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NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Social Structure And Social System
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Social Structure And Social System
MODULE 1: SOCIOLOGY – BASIC CONCEPTS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.1
Q.1. Tick (✓) mark the correct answer:
1. Social structure refers to
(a) Statuses and roles.
(b) A value.
(c) The way the unit of a group or a society relate to one another.
Ans. (c) The way the units of a group or a society relate to one another.
2. Which of the following is a unit of the social structure?
(a) A status.
(b) An organisation.
(c) All of the above.
Ans. (c) all of the above.
3. An organisation means
(a) coordination of social relationships.
(b) coordination of parts.
(c) certain positions.
Ans. (a) coordination of social relationships.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.2
Q.1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the brackets:
(a) Role means …………….. behaviour. (assigned, expected, definite).
(b) The position an individual has in society is called …………… . (rank, position, status).
(c) The members of a social structure are interrelated for pursuing a common ……………… . (goal, rule, law)
(d) The stability of social structure depends upon the effectiveness of ………………. system. (sanction, positive, negative)
(e) Being an elderly women, an orphan child, a doctor, a lawyer is a ……………….. . (status, need, value)
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.3
Q.1. Choose the correct answers:
1. The main constituent of social structure is
(c) Human beings.
Ans. (c) Human beings.
2. A status is a
(a) Socially defined position in a group or society.
(b) Socially defined behaviour expected of someone.
(c) All of the above.
Ans. (a) Socially defined position in a group or society.
3. A role is
(a) The behaviour expected of someone with a given status in a group or society.
(b) Socially defined position in a group or society.
(c) None of the above.
Ans. (a) The behaviour expected of someone with a given status in a group or society.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.4
State whether the following statements are True or False:
1. Social system is not based on interaction.
2. Social system is in related to cultural system.
3. There is a functional relationship between the part of a social system.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.5
State whether the following statements are True or False:
1. Norms are the standards for determining what is right and wrong.
2. Rank is not equivalent to standing.
3. Power refers to the capacity to control and deprive others.
4. Sanction can only be negative.
5. Statuses are ascribed and achieved.
Q.1. Describe in your own words what do you mean by social structure and social organisation.
Ans. Social structure is the way a society is organised into expected relationship. It is concerned with the principle forms of social organisation, that is types of groups, associations and institutions.
Chief characteristics of social structure are normative system, positive system, system of sanctions and system of anticipated responses. The bases of social structure are the need to pursue a goal, preparedness to accept one’s role and status, norms and mores.
Social organization: The descriptive term used for social structure is social organisation which refers to the arrangement of parts of persons.
Social organisations such as family, a political party, religious organisation, economic organisation are found in every society. All these organisation, members organize according to their social positions or statuses, to perform various functions.
Q.2. Define the following concepts with examples (word limit 100 to 150):
Ans. (a) Role: It is the expected behaviour of a person (or an individual) who holds a certain status.
(b) Status: It is a position occupied by an individual in a group or in a society.
(c) Norm: It is shared standards of desirable behaviour which people follow while interacting with others.
(d) Sanction: It is a duly permission obtained from legal authority or well-established social organization norms etc. It may be negative as well as positive.
(e) Power: It is the ability of individuals or groups to achieve their ends (goals or objectives) in spite of opposition from others.
Q.3. Explain the chief characteristics of social system. (M. Imp.)
Ans. Main characteristics of Social System are:
(i) Social system is based on the interaction of plurality of individuals.
(ii) The interaction must carry a meaning.
(iii) Social system is a unity. Here, various parts like institutions, customs, traditions, procedures and laws are arranged in an integrated manner.
(iv) There exists a functional relationship between parts of the social system. To understand this functional relationship, we can take example of a bicycle, which is made up of handle, two wheels, free wheels, free wheel and chain, etc. But to move, the cycle wheels must be related to the free wheel and chain etc. It means parts are interdependent and interactive.
(v) Social system is related with cultural system. Culture determines the nature of inter-relation and interaction.
(vi) Social system has an environmental aspect. It is related to a particular age, a definite territory and particular society. Environment has an impact over whole activities of the life.
Q.4. State the elements of social system. (M. Imp.)
Ans. Elements of Social System: Followings are the main elements of social system:
1. Belief and Knowledge: Any proposition about any aspect of the universe that is accepted as true may be called a belief. Belief is the basis for social action.
2. Sentiment: Sentiments are closely related to beliefs. A sentiment denotes ‘what we feel’ about the world. Sentiments are the products of the experience and cultural training. Sentiment may be of various types, i.e., intellectual, ethical and religious, etc. Sentiments also have a background of historical and cultural legacy.
3. Goal or objective: Objectives create social system. Members along with relevant social structures of a social system expect to accomplish a particular end or objective through appropriate interaction. The human needs, goals and ends determine the nature of social system. Primarily, human beings are united to accomplish the basic needs of life, e.g., food, clothing and shelter.
4. Norms: Norms are the standards for determining what is right and wrong, appropriate and inappropriate in social relationships. Every social system possesses norms, which the individuals are obliged to observe.
5. Status and Role: In a social system each individual has a status. The status may be ascribed or achieved. The ascribed status is one, which is conferred upon an individual by the group or society. It may be based on sex, age and caste, etc. The achieved status is one that an individual achieves by his own efforts. For instance, an individual may be of lower caste origin but may acquire a high status through a good economic achievements.
6. Ranks: Rank here is equivalent to ‘standing’. It includes the importance an individual has for the system in which a rank is accorded to him. An individual is given a rank on the basis of two factors. One is the evaluation made of him and the other is his act in accordance with the norms of the system. For instance, a business corporate executive enjoys higher rank than a teacher in modern society, whereas in ancient times the teacher often enjoyed higher rank than even a king.
7. Power: Most of us often feel that even though we vote and send the politicians to power positions, we actually do not mater to them in case of many decisions. Power refers to the capacity to control and deprive others. State and policing systems are the expressions of such power.
8. Sanction: It refers to the rewards and penalties given out by the members of social system as device for inducting conformity to its norms and ends. Sanction can be positive or negative. The negative sanction is, for instance, the death penalty whereas positive sanction is any rehabilitative effort for the convict.
9. Facility: A facility has been defined as a means used to attain ends within the system. It is necessary that the individuals in a social system should be provided with adequate facilities to enable them to perform their roles efficiently. Facilities should not only exist but should also be realized. The goals or objectives of a social system are realized only through the utilization of facilities.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. What is status?
Ans. Status: It is a position occupied by an individual in a group or in society.
Q.2. What is socialization?
Ans. Socialization: This is a process by which a child (or a human infant) learns the norms, rules and skills of the society.
Q.3. What is role-set? Describe the role-set of a doctor in a hospital.
Ans. I. Role-Set: The array of roles associated with a particular status is called role- set.
II. The Role-Set of a doctor in a hospital: For instance, a doctor in a hospital is interacting with other doctors of the hospital, with nurses and other employees of the hospital, with the patients, and with the doctors of other hospitals and even with the doctors of other country for interaction.
Q.4. What do you mean by role-strain and role-conflict? Give suitable examples.
Ans. 1. Meaning sometimes people find it difficult to meet the demands associated with a role. When conflicting demands are made into a role, an individual performing the role may undergo role-strain.
2. Example: For instance, a Sarpanch of the village may be asked to take a decision in a case where his family members are vis-à-vis other villagers involved.
The demands from these two sets (or groups) of people are in direct conflict. Sometimes, performance of one-role may be in conflict with another role. This situation is called as role-conflict.
Q.5. Explain the meaning and role of social institutions.
Ans. Social Institutions:
1. Social systems work on the basis of widely accepted cluster of norms and values called social institution developed by the society to meet the basic requirements of a society.
2. Institutions (such as family) are the ideas and customs, around which life in a society is organized.
3. Members of the social system are usually supposed to follow the norms, but there may be some differences.
Q.6. What do you understand by accommodation?
Ans. Accommodation: This is a process of social interaction among individuals in a society by which they try to adjust themselves.
Q.7. Explain the term ‘Co-operation’.
Ans. Co-operation: It is a social process where individuals interact among themselves and work together. In this process, they make effort to adjust among themselves.
Q.8. Write four significant traits or aspects for social interactions.
Ans. The following four traits or aspects are may significant for social interaction:
(a) Social contact are a prerequisite of interaction.
(b) Communication is the medium of interactions.
(c) The different ways or modes in which social forces operate influence the kinds of interaction. and
(d) Social interaction always occurs within a social structure.
Q.9. What is meant by Master Status?
Ans. Master status is a status that dominates over other statuses of an individual.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Write a short note on “A Social System”.
Ans. Social System:
1. A social system is an orderly and systematic arrangement of social interaction.
2. Characteristics of social system are based on the interaction of plurality of individuals.
3. Social system is a unity. Its various parts like institutions, customs, traditions, procedures and laws are arranged in an integrated manner.
4. Social system is related with cultural system and it has an environmental aspect too.
5. The elements of social system are belief and knowledge, sentiment, goal or objective, norm, status and role, rank, power, sanction and facility.
6. The structure of social system is based on the interaction of plurality of individuals.
7. Social system relates to the functional aspect of social structure.
Q.2. Make clear the meaning of the both:
(a) Macro-level of social structure.
(b) Micro-level of social structure.
Ans. (a) Macro-level of Social Structure: The large social pattern that shapes an entire society is called Macro Level of Social Structure.
(b) Micro-level of Social Structure: The pattern of personal (or an individual) interaction that defines everyday life, is called micro-level social structure.
Q.3. Discuss briefly the meaning of social structure and also define it in your own words.
Ans. I. Meaning of Social Structure: Social structure allows performing most of the activities of everyday life with some efficiency. It spares us from hundreds the human perform of all those little jobs that would otherwise have to be performed before every small act, and it also gives groups and societies a degree of stability and continuity. Social structure is basically the social reality, which influences our daily life.
II. Definition of Social Structure: Social structure refers to the way the units of a group or a society relate to one another. According to some sociologists, social structure is the term applied to the particular arrangement of the inter-related institutions, agencies and social patterns as well as the statuses and roles which each person assumes in the groups. It may be said that social structure refers to the overall composition of a society. Its units are groups, institutions, associations and organizations. As we know all men and women relate themselves to each other and they establish a structural form; it may be a group, an association or an organization.