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NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 22 Communalism, Caste And Reservations
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Communalism, Caste And Reservations
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS AND THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 22.1
1. The growth of Communalism in India can be traced to
(a) divided and rule of British.
(b) Freedom Struggle.
Ans. Dividend and rule of British.
2. The chief characteristics of communalism are ……….. and ………….
Ans. Intolerance and extremism.
3. The nexus between political class and ………….. has often fanned communal violence.
4. Economic problems of common people are solved through communalism. (True / False)
INTEXT QUESTIONS 22.2
Q. Fill in the blanks:
1. …………. are at the base of India’s social structure.
2. In the caste system, castes are ………… arranged.
3. The caste system also known as …………. was based on the ………… division of labour.
Ans. Varna-Vyavastha, social.
4. In the caste system.the choice of occupation is not ………… but is determined on the basis of one’s …………
Ans. Open, caste.
Q.1. What is Communalism?
Ans. Communalism is a negation of secularism. It is the tendency to look at administrative, political and economic problems from the point of view of a particular religion for the achievement of the objectives which are not religious but essentially political and economic. It makes religion an instrument of power politics. India is a land of multiple faiths and religions leading generally to violence and hatred among the people. Those who fan this religious violence do not consider religion as a moral order but use it as a means and weapon to pursue their political ambitions.
Communalism essentially leads to violence as it is based on mutual religious hatred. This phenomenon leads to distinction between a communal organisation and a religious organisation.
Q.2. Briefly discuss the role of caste in Indian Society.
Ans. Role of caste in Indian Society:
1. The political process of any society is influenced by the nature of the society. To understand the nature of the society we study its social structure.
2. India’s social structure is best understood in terms of caste system wherein the caste is hierarchically arranged. Over the years, the caste system (or Varna Vyavastha वर्ण व्यवस्था) developed into an elaborate system to maintain socio-economic inequalities in the society.
3. Individuals born in and belonging to the lower castes and the out-castes suffered from many disadvantages and were oppressed and exploited by the upper castes.
4. The conditions of the outcasts (Dalits) was particularly pathetic. The practice of untouchability epitomised their conditions.
5. In the typical Varna-Vyavastha there are four Varnas: Brahmin (the priest and the intellectual class), Kshatriya (warrior and ruling class), Vaiyyas (the producing class-peasants and artisans) and Shudre (those who performed menial and ‘polluting’ jobs.)
6. We must note here that the ‘Varna Vyavastha’ provides more the theory than the actuality of the caste. In reality, there are not four but thousands of castes and jatis (जातियाँ) in which the caste system is organised. It is possible, nevertheless, to classify most of the jatis in accordance with the Varna distinctions, although it is easier to be done at the extreme ends of the social spectrum than at the middle ranges.
7. Varna system is related to jati in that it gives a holistic framework to which any jati will fit.
8. Caste is localized group having a traditional association with an occupation. The principle of birth forms the exclusive basis of membership in a caste group. The choice of occupation is not open but is determined on the basis of one’s birth in a caste.
Q.3. Discuss about the Reservation Policy in India.
Ans. I. The Indian Constitution and Reservation Policy: The Constitution provides for three kinds of reservations for the SCs and STs. There are:
1. reservation of jobs in government services and in public sector.
2. reservation in educational institutions. and
3. reservations in legislative representations.
II. Different Articles and Reservation Policy:
(a) Under Article 16(A), 320 (4) and 333, 15% and 7% of the jobs are reserved at all levels in the public services for the SCs and STs respectively. This reservation however, must as far as it may be, consistent with the maintenance of efficiency of the administration (Article 35).
(b) Article 15(4) deals with the reservation of seats in the educational institutions. Accordingly, the Union and the State governments have reserved 20% of the seats in all educational institutions maintained by public money.
(c) Articles 330 and 332 provide for reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha and StateLegislative Assemblies.
Reservations for the OBCs: In a few states provision for the reservation of jobs at all levels in the public services and seats in educational institutions, have also be made for OBCs.
The Union Government, however, took a very long time in deciding to provide reservation to the OBCs in the central services. The Commission known as Mandal Commission submitted its report in 1982. It identified 3943 castes as OBC and recommended 27% reservation in government and semi-government jobs and admission to educational institution for OBCs.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Explain the general meaning of communalism in by common people and trace its origin.
Ans. I. Meaning: Communalism means conflict between two communities.It is the politics of conflict between the communities, whose religions are different. In India there are people belonging to different religions. When some people try to promote the interests of their own religious community in a way that adversely affects the interests of those who do not hold the same religious beliefs. A communalist considers his own religion to be superior and other religions inferior.
II. Trace of origin of Communalism: The rise of communalism can be traced in British Rule. Hindu-Muslim unity was destroyed by the British after the first war of Independence in 1857.
Q.2. What is majority and minority communalism?
Ans. Majority communalism means the Hindu Communalism. The roots of majority (Hindu) communalism can be traced back to the late 19th century when some religious leaders while playing a prominent role in national awakening adopted a purely Hindu way of glorifying the nation.The minority communalism is Muslim communalism in India. The rose of minority (Muslim) communalism can be traced in colonial policy of the British, the Aligar movement and the impact of religious revivalism.
Q.3. Mention six essentially features of communalism.
Ans. Communalism essentially has following main features:
1. It is based on orthodoxy.
2. It is exclusive in outlook, a communalist considers his/her own religion to be superior to other religion.
3. It is based on intolerance.
4. It also propagates intense dislikes of other religions.
5. It stands for elimination of other religions and its values.
6. Its adopts extremist tactics including use of violence against other people.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Choose the correct answer:
Q.1. The growth of communalism in India can be traced to:
(a) ‘divide and rule’ of British.
(b) Freedom struggle.
(c) India’s secular ideals.
(d) None of the above.
Ans. (a) ‘divide and rule’ of British.
Q.2. Name the Commission that recommended reservations to OBCs.
(a) Ramanand Prasad Committee.
(b) Radha Krishanan Commission.
(c) Mandal Commission.
(d) Sarkaria Commission.
Ans. (c) Mandal Commission.
Q.3. Put True or False against the following sentences or statement:
(a) Economic problems of common people are solved through communalism. (False / True)
(b) The Constitution of India does not identify other backward classes. (True / False)
(c) Mandal Commission recommended reservation to OBCs. (True / False)
(d) Communalism is a broad minded feeling or ideology. (False / True)