NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 18 Growth and Development (0-5 yrs)

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 18 Growth and Development (0-5 yrs) Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 18 Growth and Development (0-5 yrs) and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 18 Growth and Development (0-5 yrs) Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 18 Growth and Development (0-5 yrs)

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 18 Growth and Development (0-5 yrs), NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Growth and Development (0-5 yrs)

Chapter: 18




Q. 1. Match the stages and patterns of development in column I with their description given in column II.

Column IColumn II
(i) neonate(a) 18/19 years -40 years
(ii) adolescence(b) 2-6 years
(iii) early adulthood(c) increase in height
(iv) early childhood(d) making friends
(v) cognitive process(e) birth-1 month
(vi) social process(f) watching a colourful mobile
(vii) biological process(g) 11-12 years to 18-19 years
(h) expressing happiness
(i) increase in weight
(j) quarrel with peers.


Column IColumn II
(i) neonate(e) birth-1 month
(ii) adolescence(g) 11-12 years to 18-19 years
(iii) early adulthood(c) increase in height
(iv) early childhood(b) 2-6 years
(v) cognitive process(f) watching a colourful mobile
(vi) social process(d) making friends
(vii) biological process(a) 18/19 years -40 years

Q. 2. Select the statements which refer to stages of development, from the statements given in question 1 and write them here.

Ans: Stages of development:

(i) neonate.

(ii) adolescence.

(iii) early adulthood.

Q. 3. Select the statements which refer to patterns of development, from the statements given in question 1 and write them here.

Ans: Patterns of development:

(iv) early childhood.

(v) cognitive process.

(vi) social process.

(vii) biological process.


Test your word power:

Human Development is a new concept for you and you must have come across some new words. Given below are some of the words used in the text. Choose the option closest to the real meaning of the word. You can check the correct answer at the end of the lesson.

1. Body build:

(a) building a collection of art.

(b) physical structure of a.

(c) physique.

Ans: (c) physique.

2. Intellectual capacity:

(a) making interesting conversation.

(b) the ability to think logically.

(c) smart.

Ans: (b) the ability to think logically.

3. Genetic endowment:

(a) wearing jeans.

(b) born with a particular feature interested from parents.

(c) to give generously.

Ans: (b) born with a particular feature interested from parents.

4. Endocrine functioning:

(a) To attend an important function.

(b) to end a crime.

(c) working of hormone secreting glands.

Ans: (c) working of hormone secreting glands.

5. Prenatal environment:

(a) environment of fetus in the womb.

(b) polluted environment.

(c) healthy environment.

Ans: (a) environment of fetus in the womb

6. Emotional climate of home:

(a) the atmosphere of happiness in the home.

(b) the atmosphere of fear in the home.

(c) the atmosphere of feelings in the home.

Ans: (c) the atmosphere of feelings in the home. 


Q. 1. Match the following motor and social skills in column A with the age the child learns these at, in column B. Some of these may be overlapping answer in column B:

Column AColumn B
(i) Walk without support(a) 1-2 years
(ii) Sit up without support(b) 3 years
(iii) Climb steps(c) 2-3 years
(iv) Bladder control(d) 5-6 months
(v) Stranger shyness(e) 6 months
(vi) Cooperation in simple games(f) 1 year
(vii) Cooperative play(g) 8-10 mths
(viii) Discrimination between strangers and familiar person(h) 2 years
(ix) Use 2-3 word sentence(i) 6-8 months
(x) Produces babbling sound(j) 1½ years
(xi) Follows a moving person with eyes(k) 2-4 months


Column AColumn B
(i) Walk without support(a) 1-2 years
(ii) Sit up without support(j) 1½ years
(iii) Climb steps(a) 1-2 years
(iv) Bladder control(a) 1-2 years
(v) Stranger shyness(b) 3 years
(vi) Cooperation in simple games(k) 2-4 months
(vii) Cooperative play(f) 1 year
(viii) Discrimination between strangers and familiar person(b) 3 years
(ix) Use 2-3 word sentence(d) 5-6 months
(x) Produces babbling sound(h) 2 years
(xi) Follows a moving person with eyes(g) 8-10 mths

Q. 2. Define motor development.

Ans: A motor skill is the ability to move your body to carry out a task. Motor skills require the brain, nerves, skeleton, joints, and muscles to work together.

Q. 3. Name two types of motor development.

Ans: There are two types of motor skills:

1. Gross motor skills: Lifting your head, rolling over, sitting up, balancing, crawling, and walking are all examples of gross motor skills.

2. Fine motor skills: Using small objects such as a spoon or transferring an object from one hand to the other are examples of fine motor skills. Most motor skills are developed in childhood. Children usually develop gross motor skills before fine motor skills. Birth defects, injuries, and diseases can cause problems with motor skills. Factors such as your strength, ability to see and hear, the chance to practice a skill, and support (encouragement) from others can affect the development of motor skills.


Q. 1. From the following list tick mark ()those skills which are cognitive. Give reasons for your choice.

(i) thinks logically.

(ii) indulges in make belief.

(iii) follow moving object with eye.

(iv) confusion about causal relationship. 

(v) recognizes colours.

(vi) able to eat with spoon.

(vii) curiosity.

(viii) easily confused by surface appearance.

(ix) brush own hair and teeth.

(x) limited memory span.

Ans: (iii) follow moving object with eye.

(iv) confusion about causal relationship. 

(vii) curiosity. 

(x) limited memory span.

Reasons: “Infant mental health” is defined as the healthy social and emotional development of a child from birth to 3 years; a child’s social- emotional development is as important as her brain and physical development. Thinking and reasoning skills is also called cognitive development.

(iii) One Month will be able to focus on faces and objects that are 8-14 inches away. Five Months even be able to reach for an object and hold it. Eye-hand movements still not coordinated.

(iv) Three Months baby will also know the difference between her parents and strangers, and may respond by crying if left in a stranger’s care.

(vii) Nine months: At nine months, baby likely to show stranger anxiety and trying to figure out how things work. Birth to 3 years we see:

• Exploration and Discovery.

• Memory.

(x) Birth: With your adult span of about seven, when you look at something you have ‘space’ left over to think about things, such as where you might have seen it before, what you can use it for and so on. A baby with an attention span of one can only think about the thing in question and do the things that come automatically such as grabbing it or knocking it. When he is not looking at you he is not thinking about you and so he is quite happy to be left with someone else. He doesn’t mind the family playing ‘pass the baby’.

8-12 Months: The child will treat his toys in different or special ways. He pokes his finger at the telephone dial, he cuddles his teddy and he will bring you a book to ‘read’. His attention span has developed and so he will sometimes think about what he might do before he does it. The child is starting to communicate with you. more and, as he remembers you well enough, he will be wary of being left with strangers.

18-24 Months: As the child approaches his second birthday his attention span is expanding so he is learning new solutions to everyday tasks, will try out different actions and is experimenting with new words. He is now watching you more intently and can imitate you almost immediately.


Q. 1. Choose the correct answer. Justify your answer.

(i) Children develop unacceptable behaviors if the environment is:

(a) forbidding.

(b) free.

(c) forbidding and free.

(d) none of the above Justification __________.

Ans. (a) -a child living in an environment which forbids any self-expression develops unacceptable behaviour.

(ii) A child sucks her thumb because she is:

(a) bored.

(b) insecure.

(c) scared.

(d) asking for attention Justification ___________.

Ans: (a)-a child who is bored will often such thumb.

(iii) A child wets the bed because she is:

(a) bored.

(b) insecure.

(c) scared.

(d) asking for attention Justification __________.

Ans: (b), (c)-a child who is insecure and scared.

(iv) A child tells lies because she is:

(a) bored.

(b) insecure.

(c) jealous.

(d) asking for attention Justification _________.

Ans: (d)-a child asking for attention may till lies.


Q. 1. List milestones of motor development.

 Ans: Fine and gross motor milestones: Within a few weeks after birth, baby will exhibit strong reflex movements such as:

(i) Moving leg when stimulated the bottom of the foot.

(ii) Moving entire body when head let fall gently backward.

(iii) Grasping finger when you place it in his hand. 

(iv) Moving head from side to side when lying on stomach.

By the end of three months, baby is likely to do most of the following:

(i) Support upper body with arms when lying on stomach.

(ii) Bear some weight on his legs while supported.

(iii) Reach for or bat at objects hanging above him.

(iv) Grasp and shake small objects.

(v) Follow a moving object or person with his eyes.

By around six months, baby can do many of the following:

(i) Hold head steady in a supported sitting position.

(ii) Move objects from one hand to another. 

(iii) Sit with minimal support.

(iv) Roll over from tummy to back.

By one year, most babies will do the following:

(i) Crawl forward. 

(ii) Pull up to a standing position and stand for a few seconds without support.

(iii) Walk while holding on to furniture.

(iv) Grasp small objects with index finger and thumb.

(v) Put small objects in and take them out of a container.

Milestones of Motor Development:

1-2 monthsLifts head from stomach position
3 monthsControls head in sitting position
3-4 monthsRolls over
3-4 monthsReaches for objects
5 monthsHas no head lag when pulled to sitting position
6 monthsTransfers objects from hand to hand
6-8 months Sits independently
8-9 monthsBegins hands and knees crawl
9-10 monthsPulls to standing position
11-12 monthsUses pincer grasp
12-15 monthsTakes independent steps

Q. 2. Describe the cognitive characteristics of a 4- year old child. 

Ans: (i) Correctly names some colours. 

(ii) Understands the concept of counting and may know a few numbers. 

(iii) Approaches problems from a single point of view. 

(iv) Begins to have a clearer sense of time.

(v) Follows three-part commands.

(vi) Recalls parts of a story. 

(vii) Understands the concept of same/ different.

(viii) Engages in fantasy play.

Q. 3. Why are some people left handed? What happens if they are forced to become right handed?

Ans: It means using the left hand, instead of the right, for tasks such as writing and manipulating objects. There is no evidence at all that being right-handed is “better” than being left-handed. There is an old belief that teaching a left-handed child to work with her right hand causes emotional disturbance, and perhaps bedwetting. More recent research suggests that it is not the matter of teaching the child to change hands so much as it is the harshness with which the teaching was done, relying on a lot of shaming and physical pain.

Q. 4. What points should be considered while selecting clothes for children?

Ans: Not too many years ago many parents often dressed children up in rather fussy and fancy clothes as though they were dolls on display. Now that rarely happens. Parents have learned that clothes for children should be comfortable, fit easily, be easily cleaned and made of materials that will wear well. A number of new materials have made all these things possible and less expensive at the same time. Children at play should be dressed in clothes that you don’t have to worry about, that won’t interfere with free movement and that will clean up easily afterwards. Even for the occasional dress up time clothes can now be made of materials which will hold up if they get rougher use than intended.

Q. 5. Give the latest immunisation schedule for children.

Ans: The Government of India recommends the following schedule for vaccinations:

6 weeksOral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus (DPT)
10 weeksOPV, DPT
14 weeksOPV, DPT
9-12 monthsMeasles
15-18 monthsOPV, DPT
4-5 yearsDT, Typhoid
10-16 yearsTetanus, Typhoid

The schedule recommended by the Government of India has fully incorporated the recommendations of the EPI schedule given by the World Health Organization.

Q. 6. Define behaviour problems. Give the causes and methods to control any five of them.

Ans: Each child is unique and must be treated as such. What explains behaviour problems in one child, may not explain in another. What treatment works for one, may not work for another. Many problems that occur in infancy and early childhood appear at the onset of a new developmental stage. Each new phase of development brings challenges for the child and the child’s caregivers. Feeding and sleeping problems also may occur during developmental transitions, and it helps if caregivers are extra patient and loving in their responses. It’s best to give a child choice, use humor, and be firm but supportive. Not all children of a certain age act the same way. These individual differences may be rooted in a variety of causes.

Biological factors such as visual impairments, tactile sensitivities, auditory and speech disorders or motor disabilities may affect a child’s behaviour. Temperament qualities such as shyness, adaptability, moodiness, or inflexibility also may account for many of the differences in children’s behaviours. Emotional needs that are unmet are the most difficult cause of behaviour to interpret. In these situations, the child’s behaviour has a particularly driven quality about it and occurs with regular frequency in all settings. The child who continually harms himself or other children should be stopped and may need an assessment by a trained professional.

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