NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 18 Mental Disorders and Their Treatment

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 18 Mental Disorders and Their Treatment Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 18 Mental Disorders and Their Treatment Notes and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 18 Mental Disorders and Their Treatment Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Psychology Notes Paper 222.

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 18 Mental Disorders and Their Treatment

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 18 Mental Disorders and Their Treatment Solutions, NIOS Secondary Course Psychology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 18



Q.1. What do you understand by the term stress?

Ans: Nonspecific response of the body to any demand on it.

Q.2. What are the broad categories of stressors?

Ans: Major life events and changes, daily hassles, chronic role strain, traumas.

Q.3. What are the common behavioural responses to stressors?

Ans: Alcohol/drug abuse, restness, inimitability, aggression etc.


Q.1. Explain the term conflict. Discuss various types of conflicts.

Ans: Conflict is the name given to the unrest caused by conflicting ideas, goals, and occurrences. There are two branches of conflict, internal and external conflict, which both branch into two types of conflict. Internal conflict occurs within a person or group.

Q.2. Explain the term frustration.

Ans: Experiential state which may result from:

(a) Blocking of goals. or 

(b) Absence of desired goal.


Q.1. Identify and explain the two types of anxiety disorders.

Ans: Phobia, obsessive – compulsive disorder.

Q.2. What do you understand by depression?

Ans: Mental state characterised by sadness, loss of interest and pleasure, loss of sleep etc.

Q.3. What is the difference between psychosomatic and somatoform disorders?

Ans: Psychosomatic: Psychosomatic disorders are psychological disorders having physical symptoms but psychological causes.

Somatoform: Somatoform disorders are characterised by physical symptoms without identifiable biological causes

Q.4. Discuss the major symptoms of Schizophrenia.

Ans: Incoherent thinking, faulty perception, disturbance in motor activity, flat or inappropriate emotions.

Q.5. What do you understand by the term ‘personality disorders’?

Ans: Inflexible or maladaptive patterns of thinking and behaving are developed.


Q.1. What is psychotherapy? 

Ans: Psychology is a Therapy provided through interpersonal contact. Also called “Talking cure”.

Q.2. Explain the main steps in the process of psychotherapy.

Ans: Rapport formation, preparation of case history, determination of the problem, therapeutic session, termination of therapeutic intervention.


Q.1. Define stress. Identify the major stressors in the life of a student, and the usual responses to them.

Ans: The traditional definition of stress focuses more on the physiological response of the body. Hans Selye coined the term stress’ defined it as a nonspecific response of the body to any demand on it. The definition of Hans Seyle has a physiological basis and it gives more importance to the activities of hormones which are secreted by adrenal and other glands.

The major stressors in the life of a student, and the usual responses to them are: 

(i) Major Life Events and Changes: Under this category any event in one’s life is considered which has a significant and enduring impact on the individual e.g. marriage, retirement or divorce.

(ii) Daily Hassles: Hassles are those irritating, frustrating and distressing demands that the individual encounters in everyday life e.g., misplacing or losing items, having deadlines, getting caught in traffic jams, waiting in lines.

(iii) Chronic Role Strain: Such as in a difficult marriage, dealing with a disabled child or living in poverty.

(iv) Traumas: These are unexpected, horrifying or deeply disturbing incidents which create a significant impact on life e.g. nuclear attack, bomb-blast or death of a loved one.

Q.2. Explain how conflicts and frustration lead to stress.

Ans: This often creates conflict and frustration in the individual. A conflict becomes more stressful because of the intensity of frustration it involves. The individual generally lands in conflict when he or she faces a mutually incompatible situation. There are three types of conflict which the individual faces depending on the nature of goals and situation. 

These are:

(i) Approach-approach conflict: This type of conflict occurs when the individual has to choose between two or more desirable goals. In this kind of conflict both the goals are desirable, for example choosing between two marriage invitations on the same evening.

(ii) Avoidance-avoidance conflict: This kind of conflict occurs when an individual has to choose between two or more undesirable goals. This kind of conflict is often called “caught between the devil and the deep blue sea”. For example a youth with little educational qualification has to choose either unemployment or a low paid disagreeable job. This kind of conflict can create serious adjustment problems because even the resolution of the conflict may bring frustration rather than relief.

(iii) Approach-avoidance conflict: In this kind of conflict the individual has a strong tendency to both approach and to avoid the same goal. For example a young man may want to marry because of social and security reasons, while at the same time he fears the responsibilities and loss of personal freedom he feels getting married will involve. This kind of conflict is generally resolved by accepting some negative and positive features of the goal. 

Approach-avoidance conflict is sometimes referred to as “mixed-blessing” conflicts because of the involvement of multiple alternatives.

Frustration: Frustration as an experiential state which may result from either a) blocking of needs and motives by some external forces which create hindrance and prevent the attainment of needs or b) by the absence of a desired goal.

Hindrances or obstacles can be both physical and social and create frustration in the individual. These include accidents, unhealthy interpersonal relationships, and death of loved ones. Personal characteristics such as physical handicaps, inadequate competencies, and lack of self-discipline can also be sources of frustration. Some of the common frustrations which often cause special difficulty include delay in getting the desired outcome, lack of resources, failure, losses, and loneliness and mindlessness.

Q.3. Identify any five mental disorders and describe their main symptoms.

Ans: Their is main five mental disorders symptoms are: 

(i) Disorders of Childhood: It may be quite surprising to you that children can also develop some psychological disorders. DSM-IV-TR deals with various kinds of childhood disorders usually first diagnosed during infancy, childhood, or adolescence. Some of them are Attention Deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) where the child has problems in paying attention or is extremely overactive and Autistic disorder are where the child is withdrawn, does not smile and has delayed language development.

(ii) Anxiety Disorders: You might have experienced fear and apprehension in your life. However, if somebody persistently becomes fearful, apprehensive, and anxious without any appropriate reason you may call this person as having anxiety disorders. There are different kinds of anxiety disorders in which the feeling of anxiety manifests in different forms. Some of these disorders are phobia or extreme and irrational fear of something and obsessive-compulsive disorder where the person has repetitive thoughts or has to do actions repeatedly.

(iii) Mood Disorders: The person who suffers from a mood disorder experiences these emotions for a long period of time in a restricted way, remains fixed at one emotion or fluctuates on the ranges of these emotions. For example a person can be sad for days together or he/she can be sad one day and happy the other day regardless of the situation.

Thus depending on the behavioural symptoms of the person mood disorders are of two types-

(i) Depression. and

(ii) Bipolar disorder.

We will now try to understand the meaning and symptoms of these two disorders. 

Depression is a mental state characterised by sadness, loss of interest and pleasure in routine activities, disturbances in sleep or loss of sleep, poor appetite (weight loss) or increased appetite (weight gain), being lethargic, feeling of guilt, worthlessness, helplessness, and hopelessness, difficulty in concentration, and negative thinking about self and others. If a person has these feelings for at least two weeks he or she may be called a depressive person and for his/her treatment immediate clinical intervention is required. Bipolar disorder is characterised by alternating phases of depression and excitement or mania.

(iv) Psychosomatic and Somatoform Disorders: Diseases which are very common nowadays such as high or low blood pressure, diabetes, hypertension are physical illnesses but these are due to psychological causes like stress and anxiety. Hence psychosomatic disorders are those psychological problems which have physical symptoms but psychological causes. In the term psychosomatic the meaning of psyche is mind and of somatic is body. Contrary to this somatoform disorders are those disorders which are characterised by physical symptoms that do not have any known, identifiable biological causes. For example a person may complain for stomach pain but for this stomach pain there is no problem with the particular organ (stomach) of the body.

(v) Dissociative Disorders: You must have seen many movies in which the hero of the movie, after a traumatic event, is unable to recall his previous identity, the past events and the people around him. In clinical psychology such kinds of problems are called dissociative disorders in which the personality of the individual becomes dissociated or separated from the rest of the world. 

One of the categories of dissociative disorder is dissociative amnesia in which the person is unable to recall important personal information usually after some stressful episode. The other category is dissociative fugue in which apart from the memory loss the person also assumes a new identity. Another is depersonalization disorder in which the person suddenly feels changed or different in a strange way. The person feels that he has left his body or his movements have suddenly become mechanical or dreamlike. However, the most serious dissociative disorder is multiple personality disorder or dissociative identity disorder in which several distinct personalities emerge in the same individual at different time.

Q.4. Discuss desirable ways of coping with stress.

Ans: The individual while coping with stressors generally follows two mechanisms namely Task-oriented coping and defence-oriented or emotion-focused coping.

These are based on an objective appraisal of the stressful situation on a conscious and rational level and taking a constructive course of action. This kind of coping can fall into any of the three categories such as attack, withdrawal, and compromise.

(i) In case of attack the individual directly confronts the situation. He/she assesses the feasibility of the coping resources available to him/her. He/she chooses the most promising course of action to deal with the stressor and in the course of dealing with it maintains flexibility and shifts approach if it does not seem to be working. He/she also develops new coping resources as per the situational requirement by searching out new information, developing new competencies or improving existing ones. An example of attack reaction would be when a student plans revision much before a difficult exam.

(ii) In the case of withdrawal reactions the individual admits defeat at the first instance if the situation is too difficult to handle or he/she has used an inappropriate strategy. He/she may physically or psychologically leave the stressful situation. He/she may also redirect his/her effort toward a more appropriate goal. An example of withdrawal is when one friend rejects you repeatedly, you withdraw and try to make friends with another person.

(iii) During compromise the individual may accept a substitute goal if he/she feels that the original goal cannot be obtained. This kind of reaction generally occur when the individual reassess his/her abilities and accordingly lowers his/her level of aspiration. It also reflects the accommodative nature of the individual while coping with the adjustive demands of the stressful situation. For example a child who does not do well in a particular subject, but gets very high marks in other subjects, tries to accept the fact.

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