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Class 11 History Chapter 2 Writing & City Life
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Writing & City Life
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
Q.1. Why do we say that it was not natural fertility and high level of food production that were causes of early is urbanisation?
Ans :- Natural fertility and high level of food production is one of the contributory factors for urbanization as it frees part of the population from subsistence tasks for full time craft production. There were other factors which led to concentration is a particular settlement of a fairly large population.
( i ) Development of the economy in other spheres, manufacture and services.
( ii ) Division of labour.
( iii ) Complex social and economic organisation trade and storage facilities.
(iv), Elaborate political arrangements for controlling and regulating settlements.
( v ) Process of state formation and structures of authority to manage disputes, for undertaking movements public workes, to organize, to equip foreign expeditions and direct exchanges.
( vi ) Efficient, cheap and well developed means of transport to enable viable economic exchange.
(vii) Technological advancement e.g. in Metallurgy
(viii) Development of art of writing to keep record of transactions which occurred at different times involving many people and a variety of.
Q.2. Which of the following were necessary conditions and which the causes of early urbanization, and which would you say were the outcome of the growth of cities:
(a) highly productive agriculture.
(b) Water transport.
(c) The lack of metal and stone.
(d) The division of labour.
(e) The use of seals.
(f) The military power of the kings that made labour compulsory ?
Ans :- Of the following highly productive agriculture and water transport can be categorized as necessary conditions for early urbanization and the lack of metals and stone and division of labour caused for early urbanization.
( i ) necessary conditions :- ( a ) Highly productive agriculture freed part of the population from ta opo subsistence tasks for full time craft production, specialization and pursuit of other employment opportunities like services. Agriculture also provided few materials for growth of other industries and enabled exchange of their agriculture produce.
( b ) Water transport. The canals and natural channels of ancient Mesopotamia were in fact routes for cheap transport of good Hons od between large and small settlements and regions e.g. growth of mari.
(ii) Causes :- ( c )The lack of metal and stone enabled aliment Mesopotamians to engage in regular exchange of their abundant textiles and agricultural produce for wood, copper, tin silver, gold, shell and various stones from turkey and Japan or across the Gulf. These later regions while being rich in mineral resources had less scope for agriculture.
( d ) Division of labour enabled specialization and pursuit of other development opportunities.
( iii ) Out come :- ( e ) The use of seats and the expansion of military power of the kings were the out come of the growth of cities.
( iv ) Lessons :- ( a ) In city life transactions occurred at different times, and involved many people and a variety of goods. Seals enabled people to keep record of these transactions.
( b ) Seals also facilitated giving legal validity to land transfers and to announce the changes a king made in the customary law of the land.
( c ) The military men of the king made labour compulsory. As regard the expansion of military power this was an outcome of managing disputes, desire to argument the surplus, organize raids, undertaking of monumental public works like digging canals embankments etc. proganising foreign expeditions, process of state formation and creation of a coercive apparatus.
Q.3. Why were mobile animal herders not necessary a thread to town life?
Ans :- Mobile herders were not necessary a threat to town life because:
( i ) Agriculture and animal rearing were carried out close to each other is southern Mesopotamia.
( ii ) Herdes needed to exchange young animal. Cheese, leather and meat in return for grain and metal took thereby adding to trade and exchange.
( iii ) Throughout Mesopotamian history nomadic communities of the western desert filtered into the prosperous agricultural heartland and served as harvest labourers or hired soldiers.
( iv ) Some of these herdes occasionally became prosperous and settled down and a few gained even power to establish their own rule, for example, the AK kadians, A morites, Assyrians and Aramaeans.
( v ) These heard once settled respected the many elements of Mesopotamian culture for example, the Akkadians respected the goods of Mesopotamia, and even adopted the cuneiform script.
( vi ) The nomads added to the vitality of the Mesopotamian society and culture, However, it need be loved despite Mesopatamian society being opened at different people and cultures, herdes were a subject of constant vigil, This is evident from the frequent mention of camp of herders in exchange letters between kings and officials. Mobility of herders was many times cause of conflict e.g at times when herders raided agricultural villages or seised – stored grains or on issue of access to reverend land water.
Q.4. Why would the early tample have been much like a house?
Ans :- While temples overtime developed into huge structures, built in to the shape of stop pyramids and are referred as ziggurats (to build high) early temples were much like a house. A small shrine mode of unbaked bricks except that they had outer walls going in and out at regular intervals which no ordinary building ever had.
Early temples were like house because
(i) Like houses which are place of residence/home of people, temples too were residences of various gods; of the moon of God/ nana the goddess of Love and war.
(ii) The complex was not only a place of rituals and worship but Sios contained ware houses, work shops and living quarters for artisans. The rulers of early Mesopotamian cities were priests. They lived and administered from the. As temples were used for residential purpose they looked like houses.
( iii ) To the gods people brought grain, curd and fish. The god was also the theoretical owner of the agricultural fields, fisheries and the heads of the local communities.
( iv ) It was here that the processing of produce, grinding, spinning, wearing was done as in households.
( v ) Most of the inhabitants were supposed to be in the service of the temple. Tribute was collected in the name of deity.
( d ) The temple symbolized the community as a whole and was the nucleus around which the city developed ( e.g. uruk, Ur King ) It was only with increasing control which temples had over surplus, over irrigation and otherwise range of economic activities that political authority, become concentrated in the hands of priests, and temples grow into massive structure, and prominent building of the settlement.
ANSWER IN SHORT ESSAY
Q.5. Of the new institutions that came into being once city life had began, which would have depended on the initiative of the king?
Ans :- Mesopotamian civilization saw the size of many cities (c.g, Urar, Lagesh, Babylon, Mari, Nineveh city life resulted in coming into being of many institution trade, division of labour, specialization, stratified society, establishment of military organization, construction of grand temples (ziggurats) beginning of the art writing, the progress of art and literature, establishment of an administrative system. Great. Strides were made in science, nathematles and astronomy of these the developments which could have depended on the initiative of the king are-
( a ) Trade: The two major rivers Euphrates and the Tigris which flow north to south and discharge their waters into the persian gulf, along with the tributaries and distributaries provided important, viable and cheap mode of water transport.
The long poem about Enmarker one of the earliest rulers is our main source of information about how the king organized foreign expeditions and exchanges for wood, copper, tin, silver, gold shell and stone like lapis lazuli from a very distant land. Aratta Mesopotamia was poor in these resources and they were essential for manufacture of tools, vassals, ornaments. Wood was needed for carts, cart wheels or boats. The messenger had to make the Tong journey back and forth again and again. A group of specialist mai traders came into existence to carry on the trade.
( b ) Growth of towns and establishment of military organization: – Mesopotamian region was a site of continuous warfare among neighbouring states to gain supremacy over the fertile region raids on neighbours were the easiest way to augment the surplus, kings provided leadership in war and successful campaigns enhanced their prestige. Villagers were encouraged to settle close to themselves to enable to rapid collection of armed forces. This ne alif led to major shift in population. Moreover war captives were put to work directly for the ruler i.e. fetch stones compelled to produce 0 surphes, make and bake bricks, construct bricks columns, undertake making of bronze tools etc. This led to division of labour, specialization and growth of urban centers.
Surplus production bed to emergence of class of warriors. They formed the mainstay of the army and speeded the process of state centers.
( c ) Temples : Development of temples from a small shrive to house the goods into large structures “Ziggurats” also depended on the initiative of the king. The victorious chiefs kings began to offer precious booty to the gods and beautify the community temples. The poem about Enmerkar shows this gave the king high states and the authority to command the community.
(d ) Writing : As per the poem on Enmerkar, it was kinghip which organized writing when the messenger got weary of months and got all messages mined up. Early writing was in the from of pictures, signs and symbols. A cuneiform script was developed conveying in visual form the system of sounds. Writing besides
enabling storing of information and sending of messages was seen as a sign of the superiority of Mesopotamian urban culture.
Q.6. What do ancient stories tell us about civilization Mesopotamia?
Ans :- We get a glimpse of Mesopotamia in the old Testament, there is reference to ‘Shimar’ meaning sumar as a land of brick built. Many Europeans travelers and scholars look upon it as a land of their ancestor. But trying to locate the tablet of the flood there have been attempts by European archaeologists and scholars to prove the literal truth of old Testament.
According to the Bible, the flood was meant to destroy all life on cou earth. The Almighty assigned the task of sustaining the earth, to a eom man Noah. Noah built a huge boat, on ark, and took a pair of each known species of animals and birds aboard the ark. Thus when every other thing was destroyed by the flood, this ark (ship) remained safalang with the pairs of all species.
Thus, began a new life on the Earth.
There is reference to a strikingly similar story in Mesopotamian tradition where the principal character instead of Noah, was called. Xin Sudra or Utnapishtian.
VERY SHORT QUESTION/ANSWER
Q.1. What do you understand by the word Mesopamia?
Ans :- Mesopotamia broadly correspond to present day Iraq. The name is derived from Green words mesos “meaning middle and potamus meaning river. It was so called the area was flaked by the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates.
Q.2. What were the important centers of Mesopotamian civilization. Also list 4 cities associated with the civilization.
Ans :- Important centers and cities of Mesopotamian civilization were.
Centres :- Sumer, Akkad, Babylon and Assyria.
Cities :- Most famous among the many towns and cities were
(iii) Babylon and
Q.3. Briefly discuss what were the languages known in Mesopotamia.
Ans :- The first known language was Sumerian, which was gradually replaced by Akkadians around 2400 BCE. This language flourished till about Alexander’s time (336-323, BCE) From about 1400 BCE Aramica, Similar to Hebrew trickled in and became rudely spoken after 1000 BCE. It is Still spoken in parts of Iraq.
Q.4. Describe the script used by ancient Mesopotamia.
Ans :- The first writing of ancient Mesopotamia say around 3200 BCE on tables, developed in summer was pictographie – i.e. signs, symbols and pictures which denoted objects. Latercon say 2600 BCE system of writing called cuneiform evolved. The script is wedge shaped, symbols depressant syllables and sounds of a word. These symbols were combined in innumerable ways to represent objects, ideas and sounds of the language.
|Chapter 1||From The Beginning be of Time|
|Chapter 2||Writing & City Life|
|Chapter 3||An Empire Across Three Continents|
|Chapter 4||The Central Islamic Lands|
|Chapter 5||Nomadic Empires|
|Chapter 6||The Three Orders|
|Chapter 7||Changing Cultural Traditions|
|Chapter 8||Confrontation of Cultures|
|Chapter 9||The Industrial Revolution|
|Chapter 10||Displacing Indigenous People|
|Chapter 11||Paths to Modernization|
Q.5. What are the sources for reconstruction for of Mesopotamian civilization?
Ans :- ( i ) Rich archaeological remains at various sites. (e.g. Uruk and Mari) of buildings, statues, or naments, granes, tools and seals.
( ii ) Written documents e.g. records.
Q.6. Writing in Mesopotamia was skilled craft and intellectual achievement why?
Ans :- Writing was skilled craft and intellectual achievement because.
( i ) Unlike English in the cuneiform script each sign represented not only a single consonant or vowel (i.e. born) but syllables.
( ii ) Signs the scribe had to learn run into hundreds and many of these were complex.
( iii ) Writing reflected mode of speaking ie conveying in usual form the system of sounds of the language.
Q.7. What were the social classes into which Mesopotamian society was divided?
Ans :- Society mainly constituted 3 classes
( i ) The higher class the king and his relating the priest and the government officials.
( ii ) The middle class : labourers, prisoners of war and the slave.
Q.8. Give three important contribution of Mesopotamian to human visitation.
Ans :- Among the many contributions significant ones are:
( i ) Use of the potters wheel.
( ii ) The plough.
( iii ) Writing trade agreements, written code of law, established libraries and reading rooms.
( iv ) Glass ware.
Q.9. Give some of the traits of civilization.
Ans :- Civilization is a definite stage of human social evolution. It is distinct from earlier phases normally hunting gathering and neolithic societies which are not sufficiently admired to produce surpluses. Some of the traits of civilization are.
( i ) Urbanization.
( ii ) Surplus production.
( iii ) Complex social systems.
( iv ) Division of labour.
( v ) Existence as a state .
( vi ) Organised religion.
( vii ) Use of metal.
( viii ) Developments writing and
( ix ) Exact sciences.
Q.10. Give some characteristics features which mark urbanisation.
Ans :- Urban centre is not unfit an overgrown village. It denotes
( i ) Concentration of a particular settlement of a fairly large population pursuing diverse economic activities and having a high degree of independence.
( ii ) A permanent feature of urban centers is existence specialization and division of labour.
( iii ) Worked complex social and economic organization.
( iv ) Elaborate political arrangement for controlling and regulating the settlements.
( v ) Structures of authority for managing disputes.
( vi ) They contain some large buildings which have specific function.
Q.11. What factors contributed to the growth of urban eaters at end of the Neolithic period in Mesopotamia ? Give four points.
Ans :- ( i ) Centralized accumulation of capital resulting from imposition of tribute or taxation.
( ii ) Monumental public works e.g. irrigation canals, embarkment etc.
( iii ) The invention of writing.
( iv ) The emergence of a class stratified society.
( v ) Freeing of part of the population from subsistence task for full time craft speculation.
( vi ) Appearance and growth of long distance trade in luxuries.
( vii ) Process of state formation and creation of coercive apparatus.
( viii ) Efficient and well developed means of transport, especially water ways.
( ix ) Easy and inexpensive movement of goods.
Q.12. Give two important changes in carly temple architecture.
Ans :- The earliest known temples in Mesopotamian civilization, to house various gods “Ur” or “Inanna” were small shrines made of unbaked bricks not unlike ordinary houses.
( i ) Temples come to construed with backed bricks became largen with several rooms/hall around open courtyards.
( ii ) Brick columns come to be constructed to bear the weight of the rood of large halls.
( iii ) Black clay cones painted in different colours, come to be used to create a colorful mosaic on temple walls.
Q.13. What distinguished early temples from houses?
Ans :- They always had their enter walls going in and out at regular intervals which no ordinary building ever had. They were, built at selected spots in the village.
Q.14. What were the sacred temples or Mesopotamia known as?
Ans :- The sacred temples in Mesopotamia were called ziggurats. They were generally built upon on artificial mound raised in the middle of the town. These were multi store buildings where the upper o floor was successively smaller than the lower one. These temples, used to be so high that one could see them from quite a distance (ie dominated the landscape) e g. the most famous of these ziggurats were of Moon God (Nannar) at Ur, God Evil at Nippur, God shames (Sun) at Lagash.
Q.15. Why did chiefs and kings Mesopotamia indulge in temples?
Ans :- In time, victorious chiefs began to offer precious booty to the gods and beautify community temples. E.g. the kings of Mari who were Amorites raised temple at Mari for Dagan, god of the steppe. This as the poem about Meerleer corroborates gave the king high status, Legitimacy and the authority to command the community.
Q.16. Give two differences in town planning between Mesopotamia towns/cities and those Harappan civilization.
Ans :- The oldest bronze age civilization in main Harappan civilization rose in North western regions of the Indian sub continent. It was a contemporary of Mesopotamians civilization.
( i ) Unlike the towers of Harappan civilization e.g. Mohenjo Daro, which were well planned with broad straight roods which interested at right angles at the earliest known excavated town at or the roads were narrow and winding so much so a wheeled cart could not have reached many houses. The irregular shapes of house plate also indicate absence of town planning.
( ii ) The drainage systems towed at mohenjo daro was magnificent. The house drain emptied all waste water into street drains, which had brick lined sumps at regular intervals. At un drains end pipes instead were found in the inner courtyard of house. It is though house roof sloped insured and rain water was channeled via drainpipes into sumps in the inner courtyard.
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