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NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 3 Sociology: Its Relationship With Other Social Sciences
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Sociology: Its Relationship With Other Social Sciences
MODULE 1: SOCIOLOGY – BASIC CONCEPTS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 3.1
Q.1. Find out if the following statements are ‘True’ or ‘False’. Write ‘T’ after the true statement and ‘F’ after the false statement.
1. History studies the past societies.
2. Sociology is an observational science.
3. Political science conducts a study of all institutions of human society.
4. A study of mid-term elections will be conducted by historians.
5. Sociologists collects their data from archives.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 3.2
Answer the following questions in one. sentence only:
Q.1. What is meant by social work?
Ans. Social work is concerned with the ‘technology of application’ of ideas for improving human lot.
Q.2. What is the meaning of economics?
Ans. Economics studies the aspects of production, distribution and exchange and consumption in society.
Q.3. Which types of societies do economists study?
Ans. Economics concentrates upon the study of economic systems in modern, complex and urban-industrial societies.
Q.4. Which methods do sociologists use for their study?
Ans. The sociological approach is inductive.
Q.5. What is applied sociology?
Ans. The branch of sociology that takes up the areas of application is called applied sociology.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 3.3
Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word or words:
1. Psychology is the study of …………….. facts.
2. Status refers to the …………… that an individual occupies.
Ans. social position.
3. The subjects that studies both biological and socio-cultural aspects of human beings is known as ……………. .
4. In the beginning, social anthropology studied ……………. societies.
5. …………….. has made a significant contribution to survey methodology.
Q.1. How is sociology different from history and what is the similarity between the two subject? Write in your own words.
Ans. Similarities between Sociology and History:
(i) Society is common between sociology and history.
(ii) Both are social science disciplines.
(iii) Sociology and history both are concerned with human activities and events.
(iv) History is concerned primarily with the record of the past. The historians want to describe, as accurately as possible, what actually happened to man during a given time. The sociologists use, to all intents and purposes the same record to the past.
(v) Apart from philosophy today the historian is considerably depending upon sociological concepts and narrations. We convey that modern historiography and modern sociology have been influenced by each other.
Differences between Sociology and History:
(i) Sociology is concerned with the present and in some extent with future, History studies the past.
(ii) Sociologist borrow from historical sources and sociological analysis and vice-versa. The Sociologists use, to all intents and purposes, the same record of the past.
(iii) Generally, we may say that history occupies it self with the differences in similar events and sociology deals with the similarities in different events.
(iv) Historians generally restrict themselves to the study of the past, from the more recent to the remotest one. Sociologist shows interest in the contemporary scene or the recent past.
(v) In short we may say that, sociology and history may be distinguished. The former generalized about society, the latter is a particularizing or individualizing discipline. Sociology in an analytical discipline whereas history is a descriptive discipline.
(vi) Sociology emphasizers on the regular and the recurrent whereas history investigates the unique and the individual.
(vii) An event that has occurred only once in the human past is of no sociological importance unless it can be related to a pattern of events that repeats itself generation after generation, historical period after historical period and human group after human group. If the past is concerned of as a continuous cloth unrolling through the centuries, history is interested in the individual threads and strands that made it up: sociology analysis the patterns that human society exhibits.
Q.2. Describe how political science is different from Sociology and state the similarity.
Ans. Sociology and Political Science:
(a) Sociology is devoted to the study of all aspects of society, where as conventional political science restricted it self mainly to the study of power as embodied in formal organisation.
(b) Sociology stresses the interrelationships between sets of institutions including government, where as political science tends to turn attention towards the processes within the government.
(c) Sociology long shared similar interests of research with political science. Sociologists like Max Weber worked in what can be termed as political sociology. The focus of political sociology has been increasingly on the actual study of political behaviour.
Q.3. How is sociological work different from the work of an economists? Discuss.
Ans. Difference between social work and the work of an economist:
(a) The sociological approach looks at economic behaviour in a broader context of social norms, values, practices and interest. The corporate sectors managers are aware of this. The large investment in the advertisement industry is directly linked to the need to re-shape lifestyles and consumption patterns.
(b) The define scope of economics has helped in facilating its development as a highly focused, coherent discipline, Sociologists often entry every the economists for the precision of their technology and the exactness of their measures. And the ability to translate the results of their theoretical work into practical suggestion having measure implication for public policy. Yet economists predictive ability often suffer precisely because of their neglect of individual behaviour, cultural norms and institutional resistance which sociologists study.
(c) Sociology unlike economics usually does not provide technical solutions. But it encourages a questioning and critical perspective. This helps questioning of basic assumptions. Recent trends have been seen a resurgence of economic sociology perhaps because of both this wider and critical perspective of sociology.
(d) Sociology provides clearer or more adequate understanding of a social situation than existed before. This can be either on the level of factual knowledge, or through gaining an improved group of why something is happening (in other words, by means of theoretical understanding).
Q.4. What do you mean by ‘pure science’ and ‘applied science’? Explain it.
Ans. I. Meaning of Pure Science: Chase of unmixed science is called pure science. It is a clear compartment of science. It has the quality of being pure. It is essentially concern with human interest or for human welfare. Mainly it is concerned with acquiring knowledge about the working of society or of a branch of knowledge or discipline and leads a philosophical dialogue on it.
II. Meaning of Applied Science: Putting knowledge to use is called applied science. For example, social work is concerned with the ‘technology of application’ of ideas for improving human lot. The relation between sociology and social work is like the relation between a ‘pure science’ (just acquiring knowledge) as ‘applied science’ (is just application of knowledge in practical field or life).
Social work is concerned with the ‘technology of application’ of ideas for improving human lot.
In the early twentieth century, it was realized that social scientists were mainly concerned with acquiring (or getting) knowledge about working of society and leading a philosophical dialogue on it.
The question of the ideal society also figured in some countries of the western world, but which technology should be adopted for building it up was not given a serious thought.
Knowledge is of no importance unless it is put to use. Social work is a product of this background. It charts out the suitable knowledge for human upliftment.
Q.5. What is the distinction sociology and anthropology? (V. Imp.)
Ans. Distinction between Sociology and Anthropology:
(a) Anthropology is most countries in corporates archaeology, physical anthropology, cultural history, many branches of linguistics and the study of all aspects of life in “Simple Societies”. Our concern here is with social anthropology and cultural anthropology for it is that which is close to the study of sociology.
(b) The anthropologists of the past documented the details of simple societies apparently in a neutral scientific fashion. In practice they were constantly comparing those societies with the model of the western modern societies as a benchmark.
(c) Other changes have also redefined the nature sociology and social anthropology. Modernity as we saw led to a process whereby the smallest village was impacted by global processes. The most obvious example is colonialism. The most remote village of India under British colonialism saw its land laws and administration change, its revenue extraction alter, its manufacturing industries collapse.
(d) Today the distinction between a simple. society and a complex one itself needs major rethinking. India itself is a complex mix of tradition and modernity of the village and the city, of caste and tribe, of class and community. Villages nestle right in the heart of the capital city of Delhi. Call centres serve European and American clients from different towns of the country.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. What was thought of the Sociologists of the 19th and early 20th century about sociology?
Ans. Sociologists of the nineteenth and early twentieth century thought that sociology was a ‘natural science of society’.
Q.2. Mention any two essential difference between history and sociology?
Ans. The essential difference between history and sociology is that the former is concerned with present day societies. While history does not concern itself with contemporary societies, sociology certainly extends its frontiers to include past societies in its scope.
Q.3. What is the primarily concern of political science? Make clear briefly.
Ans. Political science, as its name implies, is primarily concerned with political institutions, i.e. those that deal with the distribution of power in a society and the maintenance of law and order. An important area in political science is of political philosophy, pertaining to the emergence of state and the need for order.
Q.4. What was the approach to understand the world in ancient time?
Ans. People in ancient times made effort to understand the world around them. Their explanations were not based only on observations, but were mixed with magic and superstition as well.
Q.5. What is Sociology? Write names of its methods of study also.
Ans. Sociology, is the study of society and human behaviour.
Sociologists apply two scientific methods namely,
(i) Observation. and
(ii) Statistical enumeration.
Q.6. What is the useful way to compare different sciences and to understand sociology in a better way?
Ans. A useful way of comparing different sciences and of obtaining a better understanding of sociology is to divide them into natural and social sciences.
Q.7. Write the names of Natural Sciences.
Ans. Natural sciences are divided into several branches. Popular names of these branches are:
(iii) Biology etc.
Q.8. Write the names of popular social sciences.
Ans. Popular social science are:
(iv) Political Science.
Q.9. Write the names of four main branches of Anthropology.
Ans. (i) Physical Anthropology.
(ii) Social Anthropology.
(iii) Cultural Anthropology.
(iv) Applied Anthropology.
Q.10. Write the names of both branches of Economics and four main branches of Sociology.
(i) Micro Economics.
(ii) Macro Economics.
(i) Rural Sociology.
(ii) Urban Sociology.
(iii) Political Sociology.
(iv) Industrial Sociology.
Q.11. Define the following briefly:
Ans: History: History is the written record of human progress. This is concerned primarily with the record of the past. History seeks to establish the science in which events occurred.
Ans: Sociology: It is the scientific study of social structure, social relating to production, consumption, exchange and distribution.
Ans: Economics: It investigates all the phenomena relating to production, consumption, exchange and distribution.
4. Political Science.
Ans. Political Science: This studies political institutions such as state, government, political parties, executive, legislative and judicial institutions.