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Class 11 History Chapter 11 Paths to Modernization
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Paths to Modernization
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
Q.1. What were the major developments before the Meiji restoration that made it possible for Japan to modernize rapidly?
Ans :- The major developments before Meiji Restoration mad it possible for Japan to modernize rapidly were :-
( i ) The peasantry was disarmed and only samurai could carry swords. This encouraged peace and order, ending the trequent wars of the previous centuries.
( ii ) Daimyo were ordered to live is capitals of their domains, each with a large degree of autonomy.
( iii ) Land surveys identified owners and taxpayers and graded land productivity to ensure a stable revenue base.
( iv ) Daimyos capitals became bigger, where by Japan not only had three large cities Edo, Kyoto, and Osako but half a dozen castle town with population of over 50,000. This led to growth of commercial economy’s, and created financial and credit systems which enabled modernization.
( v ) Growth if towns was marked by blossoming of a vibrant culture, increase is trade, increased use of money and creations of stock market is rise, all of which reflect development are economy in new ways.
( vi ) People’s merit came to be valued more than social status.
( vii ) Social and intellectual. Former reference led to pride in being Japanese and reverence of emperor is descendent of the sun goddess.
Q.2. Discuss how daily life was transformed as Japan developed?
Ans :- Japan’s transformation into a modern society had for reaching repercussions on everyday life.
( i ) The old patriarchal house hold system which comprised many generation living together under the control of the head of house came to be replaced by new ideas of family.
( ii ) As more people became affluent the new home was that of a nuclear family where husband wife live as a bread earner and home maker.
( iii ) New concept of domesticity generated demands for new types of domestic goods rice cooker, American Grill.
( iv ) Women hand more time for leisure example reading.
( v ) Ideas of gender equality led to women selecting employment in novel spheres example Mastui snake became an actress.
( vi ) There was increasing demand for new forms of housing so much so that is the 1920s construction companies made cheap housing available for a dawn payment of 200 yen and the balance on monthly installments of 12 yen for 10 years.
Q.3. How did the Qing dynasty try and meet the challenges posed by the western powers?
Ans :- Success of Britain is the open wars resulted in immense physical and moral damage to the Chinese and scram among other Europeans powers France, Russia, Germany to follow suit and carve out spheres of influence.
To meet the challenges posed by the western powers the qing dynasty order reformers such as king Jouncing and fang. Quiche initiated reforms, chief among them were.
( i ) Attempts to strengthen the system and build a modern administrative system.
( ii ) Improvement is the Army, The army was equipped with modern wea pons.
( iii ) Reform of the education system to train people in modern subjects students were sent to study in Japan, Britain and France. The countries old Chinese examinations that acted as a barriers to the development of science and technology as it demanded only literary skills is classical Chinese learning was abolished in 1905.
( iv ) Te establish constitutional government local assemblies wore set up.
( v ) Students were encouraged to bring back new ideas for it was realized Confucianism with its concerns for good conduct, practical wisdom and proper social relationships was a barrier to new ideas and institutions.
( vi ) The thinkers increasingly worked on the psyche of the Chinese people by quoting negative examples of colonized countries. These examples carried a powerful appeal for ordinary Chinese and helped develop nationalist spirit.
Q.4. What were sun yat sen’s three principles?
Ans :- The three principles enunciated by sum-yat-sen were :-
( i ) Nationalism.
( ii ) Democracy. And
( iii ) Socialism.
In Specific terms these principles meant the over throw of the Manchu dynasty which had been ruling China since the middle of the 17th century because it was seen as a foreign dynasty. Establishment of a democratic government, regulation capital and equitable distribution of land. These principles came to form the basis of the political philosophy of the Guomindang (the national people’s party)
|Chapter 1||From The Beginning be of Time|
|Chapter 2||Writing & City Life|
|Chapter 3||An Empire Across Three Continents|
|Chapter 4||The Central Islamic Lands|
|Chapter 5||Nomadic Empires|
|Chapter 6||The Three Orders|
|Chapter 7||Changing Cultural Traditions|
|Chapter 8||Confrontation of Cultures|
|Chapter 9||The Industrial Revolution|
|Chapter 10||Displacing Indigenous People|
|Chapter 11||Paths to Modernization|
ANSWER IN SHORT ESSAY
Q.5. Did Japan’s Policy of rapid industrialization lead to ware with her, neighbours and destruction of the environment?
Ans :- Yes, Japan’s policy of rapid industrialisation was one of the landing factors which led to wars with her neighbours and destruction of environment.
Reasons :- ( i ) Japans as a country is poor is natural resources and land is no suitable for agriculture. Rice is a staple crop and fish the main source of protein. Japan therefore needed minerals and raw materials for example, tin, iron, raw cotton, to develop and feed her growing industries. In contrast her neighboring countries i.e. China presented not only a marked physical contrast but was rich is resources lacking, in Japan, Its unstable political condition offered opportunities of expansion of war.
( ii ) Japan is country made up of sting of islands. More than 50% of the land area is mountainous. More over, the demand of Japanese manufactures within Japan were limited due to poverty of most Japanese, Like other industrialize powers like Britain, Japan needed markets for finished goods.
( iii ) More over the state was controlled by an oligarchy and repressive apparatus of the army clamored for an aggressive foreign policy to acquire more territory.
( iv ) By 1890’s Japan started pursuing its colonial ambitions primarily at the expense of China. As Japans industrialized the object of Japanese. Ambitions was to be entire Asia and the pacific regions.
Example :- In 1894 Japan went to war with China and defeated China in 1895. Japan annexed Formosa (Taiwan) which was part of China and forced China to recognise Korea over which it claimed suzerainty and 1910 Korea was annexed by Japan. In 1904-1905 after the Russo-Japanese war which ended is defeat of Russia, Southern Manchuria was re cognized as Japanese “Sphere of influence” Japan also obtained half of the Sakhalin island and acquired control of Liaotung peninsula In 1902 by entering into alliance with England, Japan become the first Asian country to enjoy the status of full equality with other colonial powers.
Japanese industries expanded rapidly during the first world war because of the trading boom of the war gears. The size of the factories increased. Those employing over 100 workers jumped from 1000 to 2000 by 1930. However, the boom lasted only until middle of 1921 when Europe began to revive and recover lost markets. In Japan unemployment and industrial unrest developed. At the same time peasants were hit by rapidly falling price of rice due to bumper harvest.
The world economic crisis of 1929-1932 further worsened the satiations in Japan.
Thus, When Chinese tried to squeeze out Japanese trade and business from Manchuria in 1931, the Japanese to preserve their economic advantages invaded and occupied Manchuriain (September 1931)
It was largely to safeguard and expand Japan’s economic interests in the pacific oceans that Japan bombed the pearl harbour, which finally resulted in her humiliating defeat by the Allied forces and nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in world war II.
Thus, Just as industrialization is European countries led to colonialism and imperialism, similarly in Japan, industrialization led to wars with her neighbours.
Moreover, rapid and unregulated growth of industry and demand for natural resources such as timber led to environmental destruction. There was increasing evidence of cadmiums poisoning, mercury poisoning and air pollution leading to health problems. Thus, industrialization led to environmental degradation and was further reflected in the growth of civil society movements, government and legal regulations.
Q.6. Do you agree that Mao Zedong and the communist parts of China area successful in liberating China and laying the basis of its current success?
Ans :- Most historians today agree with the view that and the communist party of China were Successful in liberating China and laying the basis of its current success.
Limo The communist party was officially founded in 1921. Initially it little military strength and worked with the KMT (Kuomintang) but after the communist breach with KMT is 1927 it was Mao who was responsible, for changing the party’s strategy. Communists concentrated on winning mass support among peasants rather than capturing industrial towns. In 1931, Mao was elected Chairman of the central Executive committee of the From then on he consolidated his positions and that of communis party of China.
( i ) By organizing the long march (1934) Mao helped the communist parts not only to survive change kansu shek’s extermination campaigns but build new bases in shensi and kansu, gain mass zotero support and build red Army. The Red Army eventually helped to tai liberate China from imperialist Japanned win against the KMT.
( ii ) The communists wherever they held control followed attractive land policy estates of landlords were seized and redistributed among peasants, rents were restrained, this helped to them win support of small land owners or well as the peasants.
( iii ) When Japan occupied Machuria Chang the leader of KMT thought it more important to destroy and oust the communists than resist the Japanese (1931) only because of efforts of shon Enlai a prominent communist, national front was formed to fight the Japanese. Consequent to defeat of KMT forces, it was the communist which led an effective guerrilla war fare to rout the Japanese from the north.
It would thus not be wrong to sat that the community party of China were successful in liberating china.
( iv ) In the struggle for power between KMT and the communist party of china after 1945, communist party of China was able to defeat KMT forces. Change and his forces fled to Taiwan leading Mao in control or mainland china.
The China that Mao’s and Communist party of China inherited in 1949 was riddled with immense problems.
( a ) A country was deviated after the long civil war and war with Japan railways roads, Canals, dykes had been destroyed and there was chronic food shortages.
( b ) Industry was back ward, agriculture was inefficient and incapable feeding the poverty stricken masses and inflations (30%) seemed out of control.
Yet Mao managed it. The constitution which include the national peoples congress, the state council and chairman of the republic was official adopted in 1958. Though the whole system was an dominated by the communist party, yet the constitutions was important because it provided China with a strong central government for the first time for many years. It has been even today remained largely unchanged.
Agriculture changes user initiated whereby China was transformed from a country of small inefficient farms into one large cooperative farms in order to increase food production. By 1956 about 95% of all peasants were in cooperatives with joint ownership of the farms and its equivalent.
Other critical areas of the economy (e.g heavy industry) were put under government control. This programme lasted till 1953. In 1958 the great leap for ward movement was launched to galvanise the country to industrialize rapidly and adopt industry to Chinese country to industrialize rapidly and adopt industry to Chinese conditions.
Under the system, is rural areas peoples communes were started. Instead of aiming for large scale works the type seen in USSR and the west much smaller factories were set up in the country side to provide machinery for agriculture. These also undertook to build roads canals, dams, reservoirs and irrigations channels. Through the Great leap Flowers initially looked as though it might fall eventually it helped increase both agricultural and industrial production.
China managed to feed its massive population Without famine. The communes become efficient units of local government. With a large, peasant population, the crucial decision that china would remain pred dominantly an agricultural country with small scale scattered industries helped china avoid the growing employment problem of the highly industrialised west.
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