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NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Emergence And Development Of Sociology
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Emergence And Development Of Sociology
MODULE 1: SOCIOLOGY – BASIC CONCEPTS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 2.1
Answer the following questions in one sentence:
Q.1. Which statement of Aristotle is believed to have sown the seeds of sociology?
Ans. Man is a social animal.
Q.2. After which revolution of which year is sociology supposed to have emerged?
Ans. French Revolution of 1789.
Q.3. Who is regarded as the “Father of Sociology”?
Ans. Auguste Comte.
Q.4. Define positivism.
Ans. Positivism: It is where phenomena are explained in terms of scientific approach.
Q.5. What are the various stages according to Comte through which human society has passed?
Ans. The various stages according to Comte through which human society has passed are:
(ii) Metaphysical. and
Q.6. Name the book that Sir Herbert Spencer wrote.
Ans. Principles of Sociology.
Q.7. Who is the author of the book titled “Suicide”, which was published in 1897.
Ans. Emile Durkheim.
Q.8. Name anyone book that Max Weber wrote.
Ans. Basic Concepts in Sociology.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 2.2
Answer the following questions
Q.1. In how many phases can you divide the growth of Indian sociology?
Ans. We can divide the growth of Indian sociology in three phases.
(i) 1769-1900 foundation of sociology.
(ii) 1901-1950 sociology became a profession,
(iii) after independence-planned develop and ment.
Q.2. In which year was the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal founded and by whom?
Ans. (a) The Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal was founded in 1774.
(b) William Jones founded Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.
Q.3. What was the contribution of Max Muller?
Ans. Max Muller translated several classical Indian texts into German, which were later translated into English.
Q.4. Who wrote the book titled Ancient Law?
Ans. Henry Maine wrote the book titled Ancient Law.
Q.5. Which society did W.H.R. Rivers study?
Ans. A pastoral community of the Nilgiris. the Todas studied W.H.R. Rivers.
Q.6. Who studied the castes and tribes of Cochin and Mysore?
Ans. L. K. Ananthakrishna Iyer studied the castes and tribes of Cochin and Mysore.
Q.7. When and where was the first department of anthropology founded?
Ans. In 1921, a department of anthropology was established in Calcutta.
Q.8. Who started the journal, contributions to Indian Sociology?
Ans. Dumont started journal ‘Contributions to Indian Sociology’.
Q.9. List the names of a couple of the communities that sociologists have studied after the independence.
Ans. (i) Coorgs.
(ii) Santhals. and
(iii) Piramalai Kallar.
Q.10. Which professional society did G.S. Ghurye found in 1951?
Ans. G.S. Ghurye founded the Indian Sociological Society.
Q.1. Describe the contribution of Emile Durkheim and Max Weber to the development of sociology. (M. Imp.)
Ans. I. The contribution of Emile Durkheim to the development of Sociology:
1. Along with Karl Marx and Max Weber, the French sociologist Emile Durkheim is one of the key classical theorists in sociology. He is best known for founding sociology as a scientific discipline and for defining the boundaries of its subject matter.
2. Emile Durkheim was the author of some of the most programmatic statements about what sociology was and how it should be done. Emile Durkheim’s key theoretical statement lies in his claim that social phenomena are realities that can only be explained by other social facts.
3. The most important concern for Emile Durkheim was the establishment of sociology as a distinct discipline. His goal was to provide firm definition of the field and a scientific basis of its study.
4. Emile Durkheim’s second concern was the issue of social solidarity or integration in society. He inquired into
(a) The sources and nature of moral authority as an integrating force in society.
(b) as well as the rise of individualism in society.
Finally, Emile Durkheim a strong interest in the practical implications of social scientific knowledge.
II. The contribution of Max Weber to the development of Sociology:
(i) Max Weber was one of the leading German social thinkers of his time. Despite long periods of physical and mental ill-health, he has left a rich legacy of sociological writing.
(ii) Max Weber wrote extensively on several subjects but focussed on developing an sociology of social action and of power and domination.
(iii) Another major concern of Max Weber was the process of rationalisation in modern society and the relationship of the various religions of the world with this process.
(iv) He argued that the over all objective of the social sciences was to develop an ‘interpretative understanding of social action’. These sciences were thus very different from the natural sciences which aimed to discover the objective ‘law of nature’ governing the physical world.
(v) Since the central concern of the social sciences was with social action and since human actions necessarily involved subjective meanings, the methods of enquiry of social science also had to be different from the methods of natural sciences.
(vi) Max Weber was among the first to the special and complex type of ‘objectivity’ that the social sciences had to cultivate. The social world was founded on subjective human meanings, values, feelings, prejudices, ideals and so on.
(vii) The ideal type was used by Max Weber to analyse the relationship between the ethics of ‘world religions’ and the rationalisation of the social world in different civilisations.
(viii) Max Weber again used the ideal type to illustrate the three types of authority that he defined as traditional, charismatic and rational-legal.
Q.2. Describe in your own words the development of sociology in India.
Ans. Development of Sociology in India: The development of sociology in our country (i.e. India) can be divided into following three phases:
(i) Firstly, from 1789 to 1900, the foundation of sociology was laid down in India.
(ii) Secondly, sociology became a profession, a university subject during this phase from 1901 to 1950.
(iii) Thirdly, the third phase of development of sociology in India, began after her’s independence. This phase was marked by programmes of planned development, increased interaction of Indian Sociologists with their counterparts, availability of money for research and intensification of research and publication.
A brief description of above referred three stages is given below:
1. Foundation of Sociology in India: During the course of exercising their rule in India, the British officials realized that for smooth administration, it was important that they acquired knowledge of Indian society and culture. Information was also required about affluent families and their customs, which could be used for revenue collection. If local societies were administrated according to their laws and customs, it was thought, there would be peace and harmony. Hence, their laws and customs needed to be recorded meticulously in detail. This prompted the origin of sociology in India.
2. Professionalization of Sociology in India: During the initial years of this phase, the British officials continued with the bulk of their investigations into the lifestyles, customs and laws of people. A number of volumes on castes and tribes were prepared under the supervision of these scholars, such as Crooke, Sherring, Thurston, Russell, Hiralal, Ibbetson and others. Each volume consisted of a short description of each of these societies, its population and spread. The possibility of tribes transforming into castes was also pointed out in some of these volumes. In his People of India (1916), Sir Herbert Risley was one of the first ones to take note of the tribe-caste continuum.
3. Development of Sociology since India’s Independence: After India’s independence, Indian sociologists and anthropologists came in contact with their counterparts in the United States of America. Earlier, their academic contact was mainly with the scholars of the United Kingdom. Several collaborative projects of Indian and American sociologists began. Publications and researches increased. More teaching and research positions were created, as sociology and social anthropology became university subjects and more and more of their departments were opened up. In other words, there was a sharp increase in the popularity of sociology and social anthropology.
Q.3. Write the major contributions of S.C. Roy. (M.Imp.)
Ans. The major contributions of S.C. Roy in the field of Sociology: Sarat Chandra Roy (1871-1942) important was another accidental anthropologist and pioneer of the discipline in India. After completing his education Sarat decided to go to Ranchi (Jharkhand) in 1898 to take up a job as an English teacher in Christan missionery school. He remained for the next forty four years at Ranchi. He gave up his school job and began practising law at the Ranchi eventually being appointed as official interpreter in the court.
Roy became deeply interested in tribal society as a by-product of his professional need to interpret tribal customs and laws to the court. During his entire career, Roy published more than one hundred articles in leading Indian and British academic journals in addition to his famous monographs on the Orain, the Mundas and the Kharias.
Sarat Chandra Roy soon became very popular among anthropologists in India and Britain and was recognised as an authority on Chhotanagpur. He found the journal Man in India in 1922, the earliest journal of its kind in India that is still published.
Q.4. What were the major contributions of sociology after India’s independence? (M. Imp.)
Ans. The major contributions of sociology after India’s independence:
(a) After India’s independence the sociologists were engaged actively in planning and development programmes. The Census Organisation, the Central Social Welfare Board, the Office of the Scheduled Castes and Tribes, the Tribal Research Institutes, and institutions associated with the Community Development Programmes, needed the expertise sociologists and anthropologists,
(b) During this phase, a number of village studies were undertaken. Several village monographs resulted from them, some of which are still of tremendous value, such as McKim Marriott’s edited volume titled Village India (1955), S.C. Dube’s study of village in Hyderabad, called Indian Village (1956) and M. N. Srinivas’s edited volume, India’s Village (1956). Some other important works were accomplished after India’s independence. Kathleen Gough studied a Tanjore village and described the changes that had come in it because of British rule.
(c) In addition, several Indian communities, both tribes and castes, were also intensively studied. Srinivas re-worked the data he had collected on the Coorgs in the 1940s for his later book published in 1952 that proposed the concept of upward mobility in caste system (ie. sanskritization). Louis Dumont, a French sociologist, studied the Paramalai Kallar of Tamil Nadu and discussed their social organisation, especially their marriage system. TN. Madan studied the nature of kinship and family of Kashmiri Pundits. Sachchidananda carried out intensive studies among certain tribal groups of Bihar and Jharkhand.
(d) Besides contributing to empirical studies of Indian society, Indian sociologists have also arrived at important theoretical insights from their works. We noted earlier that from his study, Srinivas gave the concept of sanskritization. Another work of theoretical significance was of Dumont, who is his book called Homo Hierarchicus, discussed the basic principles and characteristics of caste system. He also started one of the leading journals in sociology, Contributions to Indian Sociology. Several Indian sociologists examined in theoretical terms as the interaction of the Indian tradition with modernity eg. The analysis is by Singh in his book on Modernization of Indian Tradition.
(e) In the last decade, there has been an increase in the studies dealing with the issues. of ethnicity, gender, violence, development, stratification, etc. With all this, Indian sociology and anthropology have been able to make a mark at the international level.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Mention one cause of the emergence and event, provided background for its emergence.
Ans. 1. Human beings have always been interested in knowing and thinking about their society.
2. The subject of sociology came into existence after the French Revolution.
Q.2. Who and when the term sociology was coined?
Ans. Auguste Comte coined the term sociology in 1838. Comte proposed a scientific study of society because the knowledge thus gathered could be used for social betterment.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Write the names of two scholars-one from France and another from Germany who made a major contribution to the development of sociology. After which event this discipline had developed tremendous?
Ans. Emile Durkheim and Max Weber made a major contribution to the development of sociology in France and Germany respectively.
As a discipline, sociology has developed tremendously after the Second World War.
Q.2. Mention at least three important facts concerning the development of sociology in India. (M. Imp.)
Ans. 1. In India, the development of sociology can be traced to the colonial rule. With the founding of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, sociological researches received a tremendous boost.
2. The first full-fledged department of sociology was started in Bombay University in 1919.
3. Village studies began in India after the independence especially because of the collaboration of Indian sociologists with their American counterparts. After independence, the number of sociology departments has increased in India and so is the increase in research projects.
Q.3. Discuss some facts concerning Lucknow, as an important centre of sociology and anthropology. (Imp.)
Ans. After 1920, Lucknow also emerged as an important centre of sociology and anthropology. In 1921, a combined department of economics and sociology was created under the leadership of Radhakamal Mukherjee. A year later, D.P. Mukherji joined the department, and in 1928, D.N. Majumdar was appointed to teach ‘primitive economy’. Because of these three scholars, Lucknow emerged as one of the prime places of teaching and research in sociology and anthropology. However, an independent department of sociology came into existence in 1951, followed by a joint department of sociology and social work.