NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 11 Indian Painting

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NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 11 Indian Painting Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 11 Indian Painting and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 11 Indian Painting Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Notes Paper 223.

NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 11 Indian Painting

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 11 Indian Painting, NIOS Secondary Course Indian Culture and Heritage Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Indian Painting

Chapter: 11

TEXTUAL QUESTIONS

Intext Questions 11.1

Answer the following questions:

Q.1. Which is the famous excavated site in Madhya pradesh?

Ans: Bhimbetka.

Q.2. What are the three types of painting found in Brahmanical and Buddhist literature in ancient India?

Ans: Lepyachitras, Lekhachitras and Dhulitchitras.

Q.3. Where are the Dhulitchitras paintings normally done?

Ans: It is done on the floor.

Q.4. What was the theme of the Ajanta cave paintings?

Ans: They depict scenes from Jataka stories and Buddhist themes.

Q.5. Give the names of two sites where Buddhist paintings of sixth and ninth centuries were found.

Ans: Bagh in North.

Badami (Karnataka) in South.

Q.6. What are miniature paintings?

Ans: On a small surface depicting themes drawn from epics, myths and legends, seasons and Ragamala (melodies).

Q.7. Who withdrew the royal patronage to painters in the Medieval period?

Ans: Aurangzeb.

Q.8. What were the themes in the paintings of the urban English educated artists?

Ans: (a) Evil nature of British rule.

(b) Ideals of nationalism.

(c) Desire for a national identity.

Q.9. Name the two government institutions set up to promote art and music in India.

Ans: (a) The National Gallery of Modern Art.

(b) Lalit Kala Akademi.

Q.10. Which state is famous for patta painting?

Ans: Orissa.

Q.11. Name the institution set up by Rabindra Nath Tagore at Shantiniketan.

Ans: Kale Bhawan.

Q.12. Why was Raja Ravi Varma of Travancore famous?

Ans: Oil painting depicting mythological and social themes became highly famous in modern India.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 11.2

Answer the following questions:

Q.1. Match the following decorative art with the state of origin.

AB
RangoliTamil Nadu
AlpanaMadhya Pradesh 
AipanNorth India 
RangavalliBengal
KollamUttarakhand 
MandanaKarnataka 

Ans:

AB
RangoliNorth Indian 
AlpanaBengal 
AipanUttarakhand 
RangavalliKarnataka 
KollamTamil Nadu 
MandanaMadhya pradesh 

Q.2. Through which paintings were advices given to the younger girls?

Ans: Mithila paintings. 

Q.3. How is Kalamkari work done?

Ans: It uses vegetables dyes or colours.

Q.4. What is special about Kalamkari painting?

Ans: These are made on Hindu religions mythology which scene after scenes is painted. It is surrounded by floral decorative patterns on top and bottom.

Q.5. Which is the most famous place for Kalamkari art? 

Ans: Sri Kalahasti.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 11.3

Q.1. Where do you find Warli painting?

Ans: In Maharashtra.

Q.2. Which tribe is famous for warli paintings?

Ans: Gond and Kol tribes.

Q.3. What is special about warli painting?

Ans: It uses a geometric pattern and the subject after subject are added in a spirating manner.

Q.4. What are some unique creations of art and crafts form of Kashmir state?

Ans: Embroidered shawls, carpets, namdar silks and walnut furniture.

TERMINAL EXERCISES

Q.1. How will you describe the development of painting art during the Medieval era?

Ans: 1. From the thirteenth century onwards, the Turkish Sultans of northern India onwards, the Turkish Sultans of northern India (or of Delhi Sultanate) brought with them important features of Persian court culture.

2. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries illustrated manuscripts of Persian influence were produced at Malwa, Bengal, Delhi, Jaunpur, Gujarat and the Deccan.

3. The interaction of Indian painters with Persian traditions resulted in the synthesis of two styles evident in the works of the sixteenth century.

4. During the early Sultanate period, significant contribution to the art of painting was made by the Jain community of western India.

5. IIIustrated manuscripts, of Jain scriptures were presented to temple ‘ libraries. These manuscripts depicted the lives and deeds of the Jain Tirthankars.

Q.2. Define the Madhubani art form. How are the drawings in Madhubani paintings very conceptual?

Ans: (i) Mithila painting, known as Madhubani folk art is the traditional art of the Mithila region of Bihar. 

(ii) They are produced by village women with few earthen colours and finished in black lines.

(iii) These pictures tell tales especially about Site’s exile, Ram-Laxman forest’s life or depict the images of Laxman Ganesh, Hanuman and other from Hindu mythology, as envisioned in the collective memories of the ancient epics.

(iv) Drawings in Madhubani paintings are very conceptual. First, the painter thinks and then she,”draws her thought”. 

(v) No pretence is there to describe the figures accordingly. visually they are images that speak in lines and colours, these are drawn for some rituals or festivals. The mud walls of humble huts show such paintings.

(vi) In some cases, it is a special practice for mothers to make these art items in advance for their daughters as a marriage gift. These paintings also convey advice on ways to lead a good married life.

(vii) Painting made by the upper, more affluent classes are colourful while these made by the lower caste people comprise red and black line work.

(viii) Now-a-days Madhubani art is being used as decorative gift items and greeting cards and has become a source of income for local women folk.

Q.3. Differentiate the Kalamkari painting with Mithila painting.

Ans: (i) Mithila painting, also known as Madhubani folk art is the traditional art of the Mithila region of Bihar.

Madhubani painting, is done using few earthern colours and finished in black lines.

(ii) Kalakari painting: Kalam means pen-brush, kari means technique. These paintings are made in Andhra Pradesh. Vegetable dyes are used for colour in the world of this painting.

A lot of colours are used which are made out of vegetables and fruits.

Q.4. Various forms of culture of Bengal is depicted in Kalighat paintings. Elaborate.

Ans: Kalighat paintings: (a) Kalighat is a bazar near the Kali temple in Kolkata. Patua painters from rural Bengal came and settled in Kalighat to make images of gods and goddesses in the early nineteenth century. These paintings on paper made with water colours comprise clear sweeping line drawings using bright colours and a clear background.

(b) Subjects are images of Kali, Lakshmi, Krishna, Genesha, Shiva, and other Gods and Goddesses.

(c) In this process, artists developed a unique new form of expression, and effectively portray a wide range of subjects commenting on the social life of Beingal. Similar type of pata paintings may be found in Orissa.

(d) As its market grew, the artists began to liberate themselves from the routine depiction of Hindu deities and began to explore the world of contemporary society events in their paintings. 

(e) The genre derived much inspiration from the introduction of photography, western style theatrical performances, the rise of Babu Culture in Bengal as a result of the impact of British colonial and administrative system. The emergence of the unique lifestyle of the nouveau riche of Kolkata in response to these diverse influence also inspired these paintings.

(f) All types of developments and events played the role of stimuli for the artists. These stimuli gave birth to a new imagery that occupied the centre stage of Bengali literature, theatre and visual art of the period.

Kalighat paintings became the best mirror of this cultural and aesthetic shift. Based in their pre-existing models of the Hindu deities, the artists created a whole repertoire of images, courtesans, actresses, heroines, pompous babus and conceited dandies, resplendent in their fancy attire and hair styles, smoking pipes and playing the sitar.

Q.5. The Indian artisans with their magic touch can transform a piece of metal, wood or ivory into objects of art. Elaborate. 

Ans: Indian artisans have magic in their hands. They can transform any object into a beautiful object. Indian art forms are full of variety. No material available around could remain untouched from the magical hands of Indian artists. Metal, wooden or clay sculptures, paintings, rangoli, colouring, nothing is away from the dextrous hands of artists.

Q.6. What was the contribution of the Mughals to painting as an art?

Ans: Contribution of Mughal Rulers to painting in India:

1. The art of textual illustration got a new look under the Mughals. Akbar and his successors brought revolutionary changes to painting and sensual illustrations.

2. From Mughal period book illumination or individual miniatures replaced wall painting as the most vital form of art.

3. Akbar patronised artists from Kashmir and Gujarat, Humayun brought two Persian painters to his court.

4. For the first time painters names were recorded in inscriptions. Some great painters of this period were Abd-us-Samad, Dasawanth and Basawan.

5. Beautiful illustrations are found on the pages of Baburnama and Akbarnama. 

6. Within a few years an integrated and dynamic style resulted from the synthesis of Persian and Indian style and the independent state of Mughal painting was developed.

7. Between 1562 and 1577 a series of nearly 1400 cloth paintings were produced representing the new style and were placed in the imperial studies. Akbar also encouraged the art of making portraits.

8. The art of painting reached its climax during the period of Jahangir who himself was a great painter and connoisseur of art. Artists began to use vibrant colours such as peacock blue and red and were able to give three dimensional effects to paintings. 

9. Jahangir could distinguish between the paintings of two different painters on the same canvas.

10. Mansur, Bishan Das and Manohar were the most gifted painters of Jahangir ‘s reign. 

11. Mansur had made an outstanding portrait of the artist Abul Hasan and specialised in paintings of birds and animals.

12. Though Mughal emperor Shah Jahan was more interested in architectural splendours, his eldest son Dara Shikoh patronized painting.

13. However, withdrawal of royal patronage to painting under Aurangzeb led to the dispersal of artists to different places in the country.

Q.7. Write short notes on:

(i) Kalamkari art.

(ii) Pahari art.

(iii) Kalighat art.

Ans: (i) Kalamkari Art:

(a) Meaning: Kalam means pen (brush) and kari means technique.

(b) Place of Art: Kalamkari paintings are made in Andhra Pradesh, a small place Sri Kalhasti the best known century of it.

(c) Material: Vegetable dyes are used for colour in the Kalakari work.

(d) Purpose and growth: This art is mainly related to decorating temple interiors with painted cloth panels, which was developed in the fifteenth century under the patronage of Vijaynagra Rulers.

(e) Subjects of the art: Subjects are adopted from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and Hindu religions mythology.

(f) Continuity: Kalamkari painting art form is a continuous legacy from father to son.

(g) Scene: After deciding the subject of painting, scene after scene is painted. Every scene is surrounded by floral decorative patterns.

(h) Backgrounds of scene: These paintings are made on cloth, very durable and flexible in size as per needs.

(i) Marketing: Kalamkari painting has a very good market in the commercial field.

(ii) Pahari Art:

(a) Withdrawal of royal patronage to painting under Aurangzeb led to the dispersal of artists (painters) to different places in the country. This helped in the development of the art of painting in Rajasthan and on the Punjab hills giving rise to district schools of painting, for example, Rajasthani and pahari schools.

(b) These works were painted on a small surface and were called miniature painting.

(c) The painters of the pahari school painted themes drawn from epics (Ramayana and Mahabharata), myths and legends. Other themes were Baramasa (seasons) and Raga mala (melodies).

(d) Miniature painting was also developed at local centres like kangra, Kulu, Basoli, Guler, Chamba, Garhwal, Belaspur and Jammu.

(iii) Kalighat Art:

(a) Kalighat is a bazar near the Kali temple in Kolkata. Patua painters from rural Bengal came and settled in Kalighat to make images of Gods and Goddesses in the early nineteenth century. These paintings on paper made with water colour comprise clear sweeping line drawings using bright colours and a clear background.

(b) Subjects are images of Kali, Lakshmi, Krishna, Genesha, Shiva, and other Gods and Goddesses.

(c) In this process, artists developed a unique new form of expression, and effectively portray a wide range of subjects commenting on the social life of Bengal. Similar type of pata paintings may be found in Orissa.

(d) As its market grew, the artists began to liberate themselves from the routine depiction of Hindu deities and began to explore the world of contemporary society events in their paintings.

(e) The genre derived much inspiration from the introduction of photography, western style theatrical performances, the rise of babu culture in Bengal as a result of the impact of British colonial and administrative system. The emergence of the universe lifestyle of the nouveau riche of Kolkata in response to these diverse influence also inspired these paintings.

(f) All types of developments and events played the role of stimuli for the artists. These stimuli gave birth to a new imagery that occupied the centre stage of Bengali literature, theatre and visual art of the people.

SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1. These cave paintings show skins of the spotted deer left in open for drying:

(a) Narsinghgarh.

(b) Bagh.

(c) Ajanta.

(d) None of these.

Ans: Narsinghgarh 

2. This is one of the six organs of paintings in Chitrasutra.

(a) Proportion.

(b) Shape.

(c) Lines.

(d) Themes.

Ans: Proportion. 

3. Paintings done on the walls and rock surfaces are called:

(a) Wall painting.

(b) Rock painting.

(c) Mural painting.

(d) Nothing specifically.

Ans: Mural painting .

4. The best specimen of Gupta art are found in:

(a) Bhimbetka.

(b) Ajanta.

(c) Bagh.

(d) Narsinghgarh.

Ans: Ajanta. 

5. One of the principal colours used for paintings in ancient India is ‘Haritala’. This colour is:

(a) Yellow colour.

(b) Vivid red. 

(c) Lamp black.

(d) Terra very.

Ans: Yellow colour. 

6. This technique of printing represents the paintings on floor.

(a) Lepyachitras.

(b) Lekhachitras.

(c) Dhulitchitras.

(d) Vinaypitaka.

Ans: Dhulitchitras. 

7. Miniature painting emerged in the state of ______ during 14th -15th century.

(a) Gujarat.

(b) Punjab.

(c) Haryana.

(d) None of these.

Ans: Gujarat. 

8. This Mughal emperor caused dispersal of artists to different places of Indian from Mughal court.

(a) Akbar.

(b) Aurangzeb.

(c) Jahangir.

(d) Babur.

Ans: Aurangzeb. 

9. He is one of the prominent painters of modern India.

(a) Daswant.

(b) Rabindra Nath Tagore.

(c) Abd-us-Samad.

(d) Basawan.

Ans: Rabindra Nath Tagore. 

10. Rabindra Nath Tagore established Kala Bhawan in _______

(a) Shanti Niketan.

(b) Delhi.

(c) Rajasthan.

(d) Gujarat.

Ans: Shanti Niketan.

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. Mention in one sentence the importance creative expression or art of painting.

Ans: A creation of human mind, art enhance imaginative power, given scope for creative expression and induces peace and pleasure in the human mind.

Q.2. What is the need of expression for human survival?

Ans: The need for expression is a basic requirement for human survival and it has taken various forms since prehistoric (or Stone Age) times.

Q.3. Write one main feature of the Indian painting.

Ans: Indian painting is the result of the synthesis of various traditions and its development is an ongoing process. It has maintained its distinctive character ever while adapting to new style.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. Discuss decorative art of Indian in about 80-100 works.

Ans: India ‘s Decorative Art:

1. The artistic expression of the Indian people is not limited to painting on canvas or paper only. Decorative painting on walls of homes even in the rural areas is a common sight.

2. Rangoli or decorative designs on floor are made for auspicious occasion and pujas whose stylised designs have been passed on from one generation to the other.

3. These designs are called rangoli in the North, alpana in Bengali, aipan in Uttarakhand, rangavalli in Karnataka, kollam in Tamil Nadu and Mandana in Madhya Pradesh.

4. Generally rice powder is used for decorative painting but coloured powder or flower petals are also used to make them more colourful.

Q.2. Write a short note mentioning certain vital characteristics of the medieval Indian art form thirteenth century to sixteenth century.

Ans: Characteristics of Medieval Art (from 1206 to 1536 AD):

1. From the thirteenth century onwards, the Turkish Sultans of northern India (or of Delhi Sultanate) brought with them important features of Persian court culture.

2. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries illustrated manuscripts of Persian influence were produced at Malwa, Bengal, Delhi, Jaunpur, Gujarat and the Deccan.

3. The interaction of Indian painters with Persian traditions resulted in the synthesis of two styles evident in the works of the sixteenth century.

4. During the early Sultanate period, significant contribution to the art of painting was made by the Jain community of western India.

IIIustrated manuscripts of Jain scriptures were presented to temple’s libraries. These manuscripts depicted the lives and deeds of the Jain Tirthankaras.

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