Class 10 Elective Geography Chapter 2 Environmental Geography

Class 10 Elective Geography Chapter 2 Environmental Geography Question answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board HS Class 10 Geography Elective Chapter 2 Environmental Geography and select needs one.

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Class 10 Elective Geography Chapter 2 Environmental Geography

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 10 Geography Elective Chapter 2 Environmental Geography Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here.

Environmental Geography

Chapter: 2

Textual Questions And Answers

Q1. What is meant by environment? Why is environment considered to be a system?

Ans: By the term ‘environment’ we mean the physical condition prevalent around an organism. In object are known as the environmentconditions aphical context, the term ‘environment’ refers to the region surrounding the earth which includes the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere and the biosphere. It is an arrangement of nature by which living and non-living things co-exist in a balanced manner.

The term ‘environment’ has wide connotation. It is a system by itself and includes several sub-systems within it. As a system, it has certain unity and Cohesion. It includes sub-systems such as biotic environment, abiotic environment, hydrological cycle, carbon cycle, water cycle, energy cycle, etc. The unique feature of this system is that various sub-systems within the environment co-exist in a balanced manner. There is much interdependence and interaction among the various elements of this system.

Q2. State with examples the relationship amongst lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.

Ans: The environment consists of four components, namely the lithosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere. There is a close interdependence and interaction among these four components of the environment. In fact, they are interdependent for their very existence. Different cycles of nature such as hydrogical cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, energy cycle, etc. pass through all the four components. Secondly, the biotic and the abiotic elements are found in all the four components. There is a close complex network of relationship among the various elements of those components.

Any change that occurs in any one of the major components affects the other three components of the environment. When atmosphere is affected by over radiation from the sun, it affects the hydrosphere, the lithosphere and the biosphere. It leads to the melting of snow which in turn causes a rise in the sea level, bringing a lot of changes in the coastal regions of the earth’s surface. 

As a result many regions of the lithosphere get submerged. Many of the microorganisms, flora and fauna that live on the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere perish as a result of this overheating of the atmosphere.

Another example of close interrelationship among the componnts of the environment would be the case of rain. Rain clouds are formed as a result of evaporation from the sea as well as from the plant world. Rain from the atmosphere is essential for the survival of living organisms on the lithosphere and the biosphere. Drying of water of bodies has a negative impact on atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. 

Cutting down of trees of the lithosphere leads to over-abundance of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere leading to global warming which affects not only living organisms on the earth but also those of the oceans. Thus, it is evident that all the four components of the environment are closely connected and interdependent on each other.

Q3. Write in brief as to why the environments of all the regions of the world are not same. 

Ans: One of the unique features of environment is that almost all the regions of the world have different environments. For example, the environmental conditions of the equatorial region are quite different from those of the polar regions. The   environment of the equatorial region is characterised by high temperature and high rainfall throughout the year while polar regions are marked by low temperature and lack of rain. The difference in environment is the result of certain factors such as location, topography, distance from the water bodies, altitude, climate, nature of the flora and fauna, etc. 

As these factors vary from place to place, the environment also varies from place to place. In fact, the basis for the identification of the different natural regions over the earth’s surface is the varying environmental conditions that prevail in the world. Thus, the environments of all the regions of the world are not same.

Q4. Define Environmental Geography.

Ans: The branch of geography which studies the nature of global environment, its spatio-temporal changes and tries to find out the probable solutions to the various environmental problems that are brought about by man’s actions is known as Environmental Geography. In short, Environmental Geography is a subdivision of geography which studies the environment from the geographical point of view. In other words, it is a branch of science which studies the influence of environment on man and man’s influence on the environment.

Q5. Discuss the importance of Environmental Geography as a branch of Geography.

Ans: Today, the study of Environmental has received much attention and consideration. In fact, it has become a popular branch of study among the researchers due to the various environmental problems that make our life difficult on this planet. The environmental problems such as deforestation, global warming, air pollution, water pollution, etc. have reached such an alarming state that they are affecting our very existence on earth. As a result of these problems, the longevity of man, his economic means, his health, etc. are being affected. More and more new diseases and ailments are emerging. The world is becoming too hot to live. 

The fresh water resources are drying up. All these changes are making man’s life on earth difficult and troublesome. Therefore, Environmental Geography has received a lot of attention from all quarters as these problems need proper remedy and immediate human action. Secondly, the subject matter of Environmental Geography has a lot of affinity and close connection with other branches of study such as Physics, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Biology, Geology, Geography, Climatology, etc. as many of these branches also have similar subject matter for study. 

This also has raised the importance of Environmental Geography. It is also felt that the traditional ideas, tools and techniques might not be too helpful in tackling the present environmental problems. So, it was felt that a new branch, Environmental Geography has to be developed primarily to deal with environment and its associated problems.

Q6. Give an account on the objective and scope of Environmental Geography.

Ans: The branch of geography which studies the nature of global environment, its spatio-temporal changes and tries to find out the probable solutions to the environmental problems is known as Environmental Geography. The main objective of Environmental Geography is to understand the nature of the global environment, recent changes that have taken place in the environment and try to find proper solutions to the existing environment problems by systematic analysis. 

Therefore, the central theme of Environmental Geography is the study of the influence of environment on man and also the influence of man on environment. The main scope of Environmental Geography includes :

(i) Nature of global environment.

(ii) Changes that have taken place in the environment in 

the recent past.

(iii) Various environmental problems.

(iv) Eco-friendly use of mineral resources.

(v) Sustainable development.

(vi) Population growth and its impact on environment.

(vii) Natural disaster and its management.

(viii) Use of modern gadgets in the study of environmental issues, etc.

Q7. What do you mean by elements of environment? Write down the meanings of biotic and abiotic elements.

Ans: Elements of environment, mean the various components that constitute the environment. The environment consists of two categories of elements, namely biotic elements and abiotic elements.

(i) Biotic elements : The elements that have life are called biotic elements. For example, man, plants, animals, microorganisms, marine creatures, etc. They exist within the biosphere.

(ii) Abiotic elements : The elements that do not have life are called abiotic elements. For example, soil, land, water, rocks, sand, air, sunlight, humidity, etc. Abiotic elements are found in the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

Both the elements of environment are characterised by two significant features. These are :

(i) Both the categories of elements are closely interlinked and are interdependent.

(ii) The characteristics of both biotic and abiotic elements vary from place to place and from region to region.

Q8. Complete the given list by marking a division of biotic and abiotic from the following elements :

sand, mineral, bacteria, phytoplankton, grass, rainfall, humidity, soil, water, forest, insects, virus, coal, mineral, oil, mangrove, solar energy.

Ans :

Q9. What is meant by environmental problem?

Ans: The issues or problems that deeply affect the normal functioning of the various elements and components of the environment are known as environmental problems. In other words, environmental problems are the problems either natural or man-made which disturb the existing ecological balance in nature. Most of the environmental problems are man-made and so they can be rectified or checked if efforts are made in the right direction by man.

Q10. Mention the causes which are responsible for the growing environmental problems in the world.

Ans: Today, the entire world faces certain serious environmental problems which are mostly created by man himself. These include deforestation, environmental degradation, global warming, air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, etc. 

The major causes for the rise of these problems are :

(i) Rapid growth of population : The fast emerging urbanisation, industrialisation and expansion of human settlement have been responsible for the depletion of natural resources such as forests, water, minerals, etc. The world’s population has increased from 6 billion in 2000 to over 7 billion now. The percentage of urban population in the total population of the world has also been ever increasing rapidly. In fact, it was just 2% in 1800 A.D. But, now it is about 50%. High population calls for greater use of resources leading to their quick depletion which in turn disturbs the existing ecological balance in nature.

(ii) Overuse of resources : Nature has provided sufficient resources for its population. But, unfortunately man does not utilise the resources properly or in a scientific manner. From extraction to its use, a lot of resources are being wasted extensively leading to their depletion in the world. As man requires more and more resources to maintain himself, he extracts these resources at a faster rate leading to an imbalance in nature’s subtle balance, creating thereby many environmental problems.

(iii) Rapid expansion of industrial sector : The unprecedented growth of the industrial sector since the industrial revolution has accelerated the use of different resources and their utilisation has brought in more pollutants into the world. The industrial production has increased almost 100 times in the last century. Almost all industries release many greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, sulphur dioxide, nitrous dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, etc. leading to global warming.

(iv) Greater use of vehicles : One of the inevitable results of industrial growth, urbanisation and improvement in the standard of living is the overuse of vehicles which produce tremendous amount of smoke and greenhouse gases thereby causing global warming. The expansion of air travel by way of aircraft has increased the presence of certain gases in the atmosphere which causes the has adverse effects on all living organisms on the earth.

Q11. What do you mean by the balance state of environment?

Ans: The balance state of environment means the ecological equilibrium maintained by the various elements of environment. Nature maintains an ecological balance in the environment. If this balance is disturbed, it brings about a lot of environmental problems.

(i) To have a proper ecological balance of nature in any country, there should be 33% of forest or green cover. It should be even higher, at least 60% in case of the hilly and mountainous regions. If the percentage is lower in such areas, many natural calamities such as land erosion, landslides and death of water would take place.

(ii) There is an ecological balance between the various biotic and abiotic elements of environment. Therefore, the depletion of any item of these elements would greatly affect the entire environment.

(iii) There is an ecological balance between the various organisms of biotic element themselves as well as between the various items of abiotic element.

(iv) There are several ecological cycles such as hydrogical cycle, carbon cycle, water cycle, nitrogen cycle, etc. which also maintain a balance state in the environment.

Q12. “Deforestation is the cause of many problems and the result of many development processes”— analyse the statement with arguments.

Ans: Deforestation is one of the major environmental problems, the world is facing today. The green cover over the earth has been dwindling at an alarming rate. The minimum required percentage of green cover for any country is 33%. But, unfortunately many industrially advanced countries and developing countries lack the required extent of forest cover. It leads to several problems which affect our very existence on earth.

At the same time, forest areas have to be cleared for the starting of certain developmental work associated with industries, human settlement, power production, etc. It is in this context, that we say, ” Deforestation is the cause of many problems and the result of many developmental processes. ” A study of deforestation reveals that it brings about the following problems in the world :

(i) It causes drought conditions and scarcity of rain.

(ii) It leads to decline in agricultural production due to lack of adequate rainfall.

(iii) It causes landslides and soil erosion.

(iv) It brings about increased presence of carbon dioxide which would otherwise have been absorbed by trees.

(v) It causes the increase of heat over the earth.

(vi) It affects the biodiversity.

(vii) It disturbs the ecological balance leading to several environmental problems.Although demulti-dimensional.s a lot of problems, yet it has some benefits. In fact, deforestation has been responsible for the beginning of several developmental schemes and projects in most countries. Some of the major benefits derived from deforestation are :

(i) It provides more space for human habitation.

(ii) It provides more space for industrial expansion.

(iii) The construction industries are greatly benefitted from the timber derived from the forest.

(iv) The industries such as railways, paper industries, chemical industries, etc. expand as a result of the use of various forest resources.

(v) It leads to expansion of urban centres.

(vi) The clearing of forest areas increases the extent of land for cultivation. This brings about higher food production in the country.

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