NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 5 Modern India

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NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 5 Modern India

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Modern India

Chapter: 5


Intext Questions 5.1

Q.1. Who succeeded in gaining political control over India? 

Ans: England. Tipu Sultan of Mysore.

Q.2. Who among the Indian rulers tried to use the rivalry between the French and the British but could not succeed? 

Ans: Three phases.

Q.3. How many phases of the British domination in India can be seen?

Ans: Three phases.


Q.1. What is the method of printing done with the help of a specially prepared surface of a stone to print a script called?

Ans: Lithography.

Q.2. Who is the author of Anandamatha?

Ans: Bankin Chandra.

Q.3. Who gave the slogan “back to the Vedas”?

Ans; Swami Dayanand.

Q.4. When did Jyotiba Phule start the Satya Shodhak Samaj?

Ans: 1873.


Q.1. Describe the impact of  Renaissance and Reformation Movement in Europe on India?

Ans: 1. Renaissance and Reformation Movement changed the shape of Ewope. Some of these countries started to find out the new trade routes. They got success in it. The Portuguese, the Dutch, the British Vind the French entered the race for controlling India. The British succeeded and for about two centuries India remained under western domination. Her entire human resources were recklessly exploited and her wealth was drained away for the benefit of the ruling nation.

2. The British domination of India had thrt distinct phases. The first phase was that of trade capitalism. They purchased Indian goods (spices, indigo, tea, coffee, textiles, minerals etc.) at low prices and sold them in Western markets at very high prices. In this trade, they were assisted by Indian seths (richmen) and Gomastas (Company’s agents). Enormous profits were made by them without giving anything to the peasants. 

3. During the second phase of domination, from direct plunder they took to industry and export and systematically destroyed the Indian industries. This was because India was a potential purchaser of their goods.

4. The third phase of the British domination marks an intensified phase of British imperialism and colonial exploitation when India was ruled by the British for fulfilling British economic interests.

Q.2. Examine the role of Arya Samaj in the reform movement.

Ans: (i) The Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayanand in 1875. The main aim of this organization was to propagate the true knowledge of the Vedas and discard all evils that had crept in later.

(ii) Arya Samaj advocated education and equal status for women. This society opposed untouchability.

(iii) Arya Samaj advocated the people to the authority of the Vedas. This society osed to polytheism, avatarvada and ritualism.

(iv) For the first time in the history of India, the Vedas were printed due to efforts of the Arya Samaj.

(v) Arya Samaj started several schools and colleges in Indian sub-continent. These educational institutions are called DAV school and DAV Colleges.

Q.3. What was the contribution of Dayanand Saraswati in the field of education?

Ans: The contribution of Dayanand Saraswati in the field of education: 

(i) Swami Dayanand Saraswati advocated education for women. His greatest asset was his mastery over the Sanskrit language and the Vedas. He felt that all the evils that had crept into Hindu society were due to lack of knowledge of the Vedas.

(ii) In 1875, Swami Dayanand founded the Arya Samaj. This society propagated the true knowledge of the Vedas to the Indians. 

(iii) Swami Dayanand Saraswati advocated education and equal social status for women.

(iv) Though he passed away in 1883, but his loyal, disciplined, selfless followers and devotees of the Arya Samaj and the Vadas started Dayanand Anglo-Vedic School and College in Lahore (now in Pakistan) in 1886. This DAV movement has carried forward his work and now has over 750 institutions all over India under one umbrella.

Q.4. What is Lithography? How has it been helpful in the growth of Indian languages?

Ans: I. Meaning of lithograph: It was a technique of printing. It was invented in 1798. Lithography used a specially prepared surface of stone for printing a script, a picture, a drawing. A number of copies could be printed through this techniques.

II. (a) Lithography helped a lot in the growth of Indian languages.

(b) From about 1800 onwards, hundreds of pamphlets and books were printed and this catered to the needs of the growing literature population of India.

(c) Lithography was the biggest boon that the west had conferred on India. By the end of the nineteenth century, the press had become a powerful tool for influencing public opinion.

(d) Since the new printing presses were not costly, their number grew at a fast pace. This, in turn, encouraged a large number of modern Indian languages and produced a massive corpus of literature.

(e) People of India produced original literary works as well as translations and adaptations of old Indian and western classics and enriched our cultural heritage. They bought about an awakening in the minds of the Indians. 

(f) Almost every modern Indian language began weeklies, fortnightly journals and daily newspapers. A whole new set of Indian national literature in the form of novels, essays and poems played very important role in generating nationalism. Bankim Chandra’s-Anandmath, Dinabandhu Mitra’s -Neeldarpan, Bhartendu Harish Chandra’s-Bharat Durdasha, Lakshminath Bezbarua’s works in Assamese, Subramaniam Bharti’s writing in Tamil and Altaf Hussain ‘s works in Urdu’s stirred the minds of the Indians.

Q.5. Examine the role of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in the awakening of Indians. 

Ans: The Role of Ram Mohan Roy in the awakening of Indians: 

1. Ram Mohan Roy is known as the first modern man of India. He mastered several languages including Greek and Latin. His role in reforming Hindu society and in the reawakening of India is important.

2. As the large number of social evils prevalent amongst the Hindus were woven together with religious sanctions, he attacked them through the reference to the religious texts. 

3. Ram Mohan Roy worked very hard again evil practice of Sati. He took up cudgels against it and ultimately it was banned in 1829.

4. Ram Mohan Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj which carries his message. His followers believed in the worship of one supreme God (monotheism) and was opposed to idol worship, polytheism and ritualism. His ideals were based on rationalism and on the principle of social equality.

Q.6. Write an essay on India ‘s struggle for freedom.

Ans: 1. Indians realised about the greedy and colonialism policies of the British and by 19th century all the Indians were united against the British rule. The press and literature played an important role in awakening of the Indians against the British rule. The Nationalist movement against the British took form of the advent of Indian National Congress in 1885 which was founded by A.O. Human which was further supported by the Home Rule Leagues established by Tilak at Poona and Annie Besant at Madras. 

2. The Era of the Extremis started from 1905 which included people who were against the soft policies of the Congress or the moderates. They believed in direct political action against the British. Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra pal and Bal Gangadhar Tilak lead this faction of the Extremiste. 

3. The passage of the Rowlatt Act saw the emergence of a powerful leader in the form of Gandhi who led the modernists against the British in an impressive and powerful manner. The Khilafat movement against the British at the backdrop of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre merged with the Non-Cooperative Movement started by Gandhi which aimed at boycotting every thing which was British made, it also included the British Schools and colleges.

4. The extremist movement spread sporadically after 1922 and was lead by staunch extremists like Bhagat Singh, Chander Shekhar Azad, Raj Guru, Sukhdev, feismil, Ashfaqllah Khan etc.

5. In this way at the strike of midnight bell India got her independence but after paying the cost of independence in form of separation of some of her parts in form of a new state Pakistan.



1. Who was the first modern man of India?

(a) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.

(b) Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

(c) Mahatma Gandhi.

(d) B.R. Ambedkar.

Ans: Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

2. Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded _______.

(a) Indian National Congress.

(b) Brahmo Samaj.

(c) Arya Samaj.

(d) None of these.

Ans: Brahma Samaj. 

3. Arya Samaj was founded by _______.

(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

(b) Swami Shraddhananda.

(c) Swami Dayanand Saraswati.

(d) None of these.

Ans: Swami Dayanand Saraswati. 

4. Satya Shodhak Saraswati in _______.

(a) 1887

(b) 1857

(c) 1873

(d) 1880

Ans: 1873.

5. Sharda Sadan was started by _______.

(a) Jyotiba Govindrao Phule. 

(b) Swami Dayanand Saraswati.

(c) Ram Mohan Roy.

(d) Pandita Rama Bai.

Ans: Pandita Rama Bai. 

6. He succeeded Ram Mohan Roy as leader of Brahma Samaj.

(a) Depender Nath Tagore.

(b) Keshab Chandra Sen.

(c) Dr. Atma Ram Pandurang.

(d) None of these.

Ans: Keshab Chandra Sen. 

7. The Theosophical Society was founded by _______.

(a) Annio Besant.

(b) Madame H.P. Blavatsky. 

(c) Colonel H.S. Olcott.

(d) Both b. and c.

Ans: Annio Besant. 

8. The real name of Ramakrishna Paramhansa was _______.

(a) Vivekananda.

(b) Shraddhananda.

(c) Narayan Guru.

(d) Gadadhar Chattopadhaya.

Ans: Gadadhar Chattopadhaya. 

9. He was a prominent Muslim social reformer.

(a) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.

(b) Siaj-ud-daula.

(c) Altaf Hussain.

(d) Maulana Ajad.

Ans: Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. 

10. He championed the cause of the Harijans. 

(a) B.R. Ambedkar.

(b) Mahatma Gandhi.

(c) Swami Dayanand.

(d) Jyotirao.

Ans: Jyotirao. 

11. He gave the slogan of ‘Go back to Vedas’.

(a) Swami Dayanand Saraswati.

(b) Swami Vivekananda.

(c) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.

(d) None of these.

Ans: Swami Dayanand Saraswati. 

12. Pandita Rama Bai was drawn towards _______,a reforming society.

(a) Prarthana Samaj.

(b) Brahmo Samaj.

(c) Satyarth prakasha.

(d) DAV.

Ans: Prarthana Samaj. 

13. This was an English newspaper published from Bengal.

(a) The Hindoo patriot.

(b) The Bharat Darshan.

(c) Neel Darpan.

(d) The Hindu.

Ans: The Hindoo patriot. 

14. The Indian National Congress was founded by _______

(a) A.O. Hume.

(b) Annie Besant.

(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

(d) Mahatma Gandhi.

Ans: A.O. Hume.

15. The Khilafat Movement was started after _______.

(a) Champaran Satyagraha.

(b) Arrival of Simon Commission.

(c) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

(d) None of these.

Ans: Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

16. Annie Besant founded Home Rule Leagues at _______.

(a) Madras.

(b) Mumbai.

(c) Poona.

(d) Delhi.

Ans: Madras. 

17. The trio leading the radical faction of extremist was popularly known as _______.

(a) Lal, Bal, Pal. 

(b) Lal, Gal, Pal.

(c) Pal, Mal, Bal.

(d) None of these.

Ans: Lal. Bal, Pal.

18. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place at _______.

(a) Allahabad.

(b) Amritsar.

(c) Madras.

(d) Champaran.

Ans: Amritsar. 

19. Lala Lajpat Rai died protesting against _______.

(a) Rowlatt Act.

(b) The Government of India Act.

(c) Simon Commission.

(d) None of these.

Ans: Simon Commission. 

20. Rashtriya Swayam Sewak Sangh (RSSS) was founded by ______.

(a) Dr. Hedgewar.

(b) Moti Lal Nehru.

(c) Mahatma Gandhi.

(d) Guru Golvalkar.

Ans: Dr.Hedgewar.


Q.1. Which European countries or races were in a race to have a control over India for her immense wealth? 

Ans: Portuguese, Dutch, France and Britain.

Q.2. When did the British because the real masters of Bengal?

Ans: After they won the Battle of Plassey. 

Q.3. When the was first railway line opened for the general people in India?

Ans: In 1853.

Q.4. Which materials Indian imported from the Persian Gulf region?

Ans: Pearls, raw silk, wool, dates, dried fruits, etc.

Q.5. Which Indian product was specifically world famous?

Ans: Indian cotton.

Q.6. Who is considered as the harbinger of the modern age in India?

Ans: Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

Q.7. Who fought to get the Sati pratha abolished in India?

Ans: Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

Q.8. What did prarthna Samaj tried to improve in the society?

Ans: They tried to start inter-state marriage, widow marriage, inter-caste dinning etc.

Q.9. Who founded Ramakrishna Mission? 

Ans: Swami Vivekananda.

Q.10. Name the prominent Muslim reformer who founded Aligarh Muslim University.

Ans: Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.

Q.11. What was Shareda Act meant for? 

Ans: It was meant to fix the minimum age of marriage for boys and girls.

Q.12. For which cause Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is considered a champion?

Ans: For the upliftment of the backward classes.

Q.13. When was Arya Samaj founded and by whom?

Ans: Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati in 1875. 

Q.14. Who founded Satya Shodhak Samaj? 

Ans: Jyotiba Govindrao Phule.

Q.15. What is the meaning of Lithography? 

Ans: It was a technique of printing using a surface of a stone for printing a script, a picture and a drawing.

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