Class 11 History Chapter 4 The Central Islamic Lands The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 11 History Chapter 4 The Central Islamic Lands and select need one.
Class 11 History Chapter 4 The Central Islamic Lands
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The Central Islamic Lands
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
Q.1. What were the features of the lives of the Bedouins in the early seventh century?
Ans :- Camel Pastoralists were known as Bedouins Features :
( i ) The Arabian Peninsula is largely as arid land with no permanent rivers. However, the land is dotted with a number of oasis formed by springs as wells. The camel pastoralists Bedouins were the human eco type for the desert region pastoralists, nomads, hardy and enduring.
( ii ) Bedouins were constantly on the move. They moved with their camels from oasis to oasis. The oasis offered, pastures for the animals and served as watering places.
( iii ) Date and milk was the staple diet.
( iv ) They had intimate knowledge of the difficult terrain and harsh environment.They knew exactly where they could find some subsistence for themselves and their animals, and for how long they could stay in a particular place.
( v ) Their social organizations was based on independent tribe (qabila) each tribe recognising a common ancestor and led by a chief.
( vi ) Bedouins tribe were usually units of small size as the arid environment could not support large concentrations of population. They were divided is to clams or extended families.
( vii ) They combined postoralism with raids against neighbouring Bedouins tribes and settled communities to augment their resources.
( viii ) A form of tribute called “khuwwa” Was occasionally realized by themes form agriculturists in return for protection and an assurance to resist from plunder.
Q.2. What is meant by the term Abbasid revolution?
Ans :- End of Umayyad is 750 and ascendancy of Abbas-al-saffah a new caliph which managerial the 500 year long rule of the Abbasids is referred to as the “Abbasid revolution”. This led not only to a change of dynasty but for reaching changes in the political structure and culture of Islam.
( i ) With the size of the Abbasids the Arab influence declined. The center political power shifted from Syria to southern Iraq reflected in the establishment of the vew capital of Baghdad.
( ii ) The army and bureaucracy was reorganised on a non-tribal basis. Henceforth the sasamid officials were one of the pillars of the Abbasid regime. The person “mohali” had a strong presence in the army and the civil administration. Social differences among the Muslims instead of being based on Arabs and non Arabs were now primarily based on class lines.
( iii ) Fusion of Arabs and Iranian-tradition resulted in carrying over of much of the features sasamid monarchical state to Islam.
( iv ) The period was marked by urban expansion and prosperity in the Islamic world, chief among them were Baghdad, kafa, wasit and Basra. Still others were Nishapar, Mark and thus in khurasan, Aleppo and Antioch in Syria, Fustat and cairo in Egypt and Cordoba in spain become a prominent Arab Cities in western Europe.
( v ) Though land remained the principals source of revenue trade should a marked increase.
Q.3. Give Examples of the Cosmopolitan character of the states set up by Arabs, Iranians and Turks.
Ans :- The vast territory extending from Egypt to Afghanistan formed the core areas of Islamic civilization from 600 to 1200. Despite the predominance of Islam, non Muslims were well treated and the states bore a cosmopolitan character Example.
( i ) After the Arabs under the caliphate of Ali founded the two new cities Kufa (Capital) and Basra is southern Iraq were troops and administrative personal were lodged, the non Muslim populatión returned their rights to property and religious practices on payment of taxes kharaj and jizia. Jews and Christians were declared protected subjects of the state “dhimmis” and give large measure of autonomy in the conduct of this communal affairs.
( ii ) The first Umayyad caliph Muawiya moved his capital to Damascus. Much of the administrative institutions apart from court ceremonies of the Byzantine Empire were adopted. Syrian troops Christians advisors in administration corostrain scribes and bureaucrats were increasingly employed in the services of the state.
( iii ) Under Abbasid rule the capital was shifted to Baghdad the army and bureaucracy was reorganized to ensure greater participation by Iraq and khurasons. Social difference among Muslims instead of being based in Arabsand non Arabs were now primarily based on class lines.
( iv ) The turkes entered the Abbasid, Somanid and Buyid administration as slaves and soldiers but rose to high positions do no doubt because of their loyalty and military skills but also because of the cosmopolitan nature of the state which did not differentiated on the basis of race and religion.
( v ) Despite salah-al-Dinis call for jihad against Christian rulers, this human treatment of Christians after their defeat in 1187, was in marked contrast to the way in which Christian had dealt with Muslims and Jewsa after the 1st crusade.
( vi ) The cosmopolitan character of the state and intermingling of cultures was reflected is apart from development of trade, in the enrichment of thought and ideas. It found reflection is the field or philosophy, writing of history, development of new Persians and art and architecture.
|Chapter 1||From The Beginning be of Time|
|Chapter 2||Writing & City Life|
|Chapter 3||An Empire Across Three Continents|
|Chapter 4||The Central Islamic Lands|
|Chapter 5||Nomadic Empires|
|Chapter 6||The Three Orders|
|Chapter 7||Changing Cultural Traditions|
|Chapter 8||Confrontation of Cultures|
|Chapter 9||The Industrial Revolution|
|Chapter 10||Displacing Indigenous People|
|Chapter 11||Paths to Modernization|
Q.4. What were the effects of the crusade on Europe and Asia.
Ans :- The wars between Christians and the Islamic States for country over the Hol land of Jerusalem are popularly known as the crusade.These wars though ended in a fiasco had far reaching effect on Europe and Asia.
( i ) The immediate effect was immense loss of human life as the crusades were fought for over two centuries with periods of brief intervals.
These wars resulted is harsher attitude of the Muslim state towards its Christians subjects because of the bitter memories of the conflicts as well as the needs for security in areas of mixed populations.
( ii ) Ever lines the crusades, the people of western Christendom development a stereotypical and distorted image of Islam, which they regarded as the enemy of decent civilization. The prejudice became entwined with Europe fantasies about Jews, the other victims of the crusaders.
( iii ) The wars were a drain on the resources of the nobles and the church consequent to the wars the church and the pope took recourse to questions practicewise to augment their resources. The works also revealed the weakness of the church and a severe blow was inflicted on the power and prestige of the papacy.
( iv ) The European contact with Arabs led to increased knowledge no bella and demand for lwuriy goods such as silk, Muslim cotton, glassware, species. This led to increased trade with the east and greater influence of Italian Mercantile communities from Pisa, ni aw Genoa and Venice in trade between the East and the west.
( v ) Crusade zeal gave way to living in luxury and to battles over territory among European rulers.
( vi ) The Crusade helped in the development of European culture and civilizations for contact with the Arabs helped enrich their blat knowledge in various fields.
( vii ) The crusade fired the spirit of adventure and geographical exploitation various new lands like America was discovered. Even the discovery of the new sea route to India was encouraged by this spirit of adventure and finally resulted in colonization of vast valet part of Asia by the Europeans.
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