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Class 11 History Chapter 6 The Three Orders
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The Three Orders
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
Q.1 . Describe two features of early feudal society in France .
Ans :- The term feudalism is used to describe the economic legal , political and social relationship that existed in Europe is the Medieval ear . The two features of early feudal society in France coerce the politico – socio and economic relation ship between the three orders i.e.
( i ) The Socio – Politico hierarchy of lord vassal.
( ii ) The feudal mode of production .
( a ) Lord Vassal Hierarchy :- This was a hierarchical structure where by the big landowner derived their authority directly from the king were vassals of the king and the peasants were vassals of the landowners .
This distribution of authority formed the basis of the political system . The basis of this relationship was a mutual promise : the seigneur / lord would protect the vassel , who in turn would be loyal to him
The integral part of this relationship was that the lord was the provide for maintenance of the vassel .
( b ) The Feudal mode of production :- The other defining feature of feudalism was transition from slave mode of production to feudal mode of production . The Agrarian economy was dominated by big landed estates of feudal lords . A manor was sum of all land in the area over which lord had rights . It was divided into two parts. One part was directly under the lord , the other compassed of peasant holdings . The part directly under the lord was cultivated by serfs . Serfs received no wages and all the produce of their hard work went to the lord . The part including peasant holdings was cultivated by the peasants who were regarded as tenants and therefore had to pay rent . They paid rent in the form of labour services for the lord called labour rent .
Q.2 . How did the long term changes in populations level effect economy and society in Europe ?
Ans :- Population had a profound impact on the economy and society in Europe . The general pattern was agricultural growth , Sizeable increase in population, foot shortages , famine demographic , crisis and decline of population , equilibrium and repetition of the same or cycle .
In the mid 19th century there was steady growth of population . Then in 1000 population from 42 million to 62 million around 1200 and 73 million . This demographic change was due to member of factors , chief among them being revival of agrarian economy which could sustain the greater population , technological charges and relative peace .
The increase of population solved the problem of labour. As more and more dependent peasants become subject to cords , there was an increase in volume of surplus available to the feudal aristocracy . However a fall out of this was after 1800 the feudal economy became technologically stagnant as lords were no longer inclined to invest is better techniques .
A parallel development was the growth of money economy . The need of the lands and peasants to sell surplus and purchase uncuries
as well as goods led to growth of urban centers. The lords started increasingly extracting rent in terms of money instead of labor services. The gradual monetization of economy led to commodity productions
Population growth initially a favorable factor for expansion of agrarian economy led to scarcity of land in relation to labor and lords demand for higher rent. There was an increase in production, but at was not enough to feed the entire population food available for each individual was declining and also food was not distributed equitably. Continuous cultivation reduced productivity in the long run. Production staganented and than declined. Population growth was outstripping resources. This led to famine. Severe famines affected Europe in 1315 and 1317. Around the same time in 1347-1350 bubonic plague broke out. Ho Europe’s population declined due to the epidemic.
Depopulation resulted is shortage labor wage rates increased aby so much as 25% in England. Agricultural prices came down and income of lords was hit. They tried to revert from money contracts to labor services, which led to peasant revolts and to rebellions. E.e. 1323 Flanders, 1358 France 1381 England.
This played a key role is the dissolution of the feudal system and growth of monarchy.
|Chapter 1||From The Beginning be of Time|
|Chapter 2||Writing & City Life|
|Chapter 3||An Empire Across Three Continents|
|Chapter 4||The Central Islamic Lands|
|Chapter 5||Nomadic Empires|
|Chapter 6||The Three Orders|
|Chapter 7||Changing Cultural Traditions|
|Chapter 8||Confrontation of Cultures|
|Chapter 9||The Industrial Revolution|
|Chapter 10||Displacing Indigenous People|
|Chapter 11||Paths to Modernization|
Q.3. Why did knights become a distinct group, and when did they decline?
Ans :- Following the decline of Roman Empire there was a lack of unifying force and military conflict was frequent. The amateuare peasant soldiers were no longer sufficient and good cavalry was needed. There was a transition to cavalry based army consisting of professional mounted warriors called knights.
The knights were linked to the nobles by the same promising del relationship between king and lord . The lord gave the knight a piece of land called ” fief ” and promised to protect it . The fief could be inherited . The land of fief was cultivated by peasants . In exchange the knights paid the lord a regular fee and promised to fight for him in war .
Thus , the urgent need for military mobilization not only to fight wars but also to ensure surplus extraction led to growth of knights .
The growth of absolutist monarchy in the 15 and 16 centuries led to the decline of knights . The knights were replaced by professionally trained infantry equipped with guns and artillery directly under kings control . The organization of a standing army led to the decline of knights .
Q.4 . What was the function of Medieval monasteries ?
Ans :- Some deeply religious people chose to live isolated lives in contrast to clerics who live amongst people is towns and villages . These people lived in religious communities called abbeys or monasteries after away from human habitation .
Example :- st Benedict ,, Italy 529 and Cluny , Burgundy 910 . Monasteries comprised of Monks who could be man or woman brie who took vows to remain in the abbey for the rest of their life and to spend time in prayer , study and Manual labour . The monasteries were single sex communities . Over time Monasteries of several 100’s with buildings estates , Schools , Colleges and Hospitals . Apart from prayer the Monasteries taught self discipline through its rules and restraint . They were centers of learning , helped is spread of education and provision of facilities like health care .
It was a world within a world Isolated but self sufficient . It made a great contribution to development of art e.g. Abbess Hildegard helped is the development of music .
In the 13 century some monks became friars , moved from place to place instead of being confined to the monastery spreading the evangelical message , preaching and living on charity .
ANSWER IN SHORT
Q.5 . Imagine and describe a day in life of a craftsman in a Medieval France town.
Ans :- Points of Reference :-
( i ) Majority of the people in Medieval France belonged to the 3rd order .
( ii ) Compared to cultivators free peasants and serfs , craftsman the France town were free from lords control .
( iii ) Prior to 12th century traveled from manor to manor but after 12th century because crafts and commerce began to grow in France , he settled in one place where goods could be exchanged for food .
( iv ) By 12th century craftsmen were organized into guilds .
( v ) Guilds guarded the interests of the craftsman regulated quality prices wages , working conditions , apprenticeship and prevented unfair practices .
( vi ) Compared to the peasant , towns air made the crafts .
Q.6. Compare the conditions of life of a French serf .
Ans :- ( i ) Conditions of life of French serf :- Serf in France were the lowest category of peasants . They were most numerous in feudal society . Serfs were dependent peasants . They had to do what the feudal lords demanded of them . They were tied to the land and subject to complete authority of the lord . They cultivated places of land which belonged to the lord . Much of the produce form this land was given to the lord. They received no wages and could not leave without the lord’s permission . They could marry but the lord decided who they could .Serfdom was a defining feature of feudal mode of production , The most significant features was the coercion that the lord could exercise over the serfs .
( iii ) Conditions of life of a Roman Slave :- Roman Slaves were regarded as a form property . They were treated as objects or commodities which could be bought and sold in the market . They had no right . They were degraded to the extent that they were often not even seen as humans beings . The authority of the master over the slave was absolute slavers retained no kinship his and maintained no families . They only relation they had , was with the master which was one of complete subjugation . They had no identity of their own. Slave labour was found in every sector of the Roman economy of especially agriculture mining and handicrafts . Infact Grace co – Roman Society is often termed as slave society slave mode of production because slaves were son employed on large scale in production .
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