NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Preamble And The Salient Features Of The Constitution Of India

NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Preamble And The Salient Features Of The Constitution Of India, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Preamble And The Salient Features Of The Constitution Of India and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Preamble And The Salient Features Of The Constitution Of India Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Political Science Notes Paper 317.

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 5 Preamble And The Salient Features Of The Constitution Of India

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Preamble And The Salient Features Of The Constitution Of India, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Political Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Preamble And The Salient Features Of The Constitution Of India

Chapter: 5




Q. Tick out (✔) the correct response: 

1. The Constitution of a country provides the basis for :

(a) punishment of criminals. 

(b) governance of the country. 

(c) relationship between the citizens. 

(d) trade relations with other countries. 

Ans. (b) governance of the country.

2. The Constituent Assembly of India was composed of the members:

(a) nominated by the British Government.

(b) nominated by political parties.

(c) elected by Provincial Assemblies nominees of the Princely States.

(d) elected by people.

Ans. (c) elected by Provincial Assemblies and nominees of the Princely States.

3. The Constitution of India wa drafted by the:

(a) Advisory Committee.

(b) Secretariat of the Assembly.

(c) President of the Assembly. 

(d) Drafting Committee.

Ans. (d) Drafting Committee.


1. Secularism in India means …………… (rejection of religion / respect for all the religions / respect for one, s own religion). 

Ans. Respect for all the religions.

2. Socialism in India means …………… ownership of all industries / state’s major role in economy / equal distribution of wealth)

Ans. State’s major role in economy.

3. India became a Republic on …………. (15 August, 1947, 26 November 1949 / 26 January 1950).

Ans. January 26, 1950.


Q. Fill in the blanks:

1. Justice means giving people what they …………. (are entitled to / want) 

Ans. Are entitled to.

2. The Constitution of India guarantees ………….

(liberty of thought and expression / freedom from want) 

Ans. Liberty of thought and expression.


Q. Fill in the blanks: 

(a) A Constitution is a body of …………. (rules, basic laws, principles) 

Ans. Basic laws.

(b) The Constitution of India was enforced on ………. (August 15, 1947, November 26, 1949, January 26, 1950) 

Ans. January 26, 1950.

(c) The original Indian Constitution consisted of …………. Articles. (495, 395, 295) 

Ans. 395.

(d) The Constitution of India was adopted by …………. (constitution assembly, committee, state assembly)

Ans. Constitution assembly.


Q. Fill in the blanks:

(a) India is a ………….. State. (unitary, federal, quasi-federal) 

Ans. Quasi-federal.

(b) In a parliamentary democracy, the ………….. enjoys the real power. (people, president, cabinet). 

Ans. Cabinet.

(c) The fundamental rights are ………… (absolute, justiciable, unlimited). 

Ans. Justiciable.

(d) The fundamental duties were included by the …………. amendment. (42nd, 44th, 46th)

Ans. 42nd Amendment.


Q. Fill in the blanks:

(a) The United State of America has system of …………. citizenship. (single, double, temporary) 

Ans. Double.

(b) Single citizenship means ………… (a person is a citizen of his own state only; a person is a citizen of the whole country; a person is a citizen of his native place).

Ans. A person is a citizen of the whole country.

(c) The minimum age of voting in India is ……….. (18 years, 21 years, 25 years). 

Ans. 18 years.

(d) Emergency provisions given in the Constitution can be imposed …………. (in normal times, abnormal times, any time).

Ans. In abnormal times.


Q. 1. What is the importance of the Preamble to the Constitution?


How is the Preamble of the Indian Constitution its soul?

Ans. The Preamble is like an introduction or preface of our Constitution though it is not a part of the contents but it provides the guiding light of the Constitution.

The Preamble, in brief, explains the objectives of the Constitution in two ways: one, about the structure of the governance and the other, about the ideals to be achieved in independent India. It is because of this, the Preamble is considered to be the soul of the Constitution. The objectives, which are down in the Preamble, are:

(i) Description of Indian State as Sovereign, Socialist, Secular,Democratic Republic.

(ii) Provision to all the citizens of India.

(a) Justice social, economic and political. 

(b) Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.

(c) Equality of status and opportunity.

(d) Fraternity assuring dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the nation.

Q. 2. Explain the meaning and relevance of secularism in Indian context.

Ans. Secularism: In the context of India, it is said that ‘India is neither religious, nor irreligious nor anti-religious.’ Now what does this imply? It implies that in India there will be no ‘State’ religion the ‘State’ will not support any particular religion out of public fund. This has two implications, (a) every individual is free to believe in, and practice, any religion he/she belongs to, and, (b) State will not discriminate against any individual or group on the basis of religion.

Q. 3. What is the philosophy of the Indian Constitution?

Ans. The philosophy of the Indian Constitution:

1. The word meaning of the ‘philosophy’ is I love of wisdom or science which deals with ultimate reality or the causes and principles of things.

2. The framers of the Constitution were concerned about the aspirations of the people, integrity and unity of the country and establishment of a democratic society. Their main aim was to give India a “Constitution” which will fulfill the cherished ideas and ideals of the people of India.

3. The ‘Preamble’ (to the Constitution) provides the guidelines of the Constitution. It explains the objectives of the Constitution in two ways One about the structure of the government and the other about the ideals to be achieved in independent India. It describes the Indian state as Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic. The Indian Constitution makes the following provisions for all the citiz of India, i.e. :

(a) Justice social, economic and political. 

(b) Liberty of thought, expression, belief faith and worship.

(c) Equality of status and opportunity. (to jobs and to have progress in life)

(d) Fraternity assuring dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the nation. 

Q. 4. Explain the significance of a written Constitution.

Ans. A Written Constitution:

1. The Indian Constitution is mainly a written constitution. A written constitution is framed at a given time and comes into force or is adopted on a fixed date as a document.

2. Framing of the constitution took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days. It was adopted on 26th November, 1949 and enforced on January 26, 1950.

3. As against this, an unwritten Constitution evolves over a period of time. It is based on conventions, customs and statutes that grow over the centuries. The British Constitution is an example of unwritten constitution.

4. It is not easy to avoide a written constitution by the government or a political party in power. The strength of a written constitution is that it is clear and definite. When the constitution is in the form of a document, people have a clear understanding about the powers of the government.

5. In a written constitution, rights of the people are secured.

6. In a federal state the written constitution mentions clearly the division of power between the union and the states. The weakness of a written constitution is that it fails to adopt itself to changing conditions very easily.

Q. 5. Distinguish between a rigid and a flexible constitution.

Ans. On the basis of the amending procedure, a constitution may be rigid or flexible. The Indian Constitution is neither rigid nor flexible but has the advantages of both. A i constitution is one which cannot be menued easily. It can’t be amended by simpleBmajority. It requires a special procedure where a special majority is needed for amendment. The Constitution of the United States of America is a rigid constitution. On the contrary, a flexible constitution is one which can be amended easily by simple majority. The Constitution of England is flexible. The rigid constitution is stable whereas a flexible constitution is unstable. A rigid constitution may not be changed according to the changing conditions whereas the flexible constitution may be changed easily according to the circumstances.

Q. 6. Explain briefly India as a federal state.

Ans. India is a quasi-federal state. According to the Constitution India has been declared federal with unitary bias. The Constitution of India is written as well as rigid. In a federation the constitution is generally rigid and supreme. The supremacy of the constitution has been maintained in India too. Distribution of powers has been given in the 7th schedule, three lists of the subjects Union List, State List and Concurrent List, Union List contains 97 subjects, State List contains 66 subjects and the Concurrent List which contains 47 subjects, upon which Centre and States can make laws. Independently judiciary in India which decades both disputed between Centre and States. Bicameral system of legislature is another important feature of a federal system. The Indian Parliament also consists of two chambers-Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.

But the Indian Constitution becomes unitary in times of emergency. In normal time also Indian Constitution has some features of unitary form of government. More power is given to the Union Government as regards to administrative, legislative, financial and judicial matters are concerned. Certain unitary features such as a flexibility of the Constitution, division of power favouring the Central Government: Appointment of Heads of State and Governments by the Central Government, single unified judiciary etc. further substantiates the unitary nature at our federalism where the states autonomy is limited. Therefore, this quasi-federal set up is a unique feature of the Indian Constitution.

Q. 7. Write a brief notes on: 

(a) Independence of Judiciary.

(b) Integrated judicial system single integrated judicial system.

(c) Universal Adult Franchise.

Ans. (a) Independence of Judiciary: Indian judiciary is also independent. The Indian judiciary is free from the influence of the executive and the legislature. The judges are appointed on the basis of their qualifications and cannot be removed easily.

(b) Integrated Judicial system and Single integrated judicial system: India has a single integrated judicial system. The Supreme Court and the High Courts form a single integrated judicial structure with jurisdiction over all laws. It means jurisdiction over the union, state, civil, criminal or constitutional laws. Unlike the judicial system of the United States, we do not have separate federal and state courts. The entire judiciary is one hierarchy of courts. The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed from among the experienced judges of High Courts. Similarly a good number of judges of the High Courts are appointed from among the experienced judges of the lower courts. There is a provision of transfer of the judges from one High Courts to another within the country. The High Courts have right of supervision on the lower courts. Similarly the Supreme Court may give any direction to the High Courts. Supreme Court stands at the apex of the Indian judicial system. Thus Indian judiciary is fully integrated.
(c) Universal Adult Franchise: Indian democracy functions on the basis of ‘one person one vote’. Every citizen of India who is 18 years of age or above is entitled to vote in the elections irrespective of caste, sex, race, religion or status. The Indian Constitution establishes political equality in India through the method of University adult franchise.


I. Choose the correct answers:

Q. 1. India became independent at midnight of:

(a) 14-15 August, 1947. 

(b) 25-26 January, 1950. 

(c) 01-02 September, 1948. 

(d) none of the above.

Ans. (a) 14-15 August, 1947. 

Q. 2. India became a Republic on: 

(a) 26 January, 1950 

(b) 26 November, 1949 

(c) 14 August, 1947 

(d) none of the above 

Ans.(a) 26 January, 1950. 

Q. 3. Secularism in our country (i.e.India) means:

(a) respect for one’s own religion. 

(b) rejection of all religion.

(c) rejection of major religions of the country.

(d) respect for all the religions. 

Ans. (d) respect for all the religions. 

Q. 4. Socialism in India means: 

(a) states’ major role in economy.

(b) state ownership of all small scale industries.

(c) equal distribution of wealth among men and women.

(d) private sector is allowed to play maximum role in country’s economy.

Ans. (a) states’ major role in economy. 

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Indian Constitution was framed by a ………..

Ans. Constituent Assembly.

2. …………. was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly.

Ans. Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

3. …………. form of Government has been established in India.

Ans. Parliamentary.

4. There are six ………… mentioned in the Indian Constitution.

Ans. Fundamental Rights.

III. Marks the sign of (✔) against those statements which are true and the signs of (×) against those Statements which are false:

1. The Indian Constitution was implemented from November 26, 1949.

Ans. (×).

2. The Indian Constitution is federal in form but unitary in spirit.

Ans. (✔).

3. “The Directive Principles of State Policy” is one of the unique features of the Indian Constitution.

Ans. (✔).

4. The Constitution of India is a flexible Constitution.

Ans. (×).

5. The citizens of India have been given eight Fundamental Rights.

Ans. (×).

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