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Class 10 History Elective Chapter 5 The United Nations Organization
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The United Nations Organization
Chapter : 5
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Very Short Answer Type Questions
( Meantion the dates of the following events) :
(a) Established of the League of Nations,
(b) Atlantic Charter,
(c) Death of Dag Hammrskjold,
(d) Assassination of Patrice Lumumba,
(e) Independence of Namibia,
(f) Creation of the state of Israel.
Ans: (a) Eastablishment of the league of nations : 10 January 1920
(b) Atlantic Charter : 14 August 1941
(c) Death of Dag Hammrskjold : 17 September 1961
(d) Assassination of Patrice Lumumba : January, 1961
(e) Independence of Namibia : 21 March 1990
(f) Creation of the state of Israel : 14 may 1948
Short Answer Type Questions :
(a) Aims and objectives of the UNO.
Ans The mm aims and objectives of the UNO are :
(i) To maintain international peace and security.
(ii) To develop friendly relations among the nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of people.
(iii) To achieve cooperation among the countries in solving interational problem of an economic, social, culture, and humanitarian character.
(iv) To serve as a center for harmonizing nation’s action in order to achieve these common goals.
(b) Dumbarton Oakes conference.
Ans : The Dumbarton Oakes conference was held in washington in the month of August and October in 1944. It was Organized to take on the decision taken by the super powers of the world such as USA , Soviet Russia, Great Britain, France and China. It was in this conference that the name United Nations Organization’ was proposed. This conference finalized the blue-Print of this international organisation. It was also decided that the there would be a security council consisting of five big powers as its permanent members. These five big powers would be comprise of the USA , the Great Britain, France, Russia and China. The formation of the general assembly was also decided. In this conference, the total member of membership of the security Council was fixed at 11, though this number was raised later.
(c) San Francisco conference.
Ans : The San Francisco conference was held on 26 April 1945,at the theatre hall in san francisco. The head of the conference was the secretary of State of the United States of America, Mr Edward stettinius. A total of 260 representatives from 51 countries attended the conference. This conference accepted the UN Charter which constitutes the constitution of the UNO.
The representatives of all the 51 states signed the UN Charter on 26 june , 1945 . The UNO was formed on 24 October 1945 , by the approval of all the 51 countries present in the confrence.
(d) Secratary General of the UNO.
Ans: The Secratary-General of the UNO is elected and appointed by the general assembly in consultation with the UN is UN Security Council. He is the chief administrative officer of the UNO. His main task is to look after the legislative aspects of the various organs of the UNO. The secretary general is entrusted with a staff force to carry out his various administrative duties. He is responsible for the smooth functioning of the UNO and is also responsible for the preparation of the annual budget of the UNO.
(e) Fund of UNO.
Ans : The annual expenditure of the UNO is met by the funds procured vy donation and membership fees. The total annual expenditure of the UNO comes nearly to 6 billion US dollars. Out of the total fund of the UNO, one- third comes in trems of compulsory levy from the member states and the rest two- third comes from voluntary donation. The United States of America contributes the highest amount to the UN Fund. The other major donors are Japan, Germany, France, Great Britain,Soviet Russia, Sweden, Belgium, Netherlands, Findland, Libya, Spain, Austria, etc. About 30% of the total budget is collectively contributed by the USA, Japan and Germany.
(f) crisis in congo.
Ans : Congo was known as Belgian Congo before the attainment of independence from Belgium on 30 june 1960. The liberation movement in congo was started Under the leadership of Patrice Lumumba. Kasavubu became the president and Patrice Lumumba became the prime minister of free Congo which came to be known as Zaire, after its independence. Soon there started a ribonlion by few soldiers Under the leadership of Tshome for the independence of the rich province of katanga from Zaire. This move was supported by the Belgium government and they sent their military in support of the rebellion. Therefore, the new government of Zaire submitted complaint to UNO against foreign military intervention . On receiving the complainant, UN security Council sent a UN force to take control of the situation. Meanwhile, Patrice Lumumba was assassinated and this murder created a political turmoil in Zaire.
While visiting Zire to find out a solution to the existing political turmoil, UN secretary general,Dag Hammrskjold,died in an air crash on 17 September 1961 and that also further heightened the tension. Within two years, the problem in Zaire was solved by the UNO as katanga was reunited with the rest of Congo as a result of the UN intervention.
(g) Promised of Namibia.
Ans : territory of Namibia was under the domination of south africa. The people of Namibia had to undergo a great deal of suffering and hardship under the racist rule south africa over 70 Years. In the struggle for freedom and independence of Namibia against South Africa, the league of Nations provided support to Namibia. After the end of the second World War , the Namibia Organized a movement of liberation of their country from south africa. The struggle for freedom continued for serveral years. AS result of the untiring effort of the Namibia and the UN initiative, Namibia ultimately got her independence on 21 March 1990. Sam Nujoma became the first President of free Namibia.
Essay Type Questions:
Q 1. Give a brief account of the organisational set up of the UNO.
Ans : The establishemeants of the United Nations Organisation On 24 October 1945 indeed a landmark event in the history of the mankind. It usher a new era of international peace, security and cooperation. It is the culmination of several decades of men’s effort to bring lasting peace to the following:
Structure of UNO : has six principle organs to carry out its main functions . They are the following :
(i) The General Assembly,
(ii) The security Council,
(iii) The Economic and social council,
(iv) The trusteeship Council,
(v) The Interational Council of justice and
(vi) The secretariat.
(i) The General Assembly : The General Assembly is the deliberative organ of the UN. It consists of the representatives of all member states. Each member state has only one vote but may send five representative to the UN. The General Assembly meets at least once in a year, the session commencing on the third Tuesday of September. It elects a president in the beginning of the sitting, to preside over its session for the hole year.
But , a special session cam be held at the initiative of the security council.its main work consists of discussion on the international problems and to naje recommendations to the security Council. It elects members of other organs and the secretary general,passes annual budget, controls the work of both the Economic and social council and the Trusteeship council, etc. The general assembly can also give membership to new on the recommendation of the security Council.
(ii) The security Council : security Council is the most important oragan of the UNO. Originally, it consisted of 11 members. But , later its number was raised to 15. Currently, permanent members. The five premanent members are the USA, Russia, the Uk, France and China. One of the unique features of the security Council is the ‘ veto power’ of the five premanent members by which, any of the permanent members can block or prevent the passing of any proposal within the council, if they are opposed to it.
The security Council is entrusted with the primary security and for this purpose it is empowered to discuss any matter which threatens interational peace and to take effective enforcement measures to bring peace to the world. The security Council is authorized to punish any member states for violating the principle of UNO. It also searched out means for disarmament.
(iii) The Economic and social council : The Economic and social council consists of 54 members elected by the General Assembly. The member of the council meets thrice in a year to make recommendations to the United Nations on the subjects Under its purview. Its main function is to study and report with recommendation to the general assembly on Economic, social, culture, educational, health and allied matter and to prom cooperation among member – state in these fields.
(iv) The Trusteeship council : The Trusteeship council was created To exercise supervisory Control over the colonies which World war. These colonies were known as the states adiministering Trust Territories, permanent members of security Council and the same number of member states for a three- year trem.
(v) The Interational court of justice : This is the principal judicial oragan of the UN. Its headquarters is at Hague in Netherlands. It consists of 15 Judge elected independently by the security Council and the General Assembly for a nine- year term. It takes dicision on cases submitted to it by the UN members. The court also gives advisory opinion to the general assembly and to the security Council.
(v) The secretariat : The vast administrative functions of supervision of the secretary general Who is appointed by security Council. Although the Secretary general is only wields considerable amount of international clout and exercise a lot of influence in world politics. He is assisted by Assistant Secretaries who head various UN departments.
Q 2. Discuss the procedure of the Fromation of the security Council. What are the powers of the security Council?
Ans : The security Council is the executive body of the UNO. Articles 23 to 32 of the UN Charter describe the composition of the security Council. The UN Security Council originally consisted of 11 members. But, later its name number was raised to 15.
Currently, it consists of five premanent members and 10 non- permanent it consists of five permanent members are the USA, Russia, the UK, France and China. One of the unique features of the security Council is the ‘vote power’ of the five premanent members by which any of the permanent members can block or prevent the passing of any proposal within the council, if they are opposed to it. The 10 non – premanent members are elected by the General Assembly for a two- year trems on rotation basis so that every country gets the chance to become a member of UN security council.
The main powers and function of the security Council are :
(i) To maintain international peace and security.
(ii) To remove the sources of disputes or means of
friction among ñations.
(iii )To suggest means of settlement of disputes among ñations.
(iv) To search out means for disarmament.
(v) To resist war if it becomes imminent among ñations.
(vi) To try to create an atmosphere for declaration of ceasefire in the event of a war being fought between two or more nations.
(vii) To try to settle bilateral or multilateral issues through peaceful my means.
(viii) To give advice to the General Assembly to appoint the secretary general of the UNO.
(ix) To Punish any mamber state for violating any principles of the UNO.
(x) To impose Economic sanction against any members-state involved in violating the principle (s) of the UNO which may lead to breach of international peace.
(xi) The security Council can take military action against such States.
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