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Class 10 History Elective Chapter 8 Foreign policy of India
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Foreign policy of India
Chapter : 8
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Very Short Answer Type Questions
[Mention the dates of the following events]
(a) The Indo- China Bilateral Treaty,
(b) Fromation of the SAARC,
(c) SSARC stands for what?
(d) Liberation of Bangladesh,
(e) Girl child Year,
(f) Youth Year,
(g) Indo- Bangladesh treaty on Tin Bigha,
(h) Ido- Pakistan treaty on Simal.
Ans : (a) The Indo- China Bilateral Treaty : 29 may 1954.
(b) Formation of the SAARC : 1985
(c) SSARC stands for what? : South Asian Association for Regional cooperation.
(d) Liberation of Bangladesh : 1971
(e) Girl child Year : 1990
(f) Youth Year : 1994
(g) Indo- Bangladesh treaty or Tin Bigha : 26 March 1992
(h) Indo- pakistan treaty of Simla : 1972
Short Answer Type Questions :
Q 1. India’s relations with China.
Ans : India’s relation with China was cordial from the beginning. The two’ countries approved each other’s national pride and followed a principal of peaceful co-existence and cooperation for developments under the terms of the Panchasil. But by 1962, the relationship was strained and a war broke out between the two countries. Soon the crisis was resolved and Both the countries reaffirmed their in the terms of the Panchasil and were prepared to mantain good bilateral relations in the coming years.
Q 2. India’s relations with Pakistan.
Ans. From the very beginning of the formation of Pakistan on 14 August 1947, the relation between India and Pakistan has not been cordial. The main issue between India and Pakistan has been the issue of Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan injustice unjustly demanded the whole of Jammu and Kashmir from India, which India refused to accept. This resulted in the first indo- Pak war of 1947.
The Pakistan army attacked Jammu and Kashmir in October 19147 and tried to capture the whole state. But they were quickly expelled from the region by the Indian army. The second Indo-Pak war took place in 1965 and that too was a disater for pakistan. The third war between the two ñations took place in 1971 during the war of liberation of Bangladesh and finally pakistan attacked India in Kargil sector in 1999. All the Wars resulted in the defeat of the Pakistan army.
Therefore, they tried to cause much harm to india by supporting islamic Territoris and allowed them to use the Pakistan territory made some progress in the economic and commercial sector, but the real goodwill among the two neighbour has not been reached yet.
Q 3. India’s relations with Bangladesh.
Ans : The civil war in Pakistan , gave rise a new country called Bangladesh. India had been facing the problem of the Bangladesh. India had been facing the problems of the Bangladesh immigrants. This problem has caused threat to the national security of India. Moreover, the dispute over the countries bitter the Bangladesh government complains the inefficient supply of water to their agricultural fields. To make it worse, the claim of Bangladesh area on the mohari river in tripura in the india province has made the relation uncertain between the two countries.
Q 4. India’s relations with Nepal.
Ans : Napal is bound to india by ties of common history, geography, culture and religion. India followed a policy of non-interference in the affairs of naffairs of Nepal and fully acknowledge its sovereignty and independence. India has cooperated in the economic development of Nepal by giving material and technical assistance. India’s relation with Nepal is based on mutual respect. India has a good relation with Nepal. Nepal government and india have signed an agreement of mutual resulting in the end of the monarchy in Nepal, india did not interfere but helped the country to come out of disater successfully.
Essay Type Questions :
Q 1. What are the fundamental aims and objectives of India’s Foreign policy?
Ans : The foreign policy of India has certain importantfeatures. The policy of the country was formulated in the year 1930, in conformity with programmes of the freedom struggle of the country
The fundamental aims and objectives of India’s foreign policy are :
(i) Abolition of colonialism and imperialism : Ever since india achieved independence from the British Control, she has actively promote the causes of oppressed nations suffering under various imperialist and colonial powers. India is opposition to all froms of colonialism and imperialism.
(ii) widening the scope of freedom and independence :
The foreign policy of India aims at widening the scope of freedom and independence by giving support to the freedom struggle of the dependent countries.
(iii) peaceful co- existence and cooperation : The foreign policy of India aims at maintaining peaceful co-existence and cooperation with countries having different political and economic systems.
(iv) self – reliance : The foreign policy Also aims at attaining self-reliance. This indicates that India has the ability to do or decide things by herself rather than depending on other people for help.
(v) non- Alignment : The non- Alignment policy os one of the strong pillars of India’s foreign policy. She was one of the founding members of this group in 1961 and actively promoted the causes of non – Aligned Movement in the world. India is not in favour of imperialist rule or Communists rule.
(vi) oppostion recial discrimination : An important principle of India’s foreign policy is the opposition to recial discrimination. The national leaders of india have always opposed discrimination on the basis of colour and race.
(vii) Abolition of existing economic disparity : The foreign policy of India aims at abolishing the existing economic disparity in the country.
(viii) Faith in total disarmament : Disarmament and arms control are regarded as the Active means through which World peace can be mantinatianed . India has always made efforts for the reduction of armaments and the destruction of nuclear weapons.
(ix) peaceful solution of disputes: India’s foreign policy aims at attained peaceful solution of the mutual disputes existing between the nations. It does not favour was as a means of resolving bilateral conflict among the nations.
(X) Non- invtervention : One of the objectives of the foreign policy of India is the non- invtervention in the internal affairs of other states. India never tries to interfere in the internal affairs of other ñations.
(Xi) maintenance of integrity and unity : maintenance of territorial/geographical integrity and national unity of all countries in s another important objective of the foreign policy of India.
|Chapter 1||Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism|
|Chapter 2||The First World War|
|Chapter 3||The World War Between the Two World Wars: 1919 – 1939|
|Chapter 4||The Second World War|
|Chapter 5||The United Nations Organization|
|Chapter 6||Emergence of Asia and Africa in the Post – Second World war Period|
|Chapter 7||The Non-Aligned Movement|
|Chapter 8||Foreign policy of India|
Q 2. Discuss the historical circumstances leading to the emergence of Panchasil as the guiding principles of India’s foreign policy.
Ans: Panchasil is the cornerstone of India’s foreign policy. The development of this principle in 1954 should be viewed in the backdrop of the international politics of the world during the post-Second World war period. Soon war After the conclusion of the second World war in 1945, the cold war situation between the two power blocs reached a high pitch. By 1949, the capitalist countries known as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO).
This was followed by formation of similar union called the Warsaw pact made local issues such as korean problem, Vietnam ciris, Congo issue, ect. Became opportunities for both groups to play their fame if convert proxy war. By the 1950s and 1960s, the tug of war between the two power blocs had reached a dangerous level making the third world war a possibility.
Therefore, the newly independent countries such as India, Egypt, Indonesia, ect. did not want to join with any of the power politics. They preferred to remain neutral. This resulted in the formation of the Non-Aligned movement ( NAM) in September 1961. The NAM emerged in basis of the principles of Panchasil.
The five principles of the Panchasil were :
(i) mutual respect for the territorial integrity and national sovereignty of nations.
( ii) Non-aggression of each other’s territory.
(iii) mutual non-intervention in each other’s internal affairs.
(iv) mutual cooperation for mutual benefit.
(v) peaceful co-existence.These five principles were taken from Buddhism. The concept of Panchasil was first expounded by chairman Mao zadong and later by pt Jawaharlal Nehru. On the basis of these five principles, India and China signed a Bilateral Treaty on 28 may 1954. This Treaty applied these principles with respect to Tibet.
Later, during the frist Agro- Asian Conference on world peace principle were accepted as essential principles of international peace and security.
Q 3. Discuss the circumferences leading to the formation of the SAARC.
Ans: several international institutions came up in Europe since the beginnin nineteenth century. Except the concert of Europe ( 1818-22) , all other international organisations emergenced in the wake of the war and therefore they were much war related and were brought into being with the sole purpose of maintaining peace and security amgong the countries involved.
However, after the second World war there occurred a shift in this trend. Many international organizations were fromed with the purpose of economic, social, scientific and cultural advancement of ñations.Besides the UNO, many more multi- national organizations began to emerge comprising certain geo-political region. These organisations were brought into being with the purpose of developing the available natural resources as well as the economic resources of certain Region.
Many Regional organizations came up during the post-Second World war period to harmonize relationship among them as well to offer collective security and cooperation in areas such as development of science, agricultural, trade, baking, eradication of diseases, etc. Something the functional jurisdiction of these types of regional organizations remained confined to the territorial limits of a Continent or sub- Continent. Some of the examples of these types of organizations are:
(i) The organization of African unity ( OAU).
(ii) The organization of American states ( OAS).
(iii) The Arab league , the European Economic Communist ( EEC).
(iv) The Latin American free trade aera (LAFTA)
(v) The Central African custom Union (CACU)
(vi) The Caribbean free Trade area ( CFTA )
(vii) The The Arab common Market ( ACM)
(viii) The association of the south east Asian nations (ASEAN) .
Q 4. Mention the principal Amis and objectives of the SAARC.
Ans : In order to bring about better cooperation and mutual understanding among the countries of the Indian sub-continent seven countries of the region got together and formed an organization named the south Asian Association for Regional the SAARC was held in Decca, the capital of Bangladesh on December 7-8 1985 . The main aims and principles of this organisation are:
(i) To accelerated the process of economic and social development through the optimum utilisation of human and material resources.
(ii) To bring about national and collective self- reliance.
(iii) To maintain peace and security amgong the countries of the region.
(iv) To uplift the economic , social and cultural status of the people of the member countries.
(v) To discuss and implement plans on agriculture , telephone, public health , education, science and technology , woman problem, poverty, etc.
(vi) To expand the commercial relations among the countries.
(vii) To resolve any diputes among the countries through peaceful men. With the purpose of improving tread and commercial relationship amgong the members of the SAARC countries, a separate organizations called the south Asian preferential Trade Association (SAPTA) was floated during the SAARC conference held at Decca on 11 April 1993.
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