NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 13 Family

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NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 13 Family, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 13 Family and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 13 Family Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Sociology Notes Paper 331.

NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 13 Family

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 13 Family, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Political Science Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.


Chapter: 13



Q. I. Objective Questions:

1. Write “True’ or ‘False’ against the statement: 

Family members always share a common residence.

Ans. False.

2. Fill in the blank:

Family members are related to each other by blood ………….. or adoption.

Ans. marriage. 

3. Mark the correct answer:

Family is the most important group in a person’s life because:

(i) The members have selfless devotion for each other.

(ii) The members are bound by blood, marriage or adoption to each other. 

(iii) Family provides economic and social support to its members.

(iv) Family plays the most important role in the socialization of an individual.

(v) All the above.

Ans. (v) All the above.

Q.II. Family is called ‘the nursery of human nature’. Why? Explain in one sentence. (M. Imp.)

Ans. Family is called the nursery of human nature because the manner in which the children are brought up in a family decide to a treat extent, the way they react to different situation. In other words, the family lays down the foundation of human personality. 


Q.1. Write ‘True’ or ‘False’ against the statement:

Early care and education of the child is the function of family.

Ans. True. 

Q.2. Fill in the blanks:

Providing emotional support in tense situations is the ………….. function of family.

Ans. psychological.

Q.3. Mark the correct answer: 

The function of family is:

(i) To provide physical protection. 

(ii) To provide economic support.

(iii) To socialize a child in the norms and values of society.

(iv) To provide economic support.

(v) All the above.

Ans. (v) All the above. 

Q.4. Identify any single economic function of family.

Ans. Single economic function of family is that makes provision to look after the economic needs of its members.


Q.1. Write ‘True’ or ‘False’ against the statement:

In the lineal joint family, a person lives with his one son and grandson.

Ans. True.

Q.2. Fill in the blank:

Mother is the supreme authority in the ………………. family.

Ans. Matriarchal.

Q.3. Mark the correct answer:

The type of family in which the newly wedded couple lives with the husband’s maternal uncle is known as:

(a) Matrilocal family.

(b) Patrilocal family.

(c) Avunculocal family.

(d) Neo-local family.

Ans. (c) Avunculocal family.

Q.4. What is a joint family? Write in one sentence.

Ans. Joint Family: Family consisting of members of three or more than three generations staying together under a common roof and with common kitchen.


Q.1. Write True’ or False’ against the statement:

Common residence is an essential characteristic of joint family.

Ans. False.

Q.2. Fill in the blank:

In the joint family, blood relationship gets preference over ……………. relationship.

Ans. marital.

Q.3. Mark the correct answer:

In the joint family:

(i) One has to follow the dictates of head of the family.

(ii) Status of members in the joint family is not determined by money earned or achievement in any profession.

(iii) Everyone shares joys and sorrows of other members of the family.

(iv) All the above. 

Ans. (iv) All the above.

Q.4. Write two characteristics of joint family in India.(M. Imp.)

Ans. 1. In India, joint family has an authoritarian structure.

2. It has familistic organization.


Q.1. Write True’ or ‘False’ against the statement:

Early care and education of the child is the essential function of family.

Ans. True.

Q.2. Fill in the blank:

The modern family has become ……………….. centric.

Ans. child.

Q.3. Mark the correct answer: 

A family:

(i) Provides the best environment for procreation and upbringing of children.

(ii) Provides selfless and life-long support of every kind to its members.

(iii) Gives social identity to its members.

(iv) Cares for its members in sickness, misfortune and old age.

(v) All the above.

Ans. (v) All the above.

Q.4. How the status of women has changed in the family? Write in one sentence.

Ans. The status of women has changed in the family due to spread of education, awareness, democracy and reduction of the family size (from joint to nuclear family).


Q.1. What do you mean by family? Describe in your own words. (V. Imp.)

Ans. Meaning of Family: Family is the basic unit of society. In its minimal form, family may consist of husband, wife and children. In its widest sense, it refers to all relatives of several generation connected to each other by blood, marriage or adoption.

A family unit takes birth the living together of a legally wedded couple under one roof. The married couple not only shares common residence but also co-operates with each other physically, emotionally, socially and economically. They fulfill each other’s varied needs and aspirations. The birth of children give completeness to the family. It further strengthens the affection between husband and wife and their respective families.

In simple words, family is a socially defined set of relationships between at least two persons who are related by birth, marriage or adoption.

Q.2. Explain the role of in personality formation. (M. Imp.)

Ans. Family is an important social group for an individual and society. Every individual in this world is a part of one family or the other. All of us are born, brought up and our character and personality’s traits are developed in a family.

Family is often the focal point, the centre around which our whole life revolves, we begin our day with the family members, go out to perform our professional and social duties and come back to be with the family members.

Family plays a vital role in the formation. of human society by binding men, women and their children in a stable relationship with each other. It is called the nursery of human nature because the manner in which the children are brought up in a family decides to a great extent, the way they react to different situations, in other word, the family lays down the foundation of human personality.

Family is also called the transfer point of culture. As we are aware, culture is man-made part of environment. A child becomes familiar with every aspect culture in the family itself. When he becomes an adult, he imparts this knowledge about social norms, customs as well as material aspect of life to the your generation. 

Q.3. State the general characteristics of family.

Ans. The general characteristics of family:

1. Mating relationship: A family is born when a man and woman get married according to prescribed social norms. Marriage allows husband and wife to enter into socially approved sexual union to satisfy their sex-instinct. Satisfaction of this basic instinct is imperative for a healthy living.

2. Common habitation: Family members usually share a common residence in which husband, wife, their children and other relatives live together.

3. Reckoning of descent: Family is basically a bilateral grouping made up of husband, wife and relatives on both sides. But, the children inherit either father’s name and property or mother’s name and property, depending on the local tradition.

4. Economic system: Every family makes provision to look after the economic needs of its members. Usually, the elders of the family take up jobs and earn money to meet economic requirements of all the family members. Provision is also made for looking after the old and the sick members of the family.

Q.4. What are the economic functions of family? (M. Imp.)

Ans. The economic functions of family are: Family fulfills the economic needs of its members to a certain extent by providing them food, clothing and shelter till they become self-reliant. The head of the family takes up a job, business or occupation and meets the requirement of other members out of his earning. Sometimes, the family members collectively pursue a family occupation such as family business, cultivation, cattle rearing, cottage industry, etc. This collective effort provides employment as well as income to all members of the family.

The other economic function is that the family provides successors, of the assets and liabilities of family, in the form of children. 

Q.5. What are the characteristics of joint family in India? (V. Imp.)

Ans. The characteristics of joint family in India: In brief, the joint family in India is marked by the following characteristics:

1. It has an authoritarian structure: The power to take decisions regarding matters related to family and individuals lie in the hands of head of the family. His/her decision is taken as final and everyone has to abide by it.

2. It has familistic organization: It implies that the interest of the family as a whole is more important than the individual’s interest. One has to sacrifice one’s personal wishes, likes and dislikes, these go against family norms or rules or traditions.

3. Status of members is determined by their age and relationship: The status of a person higher in age is higher in a joint family than a person lower in age. 

Similarly, a person is respected more because of the higher status in terms of martial or blood ties. A husband, an uncle, an aunt and the in-laws are respected because of higher status in a relationship. A person’s ability and achievement are not given importance in determining status.

4. Blood relationship get preference over marital relationship: It implies that the husband-wife relationship is subordinate to father-son or brother-brother relationship.

5. The family functions on the ideal of joint responsibility: Everyone shares the problems of other members of the family and tries to help in whatever manner one can.

6. All members get equal attention: The family income is pooled together and needs of the individual members are met according to their needs and not according their contribution. However, the description of the joint family along with its characteristics as given above constitutes an ideal picture. In reality, therefore, joint family functions is less than ideal, manner having lost many of its ideal characteristics, at least partly.

Q.6. The family is facing the problem of instability. How?

Ans. The family is facing the problem of instability: Due to following charges and factors are creating problems and threat for the stability of family: 

1. Sometimes, conflict between older and younger generation is seen in the family because of their inability to understand each other’s point of view. As a result, the level of discipline and devotion towards each other has declined.

2. Some parents do not take care children adequately because of their jobs, busy schedule or desire of freedom from responsibilities of children.

3. Boys and girls do not find it necessary to marry the mates selected by their parents. They choose their marital partners on the basis of mutual attraction, carrier and occupational similarity, financial benefits and so on. Class, caste and compatibility between family values are no longer very important.

4. Kinship-ties are not very strong in today’s family set-up. The family members have become more self-centred and self-reliant. They do not spare much time, energy and money for their relatives or kinsmen.

5. The families have become child-centric. Parents spend most of their time, energy and money on their children. Due to break-up of joint family, they no longer have to compulsorily contribute towards the welfare of brothers and sisters. The entire of life of the parents revolves around their children and all their future plans are made keeping their children in mind.

6. Family is facing the problems of instability in western societies. Separation and increasing rate of due to mutual disagreement has become common. This has put maximum emotional and social strain on children of divorced parents. They don’t have anyone to support them in their formative years. Those parents who take care of children after divorce also face severe strain on their time and energies.



Q.1. Write in short the meaning of the following terms/ words:

(i) Family.

(ii) Nuclear family.

(iii) Joint family. (M. Imp.)

Ans. (i) Family: It is a universal institution and has existed throughout the history of society. Family, basically, is made up of individuals having kinship, relationship among themselves.

(ii) Nuclear Family: Family consisting husband, wife and unmarried children. 

(iii) Joint Family: Family consisting of members of three or more than three generations staying together under a common roof and with a common kitchen.

Q.2. Write the meaning of the following terms/words:

(i) Patrilocal.

(ii) Matrilined.

(iii) Patrilineal.

(iv) Matrilocal. 

(v) Gotra. 

Ans. (i) Patrilocal: After the marriage bride goes and stays with the groom’s family. 

(ii) Matrilineal: Tracing of lineage from the female side, is called matrilineal.

(iii) Patrilineal: Tracing of lineage from the male side. 

(iv) Matrilocal: After the marriage bride and groom stay with the bride’s family.

(b) Gotra: In Hindus, gotra refers to a group of families which trace their origin from a common mythical ancestor.

Q.3. Mention two characteristics of extended family? (M.Imp.)

Ans. Characteristics of Extended Family:

(a) If other closely related kins than those who form the nuclear or joint family are added to the nuclear family, it takes the form of an extended family.

(b) The extended families can be their those to which the nucleus kins or those in which the nucleus is surrounded by distant consanguineous kins or those in which kinship universe is extended still further such as parents-in-law living in their son-in-law’s family.

Q.4. Write in short any two important characteristics of patrilineal family.

Ans. Characteristics of Patrilineal Family:

(a) Most of the families world over are of kind. In the patrilineal and patrilocal family, ancestry is traced to the paternal line. Unlike matrilocal families, the ancestors in the patrilocal families are men.

(b) The patrilocal family is also patriarchal. The authority lies with the male members and the final authority rests with the eldest male member of the family.

Q.5. Write two characteristics of matrilineal family. 

Ans. Characteristics of Matrilineal Family:

(a) This is the family in which the husband resides with his wife in her mother’s house. The ancestry in his family is traced to the maternal line.

(b) The matrilineal family is also matriarchal in nature because the authority in this family lies with the mother. She is the head of the family. This is not a common form of The Nayars of South India live in matrilocal families.

Q.6. Brief answer each of the following points in about 20-30 words:

(a) Characteristics of polygynous family. 

(b) Characteristics of polyandrous family.

Ans. (a) Characteristics of the Polygynous Family: When a man marries more than one wife, the family organisation with is formed a polygynous type. Most of the tribal families are polygynous.

(b) Characteristics of the Polyandrous Family: This is a family in which a woman has more than one husband. This is made of the fraternal polyandry where several brothers marry one wife.


Q.1. What are the two types of family based on number or size? Discuss division briefly. 

Ans. There are two broad types of family, the (or small family) and the joint family (or the large family).

The joint families are further subdivided into two types:

(a) Patrilineal and Patrilocal family.

(b) Matrilineal and Matrilocal family.

A third type of family is the extended family which is not a very common form. 

Q.2. Which two types of family which are generally found in tribal societies?

Ans. Two other types of family are there, which are generally found in tribal societies.

(a) The polygynous family. and

(b) The polyandrous family.

The former of the two (i.e.the polygynous) is based upon one man having more than one wife, whereas the latter (i.e. polyandrous) is based upon one woman married to more than one husband at the same time.

Q.3. Mention three characteristics of Nuclear family. 

Ans. Characteristics of Nuclear Family:

(a) The nuclear family is a group of persons consisting of husband, wife and their unmarried children. This is a basic grouping of mates and their offsprings.

(b) The kinship relationships in nuclear family are: husband-wife, father-son, father- daughter, mother-son, mother-daughter, brother-brother, sister-sister and brother-sister. This is the smallest composite family unit.

(c) There may also be supplemented nuclear family units with a widowed parent of the husband or his younger brothers and sisters as residents.

Q.4. Write three characteristics of joint family.

Ans. Characteristics of Joint Family: 

(a) Joint family consists of more than one primary family. All the members are blood relations (except wife and husband) or close kins and generally share common residence, kitchen and property.

(b) Joint family usually have three or more generations. But two or more colateral families living together in a common residence and sharing a common kitchen and property also form a joint family.

(c) Joint family is the hallmark of traditional Indian society having very deep roots in history. Joint family in its traditional shape is found in our country even today, though it is running very fast. 

Q.5. Discuss ‘Family as a social institutions.’ (V. Imp.)

Ans. Family as social institution:

(i) No other social institution appears more universal and unchanging as we find family as a social institution. According to the functionalists the family performs important tasks.

(ii) Which contribute to society’s basic needs and helps perpetuate social order. The functionalist perspective argues that modern industrial societies function best if woman look the family and men earn the family livelihood.

(iii) However, practically we find that the nuclear family is seen as the unit best equipped to handle the demands of industrial society by the functionalists. In such a family one adult can work outside the home while the second adult cares for the home and children.

(iv) In practical terms, this specialisation of roles within the nuclear family involves the husband adopting the ‘Instrumental’ role as bleadustmer and the wife assuming the ‘affective’, emotional role in domestic setting.This vision is questionable not just because it is gender unfeest but because empirical studies across cultures and history show that it is untrue. In modern society, in certain field of economy (such as the garment export), women form a large part of the labour force such a separation also suggests that men are necessarily the heads of households.

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