Class 10 Elective Geography Chapter 2 Environmental Geography

Class 10 Elective Geography Chapter 2 Environmental Geography Question answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board HS Class 10 Geography Elective Chapter 2 Environmental Geography and select needs one.

Class 10 Elective Geography Chapter 2 Environmental Geography

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 10 Geography Elective Chapter 2 Environmental Geography Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here.

Environmental Geography

Chapter: 2

Textual Questions And Answers

Q.1. What is meant by environment? Why is environment considered to be a system?

Ans: All around us is an environment that comprises the living and non-living objects like soil, water, animals and plants that adapt to their environment. It is the gift of nature that serves to nourish the lives of the world.

Significance of the environment: Environment is considered to be a system because every living organisms all around us are interdependent on each other for survival.

Q.2. State with examples the relationship amongst lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.

Ans: The lithosphere and atmosphere and the hydrosphere are all linked to one biosphere and that what makes life possible on earth. All thee three-sphere are interlinked and interconnected and share relationships among them.

As the atmosphere is enveloping or a mixture of gases components that is grounded by the gravity of the planet and magnetism forces, it is composed of various other layers that represent the homo or similar and hetero sphere or distinct layers the interact with the earth heat balance and solar radiation.

The air is essential for all life forms on the planet and it has Oxygen a vital gas, similarly, the lithos or the land sphere is made of tectonic plates and is the source of the release of heat form the core of the planet, interacting with the hydrosphere or the water components as essential for the life forms and has diverse forms of occurrence solid, liquid and gas.  

Land and water is essential for the growth of vegetation along with the exchange of the gases from the soil, as the evaporation of water form the leaves of the trees etc.

Q.3. Write in brief as to why the environments of all the regions of the world are not same. 

Ans: One of the unique features of environment is that almost all the regions of the world have different environments. For example, the environmental conditions of the equatorial region are quite different from those of the polar regions. The   environment of the equatorial region is characterised by high temperature and high rainfall throughout the year while polar regions are marked by low temperature and lack of rain. The difference in environment is the result of certain factors such as location, topography, distance from the water bodies, altitude, climate, nature of the flora and fauna, etc. 

As these factors vary from place to place, the environment also varies from place to place. In fact, the basis for the identification of the different natural regions over the earth’s surface is the varying environmental conditions that prevail in the world. Thus, the environments of all the regions of the world are not same.

Q.4. Define Environmental Geography.

Ans: Environmental geography is centered on the interactions and relations of the biogeophysical environment with human societies. Environmental geographers are interested in environmental sustainability and well-being involving a wide range of human interactions that include political economy, social power, cultural identities, and others. A triad of features is introduced as distinguishing environmental geography from the related, synergistic fields within geography, in linked interdisciplinary fields, and beyond the discipline. Five principal categories of knowledge and practice are then identified as integral to environmental geography: overarching or high-level theory; intermediate or mid-range theory; specific concepts; methodologies and methods; and major, widely recognized topics and issues that are galvanizing for science, scholarship, policy, and public interest.

Q.5. Discuss the importance of Environmental Geography as a branch of Geography.

Ans: Environmental geography plays a critical role in understanding the complex relationships between humans and the natural environment. 

However, the following are some of the key features that define why environmental geography is important −

(i) Multi-disciplinary in nature: because of its diverse nature, it helps in understanding the various environmental issues, such as climate change, pollution, deforestation, and the depletion of natural resources. By understanding the causes and effects of these issues, suitable and sustainable strategies can be developed to ensure sustainable development.

(ii) Protects biodiversity: by understanding the geography and significance of the distribution of different living organisms and their particular ecosystem, it helps in protecting and conserving biodiversity and their ecosystem, which ultimately helps in maintaining ecological balance.

(iii) Aware the people: it defines various environmental phenomena on local levels as well as on global level and also describes their negative and positive characteristics. Based on such information, people are suggested to behave or design their economic activities accordingly.

Q.6. Give an account on the objective and scope of Environmental Geography.

Ans: Environmental geography studies the conditions and changes in the environment in different regions by focusing on people and human activities, the amount and causes of deforestation in an area, where and how disasters like floods, landslides etc. occur, how pollution destroys the environment The subject is also. The main purpose of ecology is to study the historical development of the environment, population growth and its relationship with the environment, natural disasters and their management, economy and culture.

Geographers have tried to find solutions to these environmental problems by conducting a systematic scientific study through the subject of environmental geography.

Q.7. What do you mean by elements of Environment? Write down the meanings of biotic and abiotic elements.

Ans: These elements create the necessary environment for living things through interrelationships. The survival and development of living things depend on these elements. They are called environmental components.

The components of the environment are mainly divided into two categories. 

Those two are –

(i) Biological components: Biological components include the biosphere various species of plants and microorganisms to macro animals such as animals, plants

(ii) Inorganic constituents: All non-living constituents of the lithosphere, aquifer, and atmosphere include soil, water, air, various metals.

Q.8. Complete the given list by marking a division of biotic and abiotic from the following elements:

sand, mineral, bacteria, phytoplankton, grass, rainfall, humidity, soil, water, forest, insects, virus, coal, mineral, oil, mangrove, solar energy.


Biotic Elements                             Abiotic Elements
Bacteria, Phytoplankton, Grass, Forest, insects, virus, mangrove.Sand, mineral, rainfall, humidity, soil, water, coal, mineral oil, solar energy.  

Q.9. What is meant by environmental problem?

Ans: Environmental issues are the harmful effects of human activities on the environment. These include pollution, overpopulation, waste disposal, climate change, global warming, the greenhouse effect, etc.

Q.10. Mention the causes which are responsible for the growing environmental problems in the world.

Ans: Human impact on the environment is becoming more and more significant.

  • Through our actions, we are destroying the environment and endangering the lives of future generations.
  • Major environmental issues:
  • Plants Genetically modified ,waste Production, Population growth ,Water pollution, Deforestation, Urban growth Overfishing Acid rain ,Ozone depletion Ocean acidification, Air pollution ,Biodiversity loss Nitrogen cycle Natural resource use Transportation Polar ice sheet Climate change.
  • Environmental problems are the impact of human activity on the biophysical environment, most often negatively leading to environmental degradation.
  • [suspicious – discussion] Conservation is the practice of protecting the environment at the individual, organizational or government level. Good interests for people as well as for the environment.
  • Ecologism, a social and environmental movement, addresses environmental issues through advocacy, legislative education, and activism.

Q.11. What do you mean by the balance state of Environment?

Ans: Ecological balance is a term describing how ecosystems are organized in a state of stability where species coexist with other species and with their environment. Ecosystems are not without change, however. Disturbances can occur, although an ecosystem typically recovers back to a state of ecological balance.

Q.12. “Deforestation is the cause of many problems and the result of many development processes”— analyse the statement with arguments.

Ans: Cutting down of trees from the forest for agriculture, animal grazing, to obtain wood, construction, etc are called deforestation. Deforestation is the cause of many problems and the result of many development processes. It has been said about global warming that increase in the quantity of carbon dioxide and the green house gases in the atmosphere. 

Deforestation cause the following problems to the environment:

(i) It causes the increase of heat over the earth.

(ii) It affects the biodiversity.

(iii) It causes drought conditions and scarcity of water.

(iv) It causes landslides and soil erosion.

Though deforestation causes a lot of problems, but it has some benefits also. There are several developmental schemes and projects in most countries. 

Some of the benefits from deforestation are:

(i) It provides more space for human settlement.

(ii) It provides more space for industrial expansion.

(iii) It leads to expansion of urban centres.

(iv) The clearing of forest areas increases the extent of land for cultivation.

Q.13. What is global warming? Discuss its main causes.

Ans: Global warming is an aspect of climate change, referring to the long-term rise of the planet’s temperatures. It is caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, mainly from human activities such as burning fossil fuels, and farming.

The main causes of global warming are:

  1. Usage of vehicles: Cars and trucks emit gases like Carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
  2. Deforestation: When trees are cut, the stored carbon is released into the atmosphere as Carbon dioxide which leads to global warming
  3. Fossil fuel burning: Burning of fossil fuels release carbon dioxide which is a greenhouse gas, into the air.
  4. Development of industry: Certain chemical reactions used in product manufacturing produce greenhouse gases.

Q.14. Give an account of the problems that may occur as a result of global warming.

Ans: Global warming is an aspect of climate change, referring to the long-term rise of the planet’s temperatures. It is caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, mainly from human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation and farming.

Q.15. Write briefly about the duties of the general people in controlling global warming.

Ans: One of the greatest environmental problems faced by us today is the problem of global warming. Global warming has serious negative repercussions. It would lead to drought conditions, decline in agriculture, ecological imbalance, lack of rain, etc. Therefore, all steps must be taken to reduce the extent of global warming.

Following are some of the duties of the general people in controlling increased global warming:

  1. Controlling the rate of deforestation.
  2. Use of clean and efficient fuels.
  3. Use of renewable sources of energy wisely.
  4. Environmental awareness so that the use of fossil fuels can be reduced.
  5. Practicing afforestation and reforestation.
  6. Reducing our carbon footprints.

Q.16. What do you mean by air pollution? What are the causes of air pollution?

Ans: Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere.

The causes of air pollution can be categorised into two groups:

(i) Primary air pollutants: Pollutants that are formed and emitted directly from particular sources. Examples are particulates, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and sulfur oxide. 

(ii) Secondary air pollutants: Pollutants that are formed in the lower atmosphere by chemical reactions.

Q.17. Write the names of some greenhouse gases.

Ans: Some of the main greenhouse gases are: Carbon dioxide CO₂ methane CH₄ Nitrous oxide N₂O, chlorofluorocarbons CFC, water vapour, etc.

Q.18. What kinds of problems may be created by air pollution?

Ans: High air pollution levels can lead to an increased risk of heart attack, wheezing, coughing and breathing problems, and eye, nose and throat irritation. Air pollution can also cause heart problems, asthma and other lung complications to worsen.

Q.19. How is water polluted? How can it harm?

Ans: When we dispose of sewage, garbage, and other waste material into the water bodies, it releases various pollutants in the water. The harmful chemicals, toxins, etc. from these pollutants dissolve with water. These chemicals turn the water into poisonous water which is very toxic for the plants and animals underwater.

Some of the major reasons of water pollution are:

  1. Destruction of biodiversity. Water pollution depletes aquatic ecosystems and triggers unbridled proliferation of phytoplankton in lakes — eutrophication.
  2. Contamination of the food chain. Fishing in polluted waters and the use of waste water for livestock farming and agriculture can introduce toxins into foods which are harmful to our health when eaten.
  3. Lack of potable water. The UN says that billions of people around the world have no access to clean water to drink or sanitation, particularly in rural areas.
  4. Disease. The WHO estimates that about 2 billion people have no option but to drink water contaminated by excrement, exposing them to diseases such as cholera, hepatitis A and dysentery.
  5. Infant mortality. According to the UN, diarrhoeal diseases linked to lack of hygiene cause the death of about 1,000 children a day worldwide.

Q.20. What kinds of steps may be taken by the people for the solution of environmental problems?

Ans: For the solution of environment problem,the necessary steps that are taken by the people are as follows:

  • Using eco-friendly products: There is a choice between the traditional pollution creating products and eco-friendly products. So, people can easily choose eco-friendly products for solving the environmental problems.

Example: of such eco-friendly products are; bicycle,paper bags, recycled products and many more.

  • Deforestation prevention: If the deforestation is protested by the people and the afforestation is supported by the people, then a lot of environmental problems will be finished in the near future.
  • Sustainable development: Development is the main aim of the modern human society and if the people start the adoption of a sustainable development process, then the environmental problems will decrease a lot.

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