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NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 4 Medieval India
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Intext Questions 4.1
Q.1. The beginning of which era is marked by prophet Mohammad ‘s migration to Madina from Mecca?
Ans: Beginning of H Hijara era.
Q.2. What is Riza?
Ans: Roza is fasting in the month of Ramzan.
Q.3. Who brought Hindu followers to islam by their attitude of piety, tolerance, concept of equality and sympathy?
Ans: The Sufis.
Q.4. Name the author of Ain i-Akbari.
Ans: Abul Fazl.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 4.2
Q. Fill in the blanks:
1. The names of the Khalifa and the Sultan were read in the _______.
2. _______, a local Afghan ruler challenged the Mughal ruler, Humayun and kept his away from the throne of Delhi for about fifteen years.
Ans: Sher Shah.
3. To fulfil his imperialist ambition Akbar entered into matrimonial alliances with the ______ rulers.
4. The Rashtrapati Bhawan in New Delhi was known as ______ during British rule.
Ans: Vice Regal Lodge,
5. The portrait dura or coloured stone inlay work on marble became very popular in the days of _______.
Ans: Shah Jahan.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 4.3
Answer the following questions:
Q.1. What were the two main streams of bhakti movement?
Ans: Nirguna and Saguna bhakti are the two main streams of Bhakti movement.
Q.2. Name an important Nirguna (निगुण) and Saguna (सगुण) bhakti poets.
Ans: Nirguna: 1. Nanak.
2. Kabir. (Any one)
Saguna: 1. Tulsidas.
2. Surdas. (Any one)
INTEXT QUESTIONS 4.4
Q.1. Name any two important folk dances.
Ans: 1. Garba.
3. Rhangre (any two).
Q.2. Name any one important type of needlework that developed in India.
Ans: 1. Phulkari in Punjab.
2. Chikan work in Lucknow. (any one)
INTEXT QUESTIONS 4.5
Q. Fill in the blanks:
1. _______founded the Khalsa and fixed the vow of five Ks.
Ans: Guru Gobind Singh.
2. ______ Worship the fire, believe in good and bad gods and encourage Kindness and charity.
Q.1. Describe the political situation of India in medical times.
Ans: The political situation of Indian in Medieval Times:
1. Rajputs were defeated by the Ilbari Turks (or Mamluk Turks). The foundation of the Delhi Sultanate was laid down by Qutub-din-Aibak.
The first Sultans of Delhi who ruled from 1206-1290, were Mamluk Turks. They were followed by Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Sayyids and Lodis who ruled northern India from Delhi till 1526.
2. All these rulers (related with the ruling dynasties) were called Sultans. A Sultan was believed to rule as an agent on behalf of the Khalifa or Caliph who was supposed to be the spiritual head of the Muslims.
3. The names of the Khalifa (Caliph) and the Sultan were read on the Khutba that is, an address at the time of Friday prayers by the local Imams.
4. In 1526, the Delhi Sultans were replaced by the Mughals who ruled for Agra and later from Delhi, with a firm hand till 1707. Thereafter, when the dynasty ended (by the British, after the Great Revolt of 1857).
5. The Mughals did not ask for any investiture but continued to send presents to the Khalifas. Of course they also got the Khutba read in their own names.
6. A local Afghan ruler, Sher Shah challenged the Mughal ruler, Humayun and kept him away from the throne of Delhi for about fifteen years (1540-1555 AD.)
7. Sher Shah Suri ‘s reign stands out for his outstanding achievements. Among the various achievements to his credit is his construction of several roads, the most important being sarak-i-Azam (सड़क-ए-आजम) or Grand Trunk Road (in short G.T. Road) extending from Sonargaon (now in Bangladesh) to Attock (now in Pakistan) passing through Delhi and Agra, a distance of 1500 kos (near about 4000 km).
8. Mughal emperor Akbar who rules from 1556-1605 was a great ruler in the history of India. He made a sincere efforts to foster the spirit of love and harmony among Indians by discouraging racial, religious and cultural baises.
9. Akbar developed a liberal and friendly relation with the Hindus.
10. To fulfil important ambitions Akbar entered into matrimonial alliances with the Rajput rulers. His greatest contribution was the political unification of the country and the establishment of an all powerful central government with a uniform system of administration.
11. Akbar was a great patron of art, architecture and learning. He was a secular minded monarch who started a faith called Din-i-Illahi which encompassed ideas from various religions.
12. Akbar’s policy of liberalism and tolerance was continued by his successors Jahangir and Shah Jahan. However this policy was abandoned by Aurangzeb, the last Great Mughal.
13. Aurangzeb ‘s short sighted policies and endless wars in different parts of the country (especially in South Indian) resulted in the disintegration of the Mughal Empire.
14. The rise of the Marathas in the south, the invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmed Shah Abdali, besides unrest amongst the nobility in the court, and the rise of the Sikhs in north-Western India destroyed whatever was left of Mughal power.
Conclusion: Economically, India was still the biggest exporter in the world and had great wealth, but it was left far behind in the March towards modernization.
Q.2. Discuss the influence of Islam on Hinduism.
Ans: According to some historians and scholars due to influence of Islam on Indian religions thoughts a new movement called Bhakti movement started in India during medieval age.
In northern India, it developed into two streams, the Nirguna and the Saguna bhakti.
1. The Nirguna Tradition: The nirguna bhakti Saints were devotees of a formless God even a while calling him Rama, Govinda, Hari or Raghunatha. The most conspicuous example is that of Kabir and Nanak.
2. The Saguna Tradition: The Saguna Bhaktas were devotees of Rama, the son of Dasharatha, or were devotees of Krishna, the son of Vasudeva and Devki. The best examples are that of Tulsidas, Who idolised Rama in his famous Ramcharita Manas and Surdas who sang praises of Krishna in his Sursagar. Raskhan, a Muslim poet who was a devotee of Lord Krishna, also belonged to this tradition.
Features of the Bhakti Movement:
(i) The first feature of the Bhakti movement was the concept of oneness of God and brotherhood of man. It did not discriminate on the basis of caste or gender.
(ii) The second important feature was ‘self-surrender’ unto God, who is all pervasive and capable of solving all the problems of the devotees.
(iii) The third important thing was an intense personal devotion to God.
(iv) Fourth feature of the Bhakti movement was emphasis on a good moral life. It was felt that chanting the name of God, constantly supposedly purified the soul and prepared one for His (God) grace.
(v) According to bhakti tradition, a true devotee does not desire moksha or heaven. He only desires to chant the Lord’s name and wants to be reborn again and again to sing praises of the Lord.
(vi) Place of Guru: In addition to all above referred features, came the guru or spiritual teacher whose function was to provide people with hope, strength and inner courage. He was supposed to be a person who had marched ahead on this path and had probably realised God himself and was capable of leading others unto Him. This bought in a system of pahul.
Pahle was the water offered by the master to the pupil or shishya as a token of his being accepted as a trainee on his March to godliness. The Sikhs (सीखों ने) later made it a “washing of the swords ‘ ceremony called the Khande ka pahul (खण्डे का णहुल) evolving a pir-muridi to promote their saint- soldier concept.
(vii) We can say that there were some features in bhakti tradition which were practices and found similar in the ideas of Sufis.
(viii) The Spirit of Bhakti or the worship of one God (Lord), pervaded the whole of India and found vivid and beautiful expression in the religious poetry of the medieval saints and mysties, on matter what religious sith they believed in.
Q.3. Examine the role played by the Bhakti movement in enriching Indian culture.
Ans: 1. The bhakti Saints promoted folk songs, folk dances and folk music.
2. Bhakti movement also helped in growth of different Indian languages, their literary works, geets or songs and qawali.
3. This movement developed attitude piety, tolerance, sympathy, concept of equality and idea of one Lord or God among the people.
4. Sikhism was founded by Guru Nanak, one of the great bhakti Saints. Later on Guru Arjun Dev finalised the present script of Gurumukhi, the Adi-Granth and the site of Har-Mandir Sahib in Amritsar.
Q.4. Write a note on the rise of modern Indian languages.
Ans: Riso of Modern Indian Languages:
(i) An important development during medieval period was the emergence of several modern Indian languages.
(ii) Urdu perhaps originated around Delhi. Urdu developed in the army of Allaud-din-Rhilji as the camp language when they were stationed in Deccan around the fourteenth century. In fact the Deccan statues of Bijapur and Golconda subsequently became the cradle of Urdu literature. Its soon developed its own grammar and became a distinct language.
(iii) Urdu literature and work: As time passed, Urdu came to be used and by the elite as well. The famous poet Amit Khusrao, who composed poetry in this language, also played some part in making it popular.
Besides poetry, beautiful prose, short stories novels and drama were written in Urdu during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In the first half of the nineteenth century, Urdu journalism developed which played a very vital role during the struggle for India’s freedom.
(iv) Development of several other modern Indian languages: Alongwith Udu, nearly all other modern Indian languages like Bengali, Assamesa, Oriya, Khari Boli, Punjabi, Gujarati and Marathi as well as four south Indian languages-Tamil,Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam in their present from developed in this period. Kashmiri and Sindhi also took shape and developed their scripts and language.
Q.5. Discuss the rise of the new faiths namely Sikhism and Zoroastrianism.
Ans: I. Rise of Sikhism:
(i) Sikhs, who mostly belong to Punjab, form a sizable group of our population. The orthodox Sikhs believe that this religion was revealed by God to Guru Nanak, whose spirit entered the second and the subsequent gurus till the teuth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, Who ordained the Sikhs to treat the Adi Granth, popularly known as the Guru Granth Sahib as their Guru.
(ii) The student of history and religion believe that the seeds for the birth and growth of Sikhism were present in the Bhakti movement, in its nirguna branch.
(iii) The Sikhs basically believe in a formless God, equality of all mankind, need of a guru and the pahul tradition.
(iv) Sometimes, the gurudom was conferred on the son and sometimes on the best disciple.
(v) The fifth guru, Guru Arjun Dev gave the Sikhs three things, the first was in the shape of Adi Granth which contains the sayings of five gurus and other allied Saints.
The second was the standardised script for Gurumukhi in which it was first written and finally, the site and the foundation of the Har Mandir or the Golden Temple and the Akal Takht at Amritsar, the highest seat from which the dictates for the entire Sikh community are issued.
(vi) The tenth Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa, which means “the pure”, in 2699. He also imposed a vow of five Ks i.e. kesh (long hair and a beard), kangha (comb), Kada (a metallic bangle), kirpan (a sword), and a kachha (an underwear extending to a little above the knees).
Basically, this was the Dress of a Sikh fighter, as well as distinguishing mark.
(vii) Guru Gobind Singh ordered his followers that after his death, the Adi Granth was to be their Guru and they had to pay obedience to this holy book.
(viii) Music has always been an important features of Sikhism. They believed that through music one can attain ecstacy or even samadhi.
II. Rise of Zoroastrianism:
1. The Parsi or Zoroasstrian religion was founded by Zarathishtra or Zoroaster, in the eighth century B.C. He preached monotheism in the region now known as Persia.
2. Teachings or principles: Zarathishtra or Zoroaster taught the worship of fire and the presence of good and bad in the form of Ahur Mazda and Shur Man.
3. He also taught an ethical doctrine of Kindness and charity.
The teachings or the principles (or doctors) of this religion are enshrined in the zend, Auesta the holy book of Parsis.
4. Zoroar strianism or the parsi religion spread over the whole of Persia and remained the dominant religion till the right century A.D. when Muslims conquered this region.
Most of the Parsis migrated to different parts of the world. They came to India and settled at Navsari in Gujarat, and later on spread to almost all parts of India.
5. Contribution of the Parsis in the field of Indian culture and economy:
(a) The Parsis are least in numbers, but they have never complained to the Indian or state government or the society for reservation or special concession as some section or the followers of some religion demand from time to time. Moreover they have contributed a lot to Indian culture.
(b) It was Dadabhai Naoroji (a parsi by faith), the famous nationalist leader and a parsi, who exposed the hollowness of the British claim of civilising India and not expecting it.
(c) Another outstanding figure who belonged to this community was Jamshedji Tata, a pioneering Indian industrialist. He established an iron and steel industry in India in the face of the toughest competition posed by the British steel mills and continued to prosper.
(d) The Parsis established a large number of public charities. It is not a proselytising religion and on new entrants are accepted under any circumstances.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. The Sultan, his relatives and nobility were considered ______ during Medical period.
(b) The priests.
(c) The town people.
(d) The peasants.
2. The priests among Muslims were called _______.
(d) Both b. and c.
3. The Ulemas were not given any significance during the rule of this Emperor.
(b) Ala-ud -din khalji.
(d) Sher Shah Suri.
Ans: Ala -ud – din khalji.
4. The Banias, Marwaris and Multanis made ______their special vocation.
5. This community traded in caravans and was on continuous move.
6. The silver coin or Tanka was introduced by this emperor.
(c) Ibn Batuta.
(d) Ala-ud-din khalji.
7. The Muslims came to India as traders in ______ AD.
8. _______ Preached Islam.
(a) Prophet Mohammad.
(d) Moinuddin Chishti.
Ans: Prophet Mohammad.
9. Migration of Prophet Mohammad from Mecca to Madina marks the onset of ________ Era.
(c) Both a. and b.
(d) None of these.
10. One of the five fundamental principles of Islam _______ means belief in Allah.
11. Sayings of prophet Mohammad are preserved in ______.
(d) Both b. and c.
Ans: Both b.and c.
12. There were _______ pious Caliphs.
13. Sufism originated in _______.
(d) None of these.
14. There were _______Sufi silsilas in India during the sixteenth century.
15. Mamluk dynasty was followed by _______.
(a) Lodi .
16. The rulers of Delhi were called _______ in Delhi Sultanate.
(d) Din-e Panah.
17. Sark-i-Aam was constructed by _______.
(b) Sher Shah Suri.
(d) None of these.
Ans: Sher Shah Suri.
18. Mughal Emperor Akbar started a new religion called _______.
19. He was one of the Hindu Navratna in the court of Akhtar.
(a) Raja Man Singh.
(b) Raja Sawai Man Singh.
(d) All of them.
20. Guru Nanak sang hymns to the companionship of the musical instrument called ______.
21. This disciple of Ramananda spread his message in the northern parts of India.
(b) Guru Nanak.
(c) Mira Bai.
22. Kabir by profession was a _______.
23. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was a saint from the state of _______.
24. One of the painters brought from Persians by Humayun was _______.
(a) Mir Sayid Ail.
(b) Abul Hasan.
(d) Daswant Lal.
Ans: Mil Sayid Aill.
25. He was the first Guru of the Sikhs.
(a) Guru Nanak.
(b) Guru Gobind Singh.
(c) Adi Granth.
(d) Guru Tegh Bahadur.
Ans: Guru Nanak.
26. The doctrines of the parsi religion are enshrined in _______.
(a) Adi Granth.
(c) Shuru Mazda.
(d) Zend Avesta.
Ans: Zend Avesta.
27. The Chola dynasty established this region in South India.
28. In Andhra this language was popular.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. How many years did Humayun lived in Persia as a refugee?
Ans: More than twelve years.
Q.2. Name two famous painters whom Humayun brought with him from Persia after becoming the ruler of Delhi in 1555.
Ans: Mir Sayid Ail and Abdus Samad.
Q.3. How many paintings does the painted manuscript called Dastan-e-Amir Hamza contains?
Ans: Nearly 1200.
Q.4. Name any two Hindu painters employed by Akbar.
Ans: Daswant and Basawan Lal.
Q.5. Which painter was famous for miniature painting in the court of Jahangir?
Q.6. Which School of miniature painting evolved from Mughal School of painting?
Ans: Indo-persian School of miniature painting.
Q.7. Name the famous musician in the court of Akhtar who was also one of the navratnas of his court.
Q.8. Which school of music came into being in North India during the Mughal ruler?
Ans: Hindustani school of music.
Q.9. Name the court practice of offering respect to the Badshah in the court of the Mughals.
Q.10. Which language originated as the Army camp language during the rule of Allaudin Khalji?
Q.11. Who ruled India from Delhi from 1206 to 1626?
Ans: The early Turkish rulers ruled over India from Delhi, 1206-1526. They were called Sultans, as they were supposed to rule on behalf of the Khalifas or Caliphs.
Q.12. What were the qualities of the Sufis, attitude? What was its impact on the Indians?
Ans: The Sufis with their attitude of piety, tolerance, sympathy, and concept of equality had deep impact on the Indian people.