NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 14 Kinship

NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 14 Kinship, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 14 Kinship and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 14 Kinship Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Sociology Notes Paper 331.

NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 14 Kinship

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 14 Kinship, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Political Science Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.


Chapter: 14



 Q.1. Write True’ or ‘False’ against the statement:

Kinship is a relationship based on blood ties or marriage.

Ans. True.

Q.2. Fill in the blank: 

Kinship based on descent is known as ……………….. kinship.

Ans. Consanguineous.

Q.3. Mark the correct answer:

The family in which a person is born is his:

(i) Family of procreation.

(ii) Family of orientation.

(iii) None.

(iv) Both.

 Ans. (ii) Family of orientation.


Q.1. Write ‘True’ or ‘False’ against the statement:

A person’s grandfather is his primary consanguineal kin.

Ans. False.

Q.2. Fill in the blank:

Kinship is significant for the individual as well as ………………. .

Ans. Group.

Q.3. Mark the correct answer:

Kinship is significant for the individual because:

(i) It gives him identity and status. 

(ii) It provides psychological security.

(iii) Defines his role and behaviour pattern. 

(iv) All of the above.

Ans. (iv) All of the above.


Q.1. Write ‘True’ or ‘False’ against the statement:

A descriptive term applies to one particular kin of specific status.

Ans. True.

Q. 2. Fill in the blank:

The kinship terms which are formed by joining suffixes and prefixes to the elementary kinship terms are called …………….. kinship terms.

Ans. derivative.

Q.3. Mark the correct answer:

Kinship terms help us in understanding:

(i) The inter-relationship between various members.

(ii) The status and roles of the members.

(iii) The prevailing kinds of family-structure.

(iv) The extinct social features.

(v) All the above.

Ans. (v) All the above.


Q.1. Write or ‘False’ against the statement:

Rules of descent connect an individual to a particular set of kins on the basis of ancestory.

Ans. True.

Q.2. Fill in the blank:

The term …………… describes a person’s bilateral set of relatives.

Ans. kindred.

Q.3. Mark the correct answer:

A clan is a set of kins

(i) Whose members believe themselves to be the descendants of a known ancestor.

(ii) Whose members have a belief that they have descended from a common mythical ancestor.

(iii) Such as mother, father and children.

(iv) None of the above.

Ans. (iv) None of the above.


Q. 1. Write ‘True’ or ‘False’ against the statement: 

Amitate is a kinship usage which assigns special role to one’s father’s sister. 

Ans. True.

Q.2. Fill in the blanks:

The kinship usage in which two kinsmen do not address each other directly is called ………………. .

Ans. Teknonymy.

Q.3. Mark the correct answer:

The kinship usage in which the maternal uncle plays significant role is termed as:

(i) Couvade.

(ii) Avoidance .

(iii) Joking relationship.

(iv) Avunculate.

(v) None of the above.

Ans. (iv) avunculate.

Q.4. What is Couvade? Define in one sentence.

Ans. Couvade means that kinship’s behaviour which a husband follows a similar pattern of behaviour including dietary restrictions as those followed by his pregnant wife in child birth.


Q.1. What are the types of kinship? Describe in detail. (V. Imp.)

Ans. Types of kinship: Family is the point of departure for studying kinship. There are basically two types of kinship within a family: 

(i) Affinal kinship.

(ii) Consanguineous Kinship.

(i) Affinal Kinship: This type of kinship is based on marriage. The most primary affinal relationship is the one between a husband and wife which in its extended form includes and siblings of both sides and their spouses and children. Hence, the relationship between son-in-law and father-in-law is an example of affinal kinship. Similarly, one’s brother-in-laws and their children are also examples of affinal kins.

(ii) Consanguineal Kinship: The types of kinship based on descent is called consanguineal kinship, commonly known as blood relation.

The relationship between a child and his parents, between children of the same set of parents, between uncles and nephews/nieces are examples of consanguineous kinship. 

Q.2. What is the significance of kinship for the individual and the group? (V. Imp.)

Ans. The significance of kinship for individual and the group:

1. Kinship is significant in several ways for individual as well as groups.

2. It provides identity and status, social and psychological security and define patterns of behaviour and roles to individuals.

3. Kinship is the basis of group formation.

4. It enhances group solidarity, organizes the group against enemies, control religious and the social interaction, including marriage and regulates gathering of rituals and religious ceremonies. 

5. Inheritance of status, property and family name is decided on the basis of kinship.

6. Kinship groups help their kinsmen in securing political power, occupational benefits and gains.

Q.3. What are the various basis of classification of kinship terms? Discuss in detail. (M. Imp.)

Ans. Basis of classification of kinship: The basis of classification kinship terms and their types are the following: 

(i) Linguistic Structure:

(a) Elementary terms.

(b) Derivative terms.

(c) Descriptive terms. 

(ii) Modes of use:

(a) Terms of address.

(b) Terms of reference. 

(iii) Range of application:

(a) Descriptive Terms.

Classificatory Terms: Rules of descent connect or affiliate individuals with particular set of kins on the basis of known or presumed ancestor. There are two rules of descent.

They are the following:

(i) Unilaternal descent rules.

(ii) Bilateral descent rules.

Unilaternal descent rules are two types: 

(i) Patrilineal descent.

(ii) Matrilineal descent.

Societies, without unilateral descent rules, are bilateral societies. Relatives on both the mother’s and father’s sides of the family are of equal importance or more usually, unimportant.

Kindered refers to bilateral set of relatives who may come together temporarily on ceremonial occasions. 

Q.4. Describe the various types of unilateral kinship groups.

Ans. Introduction: Kinship in itself is not a group but is one of the strongest basis group formation.

The well-known names of several unilateral kinship groups are:

(i) family.

(ii) lineage.

(iii) clan.

(iv) phratry. and

(v) moiety.

These kinship groups consist of persons who are genealogically related to each other through descent or martial ties.

The feeling that ‘blood is thicker than water’ binds the kinsmen to each other in several kin groups which may be close knit and small like family and lineage or may be loosely knit like clan, phratry and moiety. 

We will discuss these groups one by one: 

(i) Family: It is the smallest kinship group. It is basically made up of a man, his wife and their unmarried children. While the man and wife are related through marriage, the children and parents are related to each other through descent or blood ties. The children are related to each other through the kinship link of siblingship and common descent i.e. blood tie.

Some of the important (other) groups based on principles of unilateral descent are as follows:

(ii) Lineage: Family is bilateral but lineage is a unilateral descent group. It consists of all the consanguineal blood relatives who claim their descent from a known common ancestor or ancestors who existed in reality in the known past. The ancestor is not a myth as is the case with a clan. Lineage is an exogamous group. It is a unilateral descent group, it implies that a lineage includes all such family members who belong to the father’s line alone. If the ancestor is a male figure, then the lineage is called patrilineage. The descent is raced in the male live from father to son. If the lineage is traced from a female figure, it is called matrilineage. Lineage members of a matrilineal group trace relationship to each other through the mother.

(iii) Clan: A clan is also unilateral descent group. It includes a set of kins whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor, but the actual genealogical link may not be demonstrated. The common ancestor is often a mythical figure such as a saint or a Rishi in case of Hindu society. It may also be a supernatural character or a totemic object such as tiger, fish and snake etc.

Among the Hindus, the common descent is. traced from some sages such as Kashyap, Bhardwaj, Gautam etc. In fact, the common ancestor of the kinsmen is most often an unknown figure or object in the far off antiquity.

The members of a clan consider themselves to be blood relatives of each other as they believe in common descent or blood tie. Hence, most often the members of a clan do not marry each other. In other words, the clan is an exogamous kinship group.

The clan is patrilineal when the descent is traced through male lines. If the descent is traced through female line, it is called matrilineal clan, as found among Khasi or Garo of North-east India.

Clan is also known as ‘Gotra’ in Hindi. The clan grouping is mainly taken into account while initiating marriage negotiations. Marriage is negotiated only with those who do not belong to one’s own clan.

(iv) Phratry: A phratry is unilateral descent group composed of two or more clans which are supposedly interrelated.

Like clan, the pantry organization is also exogamous. The members of phratry organization believe that they have a common ancestor.

The clan constituting a phratry may retain their individual identities. But, they fulfil special obligations on ceremonial occasions.

(v) Moiety: Moiety is a large social group that results from the splitting of a society into two equal or unequal halves on the basis of descent. Each half thus formed is called a moiety.

The members of moiety have a belief in a common ancestor which may or may not be actually traceable.

Each moiety is gain sub-divided into a number of phratries. Each phratry is split up into a number of clans and each clan into a number of lineage and finally, each lineage into a number of families.

The Aimol Kuku tribe of Manipur has a set of moieties which are further divided into phratries and so on. 

Q.5. Discuss various kinship usages or behaviour.

Ans. Kinship usages or behaviour: Kinship behaviour or usages refer to definite and comparatively stable patterns of behaviour of different members of a kin group. These behaviour patterns may be verbal and/or non-verbal. Some the kinship usages are the following:

1. Avoidance: It is a type of usage through which some restrictions are imposed on close interaction of certain kinsmen. Among the Hindus, as a result of such restrictions, certain relatives avoid talking to each other directly, avoid physical contact and maintain minimum social interaction with each other and so on. Some of the kins covered by such restrictions among the Hindus are parent-in-law and daughter-in-law, mother-in-law and son-in-law, husband’s elder brother and younger brother’s wife etc.

2. Joking relationship: It is just the opposite of avoidance. The relatives are free to crack jokes at each other’s expense, tease each other and make fun of each other under this form of behaviour. The relatives under this category are expected not to take offence or to mind each other’s conduct.

Joking relation is generally found between a man and his wife’s younger sister or between a woman and her husband’s younger brother. 

3. Teknonymy: When the two kinsmen do not each other directly rather through a third person or a symbol, the usage is known as teknonymy.

The practice is very common in rural India, where women generally do not utter the names of their husbands or elderly in-laws. Women refer to their husbands as the father of her child.

4. Avunculate: It is the kind of behaviour or usage which gives the maternal uncle an important status so far as his sister’s children are concerned. The maternal uncle’s is considered more important than even the father. The maternal uncle transfers his property to his nephew (i.e. the sister’s son). The nephew works for him rather than his own father. Sometimes the sister’s children are brought up in their maternal uncle’s family. Avunculate is common in matrilineal societies.

5. Amitate: The kinship behaviour which assigns a special role to one’s father’s sister is called amitate. Her role is similar to that of the maternal uncle under avunculate. The children show special respect to their father’s sister. Sometimes, the children are brought up in her house and inherit her property. She is called female-father in societies practising amitate. It is usually found in patrilineal societies.

6. Couade: It is kinship behaviour in which a husband imitates the behaviour of his wife during pregnancy and child birth. The husband also leads the life of an invalid alongwith his wife whenever she gives birth to a child. He refrains from active life, goes on sick diet and observes certain taboos. This practice is common among Khasi tribe of Assam and Toda tribe of Nilgiri Hills.



Q.1. Explain in short the meaning of the following:

(a) Kinship.

Ans: Kinship: Social relationship based on real, putative or fuctive consanguinity. It is the system of the way in which the relations between individuals in the family and between are organised.

(b) Affinal Relations.

Ans: Affinal Relation: Relationship by marriage like husband and wife.

(c) Consanguineous Relation.

Ans: Consanguineous Relation: Relationship by blood like brother and sister.

(d) Exogamy.

Ans: Exogamy: Marriage outside a defined group e.g. gotra, village.

(e) Endogamy.

Ans: Endogamy: Marriage within a defined group e.g. caste, kinship.

(f) Folkways.

Ans: Folkways: Customs and habits or typical behaviour patterns, characteristics of a given community.

(g) Matrilineal.

Ans. Matrilineal: Tracing of lineage from the female side.

(h) Taboo. 

Ans. Taboo: Prohibited conducted or behaviour is called taboo.

Q.2. Why is exogamy practiced?

Ans. Exogamy is practised because now people do not believe in casteism, communalism and religionism. Inter-caste marriage and inter-community marriage are seen in society. Modern generation is more advanced and do not like to follow named tradition taboo. Industrialisation, urbanisation, individualism, spread of education etc. are other reasons promoting exogamy practise.

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