Class 11 History Chapter 3 An Empire Across Three Continents

Class 11 History Chapter 3 An Empire Across Three Continents The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 11 History Chapter 3 An Empire Across Three Continents and select need one.

Class 11 History Chapter 3 An Empire Across Three Continents

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 11 History Chapter 3 An Empire Across Three Continents Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here.

An Empire Across Three Continents

Chapter: 3



Q.1. If you had lived is the Roman Empire, one would have lived in the towns or in the countryside? Explain why. 

Ans :- In the Roman Empire one would have preferred to live in the towns because: 

( i ) Unlike the countryside which was subject to exploitation by the aristocracy and other wealth persons, towns were centers of affluence and culture. 

( ii ) Social hierarchies though pronounced were not suffocating as towns provided more opportunities for employment in the bureaucracy army and participation is prosperous trade. 

( iii ) Famines in those times were not uncommon. One crucial advantage or living in the town/city was simply that might be better profiled for during food shortages and famine than the countryside, e.g. Doctor galan corroborates city dwellers as it was their customs stored enough grain for the whole next year immediately after the harvest, leaving little for consumptions of the country people.

( iv ) Still another attraction were the public baths were a striving feature of Roman urban life. 

(v) They provided the populations a much higher level of iron entertainment. For example, one calendar tells us that spectacular a (Shows) filled no less than 176 days of the year. 

( vi ) Towns were enters of art, learning and various intellectual activities c apart from governance. 

Q.2. Compile a list of some of the towns, cities rivers, seas and provinces mentioned in the chapter and try and find on the maps. Can you say something about any three of the items in the list you have compiled? 

Ans :-Towns and cities Rome, carthage, Naples Antioch, Damascus Alex Andrea, Fairyism, Constantinople, Tangiers, Hipponium Rivers- Rhine, Dandles, Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, Guadalguivir, 

Seas :- Mediterranean’s Sea, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Red sea, Black Sea. 

Provinces :- Gaul (Modern France) Campania, Macedonia Morocco, Egypt, Tripolitania, Africa proconsularis, Tunisia, Numidia, Morocco, Baltica (South ern spain) Haspania (Northern spain) syria. 

( i ) Mediterranean Sea :- Continents of Europe and Africa are separated by this Sea 

( a ) It stretches all the way from spain in the west to Syria in the east. 

(b) It was the heart of the Roman Expire. 

( c ) Rome dominated the Mediterranean and all regions around that sea in both directions north and south. 

( d ) Chification of the Mediterranean’s gave boost to long distance seaborne trade. 

( e ) Added to the prosperity of the empire. Control over the provinces enabled flow of immense resources for expansion and consolidation of the empire. 

( ii ) Spain :- Roman Control of spain made available vast tracts of cultivable land. 

( a ) The growth of garrison towns, administrative urban centers, and Roman colonies become, focal points from where lalin culture was disseminated, 

( b ) Facilitated changes. 



(a) Strategically located 

( b ) Surrounded on three sides by sea 

( c ) Made lwin capital of empire by emperor Constantine. 

( d ) Site of modern Istanbul is Turkey and previously called Byzantium’s.

( e ) Marked shifting of seat of Roman emperor i.e. power from Rome to the east. 

( iii ) Rhine and Danube :- These rivers formed the northern boundary of the Roman empire. 

Q.3. Imagine that you are Roman housewife preparing a shopping list of household requirements. What would be on the list?

Ans :-  Do it yourself. Students need to use their own imagination. Hints- Food item/Dress items/wines ornaments/ Artifacts etc. 

Q.4. Why do you think the Roman government stopped coining in silver? Which metal did it begun to use for the production of coinage?

Ans :- The Roman government stopped coining the silver coin popularly known as the denarius (4 1/2 gm of silver) because. 

( i ) Silver was obtained from the mines of spain 

( ii ) Constant usage of this metal had led to depletion of these mines. 

( iii ) It was not economically viable to mine the Spanish mines. In case of silver coins denarii’s the Romans under emperor Constantine started using the metal gold. 

The solidi were minted on a nosy large scale and the striking feature was it outlasted Roman Empire. 


Q.5. Suppose Emperor Trojan had actually managed to conquer India and Romans had held on to the country for several centuries. In what ways do you think India might be different today? 

Ans :- (Students need to use their own imagination to tackle the question) 

( i ) Exchange of culture would have led to further diversify and flowing of each.

(ii) Changes in art architecture there literature and law, as was evident even in the case of indo Greek. 

( iii ) Exchange of ideas e.g. Roman law would have helped growth of Indian Law. 

( iv )  despite patriarchal society and genders biases Indian woman could have been given right to property and easy divorce much earlier.

( v) Indian agriculture would have benefit from Roman diversful application of water. 

( vi ) Conversion and christianisation. 

( vii ) The hither to caste and class differences would have been further  stratified. 

(viii) Concept of public baths and entertainment. 

( ix )  Exploitation of Indian wealths and resources. 

( x ) Slavery would probably have become more rampant at Romans society was known to use slave labour in every sector-agriculture, mining, handicrafts etce. 

( xi ) Impoverishment of peasantry at an early date. 

( xii ) The pattern of Indian trades would probably have under gone vast changes. 

Q.6. Go through the chapter carefully and pick out some basic features of Romans society and economy which you think make it took quite roads. 

Ans :- A Society :-

( i )  Widespread prevalence of the nuclear family.

( ii ) Wife did not transfer to her husbands authority but retained full rights in the property of her natal family. 

( iii ) The considerable legal rights woman enjoyed in owning and managing property. 

( iv ) In law married couple was not one financial entity but two.

( v ) Divorce was relatively easy and needed more than a notice of intent to dissolve the marriage by either husband or wife. 

( vi ) Prevalence of vast diversity is religious cults.

( vii ) Plurality languages that more spoken, the styles of dress and costume, the food people ate, and even their forms of social organization and patterns of settlement.

( viii ) The concept of amusement. 

B. Economy :-

( i ) Preference to live in urban centers 

( ii ) Cities as bedrock of the imperial system.

( iii ) Cities better provided for. 

(iv) Disputes between the rich and the poor. 

( v ) Constant exchange of commodities between various regions from campavia, wheat from sicily and by jacuim olive sit from south Spain.

( vi ) Diversified application or water power around the Mediterranean. 

( vii ) Use of hydraulic mining technique in Spanish silver and gold mine. 

( viii ) Working on mines on a gigantic scale so much so that the levels output were not reached till the 19th century e.g. silver and mind of Spain. 

( ix ) Existence of well organized commercial and banking networks. 

( x ) Widespread use of money, e. g. silver deaneries, and gold solidi. 

( xi ) Competition amongst regions for control of the main markets e.g. olive oil Behind Board movement prosperity of the regions rose and fell depending on effectively they could organize production, transport and quality of the goods.


Q.1. To which three continents did the Roman Empire extend? 

Ans :- The three continents to which the Roman Empire extend? 

( i ) Most of Europe as we know it today. 

( ii ) West Asia i.e. large part of the fertile crescent. 

( iii ) North Africa 

Q.2. What constitute the chief sources of the reconstruction of Roman history?

Ans :- Roman historians have a rich collection sources to go on and these can be broadly divided in to three groups 

( i ) Texts.

( ii ) documents and. 

( iii ) material remains.

Q.3. Name the two powerful empires of the first sever centuries. 

Ans :- The two powerful empires which ruled major part of Europe, North Africa and the middle. East were Rome and Iran. Their empires lay nearest to each other separated only by a narrow strip of land that ran along river Euphrates. They were rivals and fought against en each other for much of their history.

Q.4. What was the period of rule of the Roman Republic. 

Ans :- The period of the Roman Republic approximated from 509 BC to 27BC. 

Q.5. Give the extent of Roman Empire, what constituted the heart of the Empire? 

Ans :- Rome dominated the Mediterranean and all the regions around it the sea in both directions north as well as south. To the north the boundaries of the Empire were formed by the two great rivers, the Rhine and Danube, to the south by the huge expand of desert called the Sahara. The Mediteranean sea, which stretches all the way from Spain in the west to Syria in the east was the heart of Romes empire.

Sl. No.সূচী-পত্ৰ
Chapter 1From The Beginning be of Time
Chapter 2Writing & City Life
Chapter 3An Empire Across Three Continents
Chapter 4The Central Islamic Lands
Chapter 5Nomadic Empires
Chapter 6The Three Orders
Chapter 7Changing Cultural Traditions
Chapter 8Confrontation of Cultures
Chapter 9The Industrial Revolution
Chapter 10Displacing Indigenous People
Chapter 11Paths to Modernization

Q.6. What does the term Ta chin mean? 

Ans :- Ta chin is a Chinese term, and relates to the two super power Rome and Iran. Who had divided up most of the world amongst them. It literally means greater chin roughly the west. 

Q.7. Which period in Roman Empire is regarded as a water shed? 

Ans :- The third century AD is regarded as a short of history of the empire were 

( i ) the emperor.

( ii ) the aristocracy and 

( iii ) the Army. 

Q.8. Define the term civil war. 

Ans :- Civil war offers to armed struggled for power within the some in contrast to conflicts between different countries. 

Q.9. What is meant by Republican of Romans History? 

Ans :- The Republic was the name for regime in which reality of power lay with the senate, a body dominated by a small group of wealthy families who formed the “nobility”. In practice the Republic represented the government of the “nobility” exercised through body called the senate. The Republic lasted from 509BC to 27 BC when it was over thrown by octavians, the adopted son Julius Caesar, who later changed the name of Augustus 

Q.10. Give the leading social groups of the early empire. 

Ans :- The leading social groups of the early empire user 

( i ) Sectors (peters, list fathers) 

( ii ) Leading members of the equestrian class.

( iii ) Those attached to great house.

( iv ) Unkempt lower class who were addicted to the circus and theoretical display. 

( vi ) Slaves.

Q.11. What were known as dependent kingdom? 

Ans :- Dependent kingdoms were local kingdoms which were clients of Rome. Their rulers could be relied on to use their forces in support of Rome and in return Rome allowed them to exist.

Q.12. Why did Rome come into conflicts with carthage? 

Ans :- Carthage, situated close to modern Tunis on the North African coast, lies almost midway between the eastern and western, Mediterranean. Conflict between Rome and Carthage culminated in wars called the punk wars. By 146 BC Carthage had been defeated and it ceased to exist Reasons. 

( i ) Roman expansion into the Mediterrancan could only have taken place at the expense of carthage because carthaginians empire included southern spain, Sardinia Corsica, sicily and territories in North Africa. 

Q.13. Roman law is one of the lasting contributions Rome to human civilization “Comment”. 

Ans :- One of the major demands of plebians is the 5th century BC was that there should be a written code of law so that there was no arbitrary exercise of judicial authority. This led to the introduction of self of laws known as “code of the Twelve Tables. Unfortunately the full text of the twelve tables” has not been preserved. It became the basis of the entire legal system western Europe and ever today a large member of Rome legal terms are in use throughout the world. 

Q.14. Define the term “Princeps Principate” 

Ans :- “Princesp is a latin word. It merely meant first citizen. The regime established Augustus, the first emperor in 27BCE was called the “Principate” Although Augustus was the sole ruler and the only source of authority the fiction out of respect for the senate was kept alive that he was actually only the leading citizens not the absolute ruler. Augustus ruled over name as “Princeps” for four decades till his death in 14AD. Under the garb of “Princes” he was successful in establishing a permanent dictatorship which developed into a monarchy.

Q.15. Differentiate between “Provinces” and “Protectorate” 

Ans :- Roman territories outside Italy which were directly administered by Rome were. Organised into provincies. Provinces were specific administrative, units and subject to taxation. Example, Sicily which was the first overseas territory to se organized as a province. In contrast protects tors were not directly government by Rome. These where local kingdoms that were “clients: Rome. Their rulers could be relied on to use they forces is export of Rome, and in return Rome allowed them to exist. They could tribute to Rome. 

Q.16. Give two striking features of Rome society. 

Ans :- Great urban centers that lived the shores of the Mediterranean (Carthage, Alexandria, Antioch) on hallmark of Roman civilization Features. 

( i ) It was through the “cities” urban centers that government was able to administer and tax the provincial countryside which generated much of the wealth. 

( ii ) Public baths 

( iii ) Provided higher level of entertainment, e.g. spectacular show 

( iv ) Much better provided for even during times of food shortages and even famines.

( v ) Centers of art and literature intellectual activity. 

Q.17. Comment on literacy is Roman society. 

Ans :- Striking feature of Roman society was rates of literacy especially casual literacy varied greatly between categories of people and different parts of the empire. Certain categories such as soldiers, allday army officers, and estate managers where more literate, then the general people. 

Example :- ( a ) advertisements and Graffiti on walls of main streets ein in pompei reflect widespread casual literacy. 

( b ) In Egypt were hundreds of papyri survives formal documents were usually written by professional s and scribes. Papyri tell as that X and Y is unable to read and write. 

Q.18. What was meant by the term “Pax Roman”? 

Ans :- Pax Roman” was defined as the “Romans peace” the period of peace and prosperity in Rome under Augustus. Ideologically it expressed the idea of a universal empire ruled by Rome. For all those who were past of the empire. Signified Roman domination in the same way as pax Britannica” (the British peace) signified colonial rule for those who were subjects of the British Empire. 

Q.19. Name the Roman emperor who dreamt of conquering Indian.

Ans :- Roman emperor Trajan. He reigned from 117 AD to 138 AD. 

Q.20. What is “Papyrus”? 

Ans :- The Papyrus was a reed like plant that grew along the banks of the river Nile is Egypt and was processed to produce a writing material that was very widely used in everyday life. Thousands of contracts accounts, letters and officials documents survive on papyrus, which constitute a rich source for counteraction of Roman History.

Q.21. Give two factors contributing to the decline in use of slaves in the Rome Empire in 1st century. 

Ans :- Factors Contributing to the decline in use of slave labour :- 

(a) As warfare became less widespread with establishment of peace in the first century the supply of slaves tended to decline .

(b) Wage labour was found to be more economical as it could be dispensed with when not required. 

Q.22. Despite availability of slave labour extensively used on public works. Give two points. 

Ans :- Free labour was extensively used on public works in Rome because extensive use of slave labour would have been too expensive. Unlike hired worker slave had to be fed and maintained throughout the year increased cost of holding this kind of labour wage labour was easily dispensable .

Q.23. How did user of slave labor overcome a shortage of slave labor with the establishment of peace is the 1st century? 

Ans :- The users of the slave labour over come decline is supply of slave labour by 

( i ) turning either to slave breeding or 

( ii ) to cheaper alda substitute such as wage labour. 

Q.24. What is meant by slave breeding? 

Ans :- Consequent to decline in slave labour, with the establishment of peace and less warfare uses of slave labour turned to slave breeding. Slave breading was the practice of encouraging female slaves and their partners to have more children, who would also be slaves. 

Q.25. Who were the equites? 

Ans :- The “equites” (knight and horsemen) were traditionally the second most powerful and wealthy group in the social structure of the empire. Originally they were the families whose property qualified them to serve in the cavalry, hence the name. 

Like senators most knight were landowners but unlike senators many of them were involved in business activities i.e. ship owners traders and bankers. 

Q.26. What was the Jewish wars? 

Ans :- A rebellion in Judea in 66 AD against Roman domination, which was ruthlessly suppressed by the Romans in called the Jewish war.

Q.27. Explain the term transhumance what was the result of expansion of Roman Empire oils? 

Ans :- Transhumance is the herds man’s regular animal movements between the higher mountain regions and low lying ground in search of pasture for sheep and their flocks. It was usdesprend in large expanses of Roman Territory which were in a much less advanced state. e.g. countryside of Numidia modern Algeria. As Roman estates expanded in North Africa the pastures these communities were drastically reduced and their movements more tightly regulated. 

Q.28. What was the solidus? 

Ans :- The ‘Solidus’ was a pure gold coin of 4½gm. This denomination Constantine to ensure stable coinage and there by a stable monetary system. The “Solidi” out lasted the Roman Empire. 

Q.29. List two important innovation by Constantine. 

Ans :- Constantine consolidated the changes introduced by Emperor Diocletian and added others of his own. 


( i ) The chief innovations were in the monetary sphere where he introduced the new denomination, the solders a coin of 4½gm. of pure gold. 

( ii ) Established of a second capital at Constantinople (at the site of modern, Istanbul, Turkey, and previously called By Zanitum) surrounded on three sides by the sea.

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