NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Distinction Between Society

NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Distinction Between Society, Nation, State And Government, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Distinction Between Society, Nation, State And Government and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Distinction Between Society, Nation, State And Government Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Political Science Notes Paper 317.

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 3 Distinction Between Society, Nation, State And Government

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Distinction Between Society, Nation, State And Government, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Political Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Distinction Between Society, Nation, State And Government

Chapter: 3




Q. Fill in the blanks:

1. Polis, for the ancient Greeks, was both the city and the ………….

Ans. State.

2. Society, in terms of origin, is ………. to the state.

Ans. Prior.

3. Society being instinctive is a ………… organization, the state, being mechanical is an …………. organization.

Ans. Natural,artificial.

4. The state exists to act as a ………… of society.

Ans. Means.

5. The society provides an …………. to the means of the state.

Ans. End.

6 The area of society is ………… co-operation; of the state is ………… action.

Ans. Voluntary, mechanical. 


Q. Choose the correct answer from the words given in the brackets:

  1. The features of an association are (a) organized group of people (b) ……….. interests, and (c) joint efforts. (common, particular)

Ans. Particular.

2. The membership of the state is …………… (voluntary, compulsory) 

Ans. Compulsory.

3. Family, as an association, is ………… to the state. (prior, later) 

Ans. Prior.

4. The other associations do not possess ………….. the state does. (sovereignty, population, fixed territory)

Ans. Sovereignty.


Q.Answer the following questions. Give one word only:

1. Which organ of the government makes laws? 

Ans. Legislature.

2. Which organs of the government enforces laws?

Ans. Executive.

3. With whom does sovereignty lie?

Ans. State.

4. Through which organ does the state express its will?

Ans. Government.

5. If the state is an abstraction, what is its concrete form?

Ans. Government.


Q. Fill in the blanks:

1. Before the World War I, Austria – Hungary was a state, but not a …………..

Ans. Nation.

2. When a nation attains statehood, it becomes a ………..

Ans. Nation-state.

3. …………bind the people together in a state.

Ans. Laws, 

4. While the state is a ……….. Concept, the nation is a cultural entity.

Ans. Political.

5. ………….people form a culturally social group.

Ans. Homogeneous.


Q. 1. Define the terms:

(a) Nation.

(b) Government.

(c) Association.

Ans. (a) Definition of Nation: A nation is a culturally homogeneous social group.

(b) Definition of Government: The government is one of the states. It is the agency through which laws are made, enforced and those who violate laws, are punished.

(c) Definition of Association: An association is an organised group of people which seeks to achieve some specific objects through joint efforts.

Q. 2. Distinguish between State and Society.

Ans. (i) The state is a political organization. Society, on the other hand, is a social organization and has within it, all types of associations (social, economic, religious, political, cultural and the like).

(ii) Society is both broader as well as narrower than the state. It is broader when it is used to describe the whole community of mankind; it is narrower when it is used to describe as a small group of a village.

(iii) In terms of origi, society is prior to the state. Society may be said to have been born the day the human life might have begun. But the state did not begin with the society; it must have started at a later stage of social development. Man was a social being first and became a political being at a later stage.

(iv) Being prior to the state, society is clearly a natural and therefore, an instinctive institution. The state, on the other hand, is artificially, created institution; it was made when it was needed.

(v) The purpose of the state is much less than that of the society. As a part of society, the state is not greater than the society; it is a part of society.

(vi) The state exists for the society in the same way as a means exists for its end. The state is, therefore, a means, and the society, an end. It is always the means that exists for the end; the end never exists for the means.

(vii) The state is sovereign: No sovereignty means no state; the society is not sovereign; it exists without being sovereign. As sovereign, the state is supreme over all the organizations, institutions and individuals within its boundaries; as sovereign, the state is independent of all other states; sovereignty gives the state a separate and independent existence.

Q. 3. Distinguish between State and other Associations.

Ans. Difference between State and other Associations are:

(i) All the associations, includuing even the state, consist of the people.

(ii) The membership of a state is compulsory for the people while the membership of an association is voluntary.

(iii) A person is a member of one state at one time but he or she cannot be a member of more than one state at the same time. On the other hand, a person may be a member of numerous associations at the same time.

(iv) All associations function without fixed territory. But the territory of a state has to be fixed (Definite) while the other associations do not have fixed or definite or a permanent territory.

(v) All associations (including the state) exist to perform and achieve certain ends. While for the state the purpose is always general (maintenance laws and order for example); for the other association, generally, the purpose is particular or specific, for example the cricket association exist for playing cricket, specific particular purpose.

(vi) The character of the state of national. On the other hand, the character of other association may be local, provincial, national and even international. For example UNO is an international organisation, the Indian National Congress is a political party. The RWA (Residents, Welfare Association) local in character.

(vii) The other association differ from the state so far as they are not sovereign while the state is. The state is sovereign because it is supreme over all other associations and is independent of all other states.

Q. 4. Distinguish between the state and government. 


Distinguish between the state and the government by mentioning any two points.

Ans. (i) State has four elements population, fixed territory, government and sovereignty. It means government is only one element out of four elements of the state.

(ii) Government is the agency through which laws are made, enforced and those who violate laws, are punished by the government. There are all things done within the area of the state by the government.

(iii) Government is the visible manifestation of state authority. It consists of all officials, or persons, institutions and agencies through which state is expressed and carried out.

(iv) The state speaks through the government but even then state and government are quite different. The state has authority inherent in itself whereas the government has no inherent powers. The government gets its structure, authority and power from the Constitution of the State. Constitution is required for both-State as well as for the government. In fact the Constitution being the collection of basic rules, is the fundamental law according to which the government of a state is organized.

(v) The state is a larger entity that includes all the citizens; the government is, relatively a smaller unit that includes only those who are employed to perform its functions. We are all citizens of the state, but we are all not functionaries of the government. Garner writes: “The government is an essential organ or agency of the state but it is not more than the state itself as the board of directors of a corporation is itself the corporation.”

(vi) The state’s definite territory is always definite. It remains unchanged. Its boundaries remain where they are. The government’s territory is never permanent. Muhammad Tughlaq had changed his capital to a place called Daultabad. Many governments had changed their capitals to London during the World War II, fearing the German attack.

(vii) The state is merely an abstraction. The government is the concretization of the idea of the state. We see the government, not the state.

(viii) The sovereign powers lay with the state; it is the state which is sovereign. The government only exercises power. The government’s powers are delegated and derivative; the state’s powers are real and original.

(ix) The opposition to the state is different from the opposition of the government. We criticize the government; we never condemn the state. The criticism of the state is a revolt; the criticism of the government is not a rebellion. We would never hear from an Indian that India is bad; but we would usually hear that the policies of the Indian Government headed by a political party or a multitude of political parties are bad. It is a crime to condemn one’s state; it is a duty, in fact it is a right to criticize one’s government.

Q. 5. Distinguish between state and nation.

Ans. The distinguish between state and nation Following are the main differences between state and nation:

(i) The elements of the state are definite: populations, fixed territory, government and sovereignty.The elements of a nation are not definite. Somewhere common language helps constitute a nation, somewhere else, common race makes a nation. Common religion, for example, was a factor in making Pakistan as a nation;it was common language in the case of the United States as a nation whereas it was common heritage that made India a nation.

(ii) A state may be larger than a nation. The former USSR had, within it, more than a hundred nationalities. Conversely, a nation may be larger than a state; a nationality may spread over two states. The Korean nationality is spread over two states: North Korea and South Korea.

(iii) Nation and state are distinct entities. A nation may not be always a state; India was not a state before August, 1947. A state may not always be a nation, Austria – Hungary was a state but not a nation before World War I because the heterogeneous people did not form a culturally homogeneous people.

(iv) There is an element of force connected binding. with the state. The state’s laws are There is a coercion exercised by the state if its authority is defied. In the case of the nation, there is the element of persuasion.

(v) The state is a state because it is sovereign. The nation is not a state if it is not sovereign. Sovereignty is a chief characteristic of the state; it is not a feature of the nation. A nation becomes a nation-state when the nation attains statehood.

(vi) Laws bind the people together in a state; sentiments and emotions bind the people in a nation. The unity of the state is always external; the unity of the nation is internal. In the case of the state, unity is imposed; it comes from above, through laws. In the case of nation, unity comes from within, through emotions.

(vii) The state is a political concept while the nation is a cultural, a psychological and a spiritual body. Hayes says, “Nation is primarily cultural, and only incidentally political”. What it means is that nation is not a political concept, it is only a spiritual.


Choose the correct answer:

1. Out of the following four sentences only one sentence (or statement) is true. Point out only that sentence:

(a) A constitution gives its citizens a new identity.

(b) A Constitution cannot be written.

(c) Constitutions exists and one required only in democratice country.

(d) Constitution does not deal with ideals and values of a country.

Ans. (a) A constitution gives its citizens a new identity. (True)

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