci , Raphel etc.
( iv ) Architecture :- There was a revival of old imperial Roman style or classical Roman Architecture in Italian buildings in the 15th and 16 centuries . The new buildings copied many features of ancient Roman architecture . I.e. buildings more decorated with paintings , sculptures and reliefs .
Q.2 . Compare details of Italian Architecture of this period with Islamic Architecture .
Ans :- ( i ) Italian Architecture was a revival of classical Roman Architecture .
( ii ) The specimens of this architecture are found in churches , palaces , and forts e.g. st . peters church , Rome , st . Pauls church , Londas , Palace of Spain Healdsburg Fort of Germany .
( iii ) Italian Architecture was marked by decorations using paintings , sculpture , and various art forms.e.g . Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine chapel in the Vatican . He decorated the ceiling in mine panels during from Christian mythology but given is intense human interpretation like in last judgment , fall of man
( iv ) The paintings were marked by an emphasis on man’s physical existence and not God . The artists depicted beauty of the physical world and humans as perfect beings . Even Jesus and many were depicted as loving human beings and not as religious symbols e.g. In Michelangelo’s pieta there was representation of Mary with dead Jesus across her knees .
Islamic Architecture :-
( i ) The specimens of Islamic architecture were mosques , shrines and tombs seen in Spain central Asia. It was predominantly religious bir architecture , though there were also caravan sarais , hospitals , palaces .
( ii ) The basic design comprised of arches , domes minarets , and open courtyard .
( iii ) The mosques were designed according to the spiritual needs of Muslims . There was an open courtyard ( sahn ) leading to a hall to accommodate long time of worshippers , inside the hall there was a ‘ niche ‘ ( Mihrab ) indicating direction of Mecca and a pulpit ( Minbar ) from where sermons were given.
( iv ) For designs and ornamentations living beings could not be represented calligraphy and arabesque were used .
Q.3. Why were Italian towns the first to experience of the Ideas of humanism ?
Ans :- Italian cities were the first of experience humanism because of certain Specific reasons –
( i ) Rise of cities and trade :- The fall of the Roman Empire had led to a decline of Italy, It become divided and fragmented unlike western Europe unified by the church, and Eastern Europe by the Byzantine Empire however from this weak and fragmented Italy arose cities like Venice, Florence, Milan Naples , Genoa due to expansion of trade between Byzantines Empire and Islamic countries . These Italian towns were nodal points in the trade across the Mediterranean. They represented the political facet of Renaissance . I.e replacement of Universal empires with independent towns .
( ii ) Middle class and idea of citizenship :- In Italian cities the clergy was not dominant neither were the feudal lords . Rich merchants and bankers actively participated in governances . This led to citizenship and a sense of pride . This was a precursor of the growth of middle class which facet of Renaissance .
( iii ) Patronage to Art and literature :- The rulers of Italian cities were great patron of scholars and artists . This led to the revival of Greek and Roman art architecture and literature and marked Renaissance e.g. in Florence .
( iv ) Universities :- Italian cities were the first to see a rise of Universities in Europe eg . University of Padua and Bologna. These universities were centers of humanist thought. There the focus was on studying other religions. Law philosophy, history was taught with an emphasis on individual silks and through debate and discussion.
( v ) Migration of Greek Scholars to Italy :- When Constantinople was conquered by the Turks the Greek scholars migrated to Italy with their manuscripts and art treasures . They created new spirit and interests for the old classics . Remarkable masterpieces of art and literature were produced under their guidance . These started a reaction against medievalism and this factor also greatly helped the growth of renaissance in Italy.
|Chapter 1||From The Beginning be of Time|
|Chapter 2||Writing & City Life|
|Chapter 3||An Empire Across Three Continents|
|Chapter 4||The Central Islamic Lands|
|Chapter 5||Nomadic Empires|
|Chapter 6||The Three Orders|
|Chapter 7||Changing Cultural Traditions|
|Chapter 8||Confrontation of Cultures|
|Chapter 9||The Industrial Revolution|
|Chapter 10||Displacing Indigenous People|
|Chapter 11||Paths to Modernization|
Q.4 . Compare the Venetian idea of good government with those in contemporary France .
Ans :- Venice was a city-state in Italy where a republican government was established in the 15the century. Here religious heads and sit feudal lords were not powerful. Here rich merchants and Bankers participated in the city’s government.
According to the contemporary writer cardinal Gaspero Centurial (1488-1542), the entire authority was in hands of a council whose members were gentlemen above the age of 25 years. Thus the administration was in the hands of common people noble by birth or enabled by virtue.
This greatly helped in the development of notices of citizenship and later nationalism.
France –The politico-administrative system in contemporary console France under Charles VIII and Louis XI was an absolute Monarchy. The power of the noble was limited and a standing etuto army was maintained. The king was at the center of an elaborate Patron client relationship. This patronage ensured cooperation of different sections of society and maintained king power. The king also claimed divine rights kingship with an army, an instrument of despotism. The focus was on war and conquests. There was little participation of the people. In theorizing of Louis XIII of France in 1614, a meeting was held of the Estates-General (The French consultative ASsociation comprising of the Three orders/Estates Clergy, nobility and the vest. After this it was not summoned for about two centuries. This clearly shows there was no involvement and representation of the people in governance.
ANSWER IN SHORT
Q.5. What were the features of humanist thought?
Ans :- Humanism is derived from Latin word “Humanities” which mean culture. Humanist thought consciously reemphasized religion focussing on skills developed by individuals through debate and discussion. The focus was an all that was human as distinct from device. Humanism was a systems of thought which extolled man. stressed his north and dignity, expressed faith in his creative potential. It stood for freedom and rights of the individual.
Humanist thought was reflected in the contemporary view of history, in ast and architecture.
Humanists regarded themselves as restoring true civilization or beginning of modern age vis-avis the preceding dark age which setin following collapse of the Roman empire.
Contemporary art and architecture reflected humanist thought. There was development of realism in art. Art was seen as imitation of life. Animals humans, nature all was carefully studied and wlocl depicted. Art focussed on physical aspects of mans existence. This can be seen is the words of Leonards-da-Vinci-such as last atinodnie supper, Monalisa. Michelangelo’s-Last Judgment, Fall of mans, Raphael’s Madonna. Humanism stressed on the fact that individuals of capable of shaping their own lives through means other than pursuit of power and money. This ideal was closely linked with the fact that human nature was money-sided. It was clearly reflected in Machiavellis prince which stressed the good and bad, both sides of each man.
Humanist writings such as those of Patrarch Dante led to debate and discussion on matters, other than religion such as poetry, theatre, grammar, philosophy, Medicine geometry thought was the chief characteristics of defining feature of Renaissance.
Q.6. Write a careful account of how the world appeared different to seventeenth century Europeans.
Ans :- The renaissance spirit of enquiry and reasoning led to new scientific inventions the world appeared different. Contrary to accepting beliefs based on Christian motions and myths, Scientists began to use methods of questioning, observation and experimentation whereby many old view were exploded knowledges distinct from belief. E. g. the medieval theory that the earth was a sinful place, held immobile by the burden of sin, and the earth stood at the center of the universe around which other planets moved was proved to be incorrect.
Scientists like Copernicus proved it was not the earth which was the center of universe. The Planets including the earth rotate around the sun.
Copernicus’s work of sun centered system was confirmed by other scientists Galileo and Kepler. Issac Newton broke further ground by his theory of gravitation which proved that all heavenly bodies more according to the law of gravitation. Works of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton changed the conception of the human body.
Harvey-gave a complete understanding of blood circulations our body. The Arabic numerals borrowed by the Arabs from India freed the Europeans from the use of abacus and Roman numeraly and simplified the keeping of accounts.
The explorations by sailors like Vas Co Da Gama, Columbus, Magellen led to geographical discoveries of new lands (e.g. Americans) and new sea routes (e.g. route to India). Though their primary motive was gold, glory and God, these discoveries door changed mains idea of the word, revolutionized trade, started waves of colonization that have determined the course of world history ever since.
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