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NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 15 Economy, Polity And Religion
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Economy, Polity And Religion
MODULE 2: SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
INTEXT QUESTIONS 15.1
Q.1. Answer the following in one sentence:
(i) Give the definitation of non-governing elite.
Ans. They excel in their respective works but do not govern.
(ii) Name the basic institutions of human society.
Ans. Kinship economy, political and religion.
(iii) What is meant by the term power?
Ans. Economy is concerned with production exchange and distribution and consumption of goods and services.
(iv) What are the constituents of religion?
Ans. Power is the ability to take decision for oneself and others and see that others abide by the decisions taken on their behalf.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 15.2
Fill in the blanks:
1. Societies that lack the use of money are known as …………… societies.
2. …………. societies have a large number of jobs and specializations.
3. Hoe is associated with ……………. cultivation.
4. Pastoralists are generally found in …………… and ………….. area.
Ans. Semi arid and Desert.
5. Tribes of Baigas in India are ……………… .
Ans. Hunting and food gathering.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 15.3
Q.1. Write ‘T’ after the statement that is true and ‘F’ for the statement that is false:
1. Food collection came before food production.
2. Family is a unit of production in complex societies.
3. Reciprocity is between persons who are equally placed in their society.
4. Markets are universally found.
5. Barter is an exchange in the absence of money.
6. Markets in simple societies are economic entities.
7. Development is only economic in nature.
8. Communities should not be involved in development programmes.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 15.4
Q. Match the column ‘A’ with ‘B’:
|(a) Political System||(i) They do not have government or legal system.|
|(b) Stateless societies||(ii) maintains law and order and supervises the functions of society.|
|(c) Charisma||(iii) when people look for extra ordinary qualities which may not be natural.|
|(a) Political System||(ii) maintains law and order and supervises the functions of society.|
|(b) Stateless societies||(i) They do not have government or legal system.|
|(c) Charisma||(iii) when people look for extra ordinary qualities which may not be natural.|
INTEXT QUESTIONS 15.5
Q.1. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:
1. Sect is a ……………….. group.
2. The oldest of all great religions is ………………. .
3. The Hos of Jharkhand call the idea of the impersonal power by their local term ……………….. .
4. Sacred things are ……………… and ………………. .
Ans. Set apart, Forbidden.
5. Confucianism is an example of ……………… religion.
Q.1. What do you mean by economy? Describe the characteristics of economic organization.
Ans. I. Meaning of Economy:
1. Economy is concerned with production, exchange, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
2. If human beings have to survive, they have to eat. They are not like other animals that are parasites on nature on nature and consume its raw products. Human beings not only produce what they need for their sustenance, but also transform the raw products of nature by cooking and processing them.
3. One of the remarkable characteristics of human beings is that they transform the raw into the cooked. Fire making and the use of fire are associated principally with human species.
4. None of the activities associated with economy are carried out in isolation. In their system of production, human beings enter into relations with other human beings.
5. Distribution and exchange also assume the existence of relations between people. The nature of these relations conditions the quality of distribution and exchange, and the quality of the things (goods and services) exchanged.
6. Human relations and social values also determine the patterns of consumption.
7. In other words, in a sociological study of economy, one is concerned with the social rélations that are built in the systems of production, distribution and exchange, and consumption.
II. Characteristics of Economic Organization:
(a) So far we have learnt that economy or the economic system consists of those institutions that provide for the production, distribution and exchange and consumption of goods and services. In this section, our concern will be with the characteristics of economic organization.
(b) Generally when we think of economy we think of goods and services involving money. A teacher teaches in a school for a month, at the end of which he receives a certain amount of money in the form of currency notes and coins. He spends the latter for buying goods and services, for instance, food, haircuts, travel tickets, etc. that he need for his survival.
(c) However we should note that there are societies where the concept of money as we understand does not exist. By money, we mean a standardized unit of exchange, by which we can buy anything we need, whether a commodity or service. Societies like tribal and peasant, which do not have the concept of money, are called non- monetized (or unmonetized).
(d) Division of labour is found in economic organization.
(e) Modern economy is called industrial economy.
(f) There are several types of economic system depending upon the ways in which people acquire their livelihood. Broadly speaking we may divide economic system into-two types, those concerned with food collection, and secondly those concerning with food production.
Q.2. Explain political system.
Ans. 1. Political system or polity is concerned with the distribution of power in a society. In each social relationship, there are some who exercise power over others. Even in a group of two individuals (what is technically called a dyad), one of them exercises power over the other. Thus, no human relationship is without the exercise of power. For sociologists, power is universal characteristic of human society.
2. Political system is that system of society which defines the roles that human beings occupy in order to maintain law and order on the one hand, and supervise the functioning of the society on the other One of the functions of political system is to maintain the legal order, and this, in fact, is its main function in simple societies. In complex societies, along with this function, its other function, is to distribute resource for for social and economic development.
3. An important component of political system is the state Here, we should note that there have been societies in the world which did not have the institution of state. Hunting and food-gathering societies, several types of pastoral and agricultural societies do not have a king, chief or lord who is the center of power. These societies do not have a centralized authority. Neither do they have governments or legal systems. Nor is there a division of society into classes of rich and poor, or privileged and unprivileged. These societies are known as stateless.
4. They are different from those societies that have a centralized authority, government, legal system and classes. They are the state societies. The prominent examples of stateless societies are the Australian Aborigines, the Yako and Ibo of Nigeria, the Masai and Nandi of East Africa, the Nuer of Sudan. Among the simple societies an outstanding example of the political state comes from the Zulu of South Africa.
5. Absence of political state does not imply that these societies lack an orderly existence. They certainly are not in a state of anarchy They have other institutions that try to maintain order in society.
6. For instance, the elders may resolve the conflicts between individuals. Or, there may be persons occupying religious offices who are approached for their intervention in conflicting situations. The Nuer, for example, have a religious chiefs, known as leopard-skin chiefs, because they wear leopard skin and are approached in matters of homicide, that is, a man accidentally killing another man. In other man words, no society is free from conflicts and violations on rules of behaviour. And, each society, some or the other ways resolves these conflicts.
Q.3. Distinguish between power and authority.(V. Imp.)
Ans. Distinguish between power and authority:
Power is different from authority. What distinguishes these two is legitimacy i.e. whether the exercise of power is legitimate or warranted under the existing and acceptable set of rules in society or not. The meaning of legitimacy is ‘rightfulness’, whether the ‘individual has been given the right to exercise power. Force is exercise by both-the robber and the policeman-but the force that the latter exercises is legitimate, and not the one which the former exercises. The state has been defined as an institution that has the power to exercise ‘legitimate violence’ over a territory. When the exercise of power is legitimate, it is termed authority. The concept of power itself does not tell us whether it is legitimate or not, because here, the emphasis is on the exercise of force and its compliance. In the concept of authority, the emphasis is on legitimacy. So, legitimate power may be defined as authority.
Q.4. Name two functions and dysfunctions of religion.
Ans. Functions and dysfunctions of Religion:
1. Religions is functional because it binds people in a moral community. It integrates the society. It produces the feeling of we-ness, one-ness and solidarity. Later, sociologists also pointed out that religion is an important instrument of social control. It provides a blueprint of the society, for example, the case of caste system. Hinduism is the basis of caste System.
2. Although this theory is still respected, sociologists also say that it is applicable to those societies that have a single religion. It is here that religion can produce social integration. But, it may not be the case in societies having two or more different types of religion. In these societies, religion may also create conflicts between the believers of different religions. Thus, in these cases, religion may also become dysfunctional.
3. Today, religion performs as it has always performed, an important function of providing explanations of various phenomena to the individual. Religion provides a set of ready-made answers to various ‘why’ questions, that is, those questions that science in its existing state of knowledge cannot satisfactorily answer. Why religion is universal can be answered by saying that religion provides answers to various questions that individuals raise about their lives, and various accidental and unanticipated situations they face.
4. But we should not conclude by saying that religion is functional to all societies at all points of time. Rather, it is most vulnerable to politicization. Various communities have manipulated it to suppress other communities and to spread hatred between them. Religion has also been used for seeking political support.
Q.5. Describe the changes in religion in your own words.
Ans. 1. Religions is functional because it binds people in a moral community. It integrates the society. It produces the feeling of we-ness, one-ness and solidarity. Later, sociologists also pointed out that religion is an important instrument of social control. It provides a blueprint of the society, for example, the case of caste system. Hinduism is the basis of caste system.
2. Although this theory is still respected, sociologists also say that it is applicable to those societies that have a single religion. It is here that religion can produce social integration. But, it may not be the case in societies having two or more types of religion. In these societies, religion may also create conflicts between the believers of different religions. Thus, in these cases, religion may also become dysfunctional.
Changes in Religion:
1. There has been a reduction in the ritual performed to mark different phases of life, like birth, marriage and death, etc.
2. The hold of religion on social life has become weak. This process is called secularization and is occuring worldwide.
3. Religion has lost many of its collective functions. Therefore, to say that it contributes to social integration may not be generally correct.
4. Today, a large number of societies have religious pluralism, which means a co-existence of different religions.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Write on Marxian view of labour.
Ans. Marxian View of Labour: In Marxian literature, labour in the capitalist system of production is without any qualitative attributes. According to Karl Marx, ‘labour which creates exchange-value and therefore commodities, is specifically ‘social labour’ and ‘the division of labour is the economic expression of the social character of labour.”
Q.2. What does mixed economy mean?
Ans. Meaning of the mixed economy: The mixed economy is a combination of both the capitalist and the socialist economies. In this system, some industries and business enterprises are owned by the state and others are left free to the private ownership of the people.
The enterprises owned by the state are known as public sector enterprises and those which are owned by individual entrepreneurs or group of individuals or shareholders is collectively called the private sector. There are some firms, which are jointly owned by the state and private shareholders. This is called a joint sector. After independence, our country has been moving on the path of the system of mixed economy.
Q.3. What do you mean by contract?
Ans. An agreement between two or more persons is generally called a contract. The partners of a contract promise to behave in a certain specified way for a certain specified period of time in future towards achieving certain specific ends.
Q.4. What do you understand by the distributive system?
Ans. The distributive system means an allocation of rights and duties in respect of the fruits of technology and labour.
Q.5. What is economy?
Ans. The economy refers to the system of production and distribution.
Q.6. What do you understand by the economic institutions?
Define in simple words the economic institutions.
Ans. Social institutions concerned with the management, production and distribution of human resources are referred to as economic institutions.
Q.7. Write the names of two most fundamental economic institutions.
Ans. 1. Property. and
Q.8. Write four main characteristics of property.
Ans. 1. The property can be transferred.
2. It is not necessary that the owner of the property is also the user of it.
3. The property is a concrete external object.
4. The property incurs certain amount of power to the owner.
Q.9. Write four characteristics of the contractual relationship.
Ans. 1. The contractual relationship are impersonal.
2. The contractual relationship are limited the formal terms and conditions.
3. The contractual relationships are limited in terms of time, place and reference.
4. Contractual relations are rational.
Q.10. Which countries are not truely democratic and way?
Ans. There are certain countries which claim to be democratic but their system of government is authoritarian. The will of people is not honoured as is done in democratic governments.
Causes: In these countries, those ruling the state deliberately use their power and position to realize their own interests ignoring the interests of the common people.
Example: 1. Myanmar (previously called Burma). and
2. Singapore are examples of such countries.
Q.11. Write names of two countries having constitutional monarchies.
Ans. 1. Britain (UK or England). and
Q.12. Write the names of those three countries having absolute monarchy.
Ans. 1. Saudi Arabia.
2. Jordan. and
Q.13. Write the names of those two countries which claim to be democratic but their system of government is authoritarian.
Ans. (i) Myanmar (Burma).
Q.14. Write the names of the democratic countries of the world.
Ans. (i) India.
(iii) United Kingdom.
Q.15. Write names of two countries having the parliamentary system and one country having the presidential system.
Ans. 1. India. and
2. Britain (both are having parliamentary democratic system.
3. The United States of America (USA) is having the presidential democratic system.
Q.16. What do you understand by the term ‘Authority’?
Ans. Authority: Word meaning of authority is power. Authority has legal power to exercise influence. Authority is established by political rule within a community or society. Max Weber defines the term authority in this way:
“Authority is an exercise of influence which is voluntarily accepted by the persons on whom it is exercised.”
Q.17. Write three bases of legitimation of power.
Ans. 1. The traditional authority.
2. The charismatic authority. and
3. The legal rational authority.
Q.18. Define Cult.
Ans. Cult: In simple way we can define the term cult in the following way:
“Cult is the belief and practices of a particular group of religion to a god or gods. A small flexible group whose religion is characterised by its individualism and esoteric belief. The Kabir Panth, Sai Baba, Jai Gurudev are some of the present cults in our country.
Q.19. Write two main basis characteristic of religion.
Ans. 1. Religion is belief in the supernatural power.
2. Every religion has its special place of worship and has the concept of heaven and hell and sacred and profane.
Q.20. Write one common thing among magic, religion and science.
Ans. The common thing among magic, religion and science is the quest of understanding the reality of nature and the attempt to exercise a control over it.
Q.21. Write one point of the character and nature of the scientist which is not alike with the belief of science.
Ans. 1. Scientists are not atheists necessarily.
2. They may also be believers, worshippers and of course sometimes dogmatic also.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Discuss the nature of exchange system at different stages of economy.
Ans. The nature of Exchange System at Different Stages of Economy:
1. A system of exchange has always existed at every stage of economy. In the primitive societies, people changed things of their utility. It was called the barter system. There was no money nor was there any measure to determine the value of thing.
2. The modern economy is essentially a market economy in which exchange is a prime institution. People now produce for the market and every commodity has a value in terms of money and the currency is the medium of exchange.
3. Even agriculture is no longer a mere subsistence economy as it was during the pre-industrial period. The agricultural production has value in market terms and the farmer produces surpluses for the market with a profit motive.
4. The money is not only in the form of metal coins as in the earlier times but paper money has become a more prominent of money (or currency). The coins are used only as small changes.
5. At a very advanced stage of industrial economy where we have already reached now, even money has become a secondary means of exchange. Most of business at a higher level is transacted on credit. The economy is so advanced and transactions have become so huge and complex that no amount of hard money would be able to meet the demand. Moreover, the exchange on the basis of credit in very safe, quick and convenient.
Q.2. What are the characteristics of modern state?
Ans. The characteristics of modern state:
1. According to Max Weber, state is the most fundamental institutions of a political system. The state means the institution which exercises the monopoly over the legitimate use of power within a given territory.
2. State can use force to implement its policies. It has sovereignty.
3. There are sub-institutions of the state which are involved in the exercise of political power.
4. The executive, the judiciary and the legislature are the instruments which co- operate in the distribution of power.
5. The essential elements of the state are:
(i) a population.
(ii) a defined territory.
(iii) a government. and
6. All modern societies are nation-states. Giddens writes that ‘nation-states’ are the states in which the great mass of population are citizens who regard themselves as a part of single nation.
Q.3. Discuss the organization of religion in society.
Ans. Organisation of Religions in society:
1. There are different forms of communities of believers such us the church, the rest and the cult. Church is a well-established organisation. It has a bureaucratic structure with a hierarchy of office bearers from among the believers.
The Catholic and the Protestant are such Churches. No other religion is so highly organised.
2. Hinduism has a organized body except that some vital temples of the country have the body of persons entrusted with the responsibility of management of temples. Temples too have priests and other employees to look after the maintenance of the temples and carry out routine religious functions. The priests are usually selected only conventionally.
3. Max Weber and Ernst Troeltsch have made an important distinction between churches and sects. As compared to church sects are smaller in size. They are also not so well-organised. They usually originate as a remonstration against the old established religion. It is initiated by a few and gradually others join it.
4. The sect rejects the tenets of the conventional religion and attempts to convince people about the weaknesses of the traditional religion. It motivates the people to follow the teachings of the sect. Arya Samaj, Neo- Buddhism and Ram Krishna Mission are the examples of sects of Hinduism.
5. Cult is yet another religious. organisation. It is formed around ideology and thinking of a particular individual leader. The like-minded people follow him. A person may follow a cult principle and adhere to any other The cult is still smaller and has a shorter life than sect. Examples of cults in the West as given by Giddens are the groups of believers in spiritualism, astrology or transcendental meditation. The Kabir Panth, Sai Baba, Jai Gurudev are some of the present in India.
Q.4. What do you mean by sect?
1. In short we can say that a religious group having some specific rituals etc. is called sect.
2. As compared to church sect is smaller in size. It generally originates as a remonstration against the old established religion. It is initiated by a few and gradually others join it.
3. The sect rejects the tenets of the conventional religion and attempts to convince people about the weaknesses of the traditional religion.
4. It motivates people to follow the teaching of the sect.
Examples: Arya Samaj, Neo-Buddhism and Ram Krishan Mission are the examples of sects of Hinduism.
Q.5. Write the names of the prominent religions of the world as well as the name of those religions prevail out of them in India.
Ans. The prominent religions of the world are:
In India mainly the followers of Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Neo-Buddhism, Jainism and Zoroastrianism are found.
Q.6. Write a short note on the three religions originated in the Middle East.
Ans. 1. Judaism.
2. Christianity. and
3. Islam originate in the Middle East.
These religions are monotheistic and earlier two religions are messianic. They believe in single-God and His Prophets.
Judaism is the religion of the Jews and the oldest of the three religions.
Christianity emerged after Judaism an spread as a prominent religion. Jesus, himself a Jew, was initiator of Christianity.
Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in the world, today. It originated from the teachings of the prophet Mohammed in the Seventh Century.
Q.7. Write a short note on Intensive agriculture. (M. Imp.)
Ans. Intensive agriculture:
1. Intensive agriculture is also know as settled agriculture.
2. It is a system of food production where the fields are regularly cultivated.
3. Cultivators raise the fertility of soil by adding organic materials to it, such as dung from animals and human.
4. Fields are irrigated. Besides the monsoon, the agriculturalists use irrigation from streams and rivers.
5. Technology in intensive agriculture is far more complex. Ploughs are used rather than digging-sticks and hoes.
6. Where mechanization has set in, tractors are used, and mechanical power has replaced the animals traction power.
Intensive agriculture has also led to fairly settled, large village communities. This has implications for the nature of interpersonal relations in an agricultural community. The horticulturalists, by comparison, live in small groups and shift from one place to another depending upon the piece of land they clear for cultivation.