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NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 7 Indian Languages And Literature – II
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Indian Languages And Literature – II
Intext Questions 7.1
Q.1. What are the various forms of Hindi language?
Ans: Braj Bhasha, Avadhi, Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Rajasthani, Khadi Boli.
Q.2. Which language is used by Tulsidas for Ramcharitmanas?
Q.3. How did Urdu language came into use in India?
Ans: Urdu language came to use in India as language of interaction between Turkish settlers and locals.
Q.4. Which courty has Urdu as a state language?
Q.5. What is Urdu language called in Deccan?
Ans: Dakshini or Daccani (southern).
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.2
Q.1. Who is the author of Natya Shastra?
Q.2. What is the difference between the character of Rama in Valmiki and Tulsidas?
Ans: Tulsidas depicted Rama as God and Valmiki depicted him as a human being.
Q.3. How was Krishna ‘s role in Sur Sagar different?
Ans: Kishna as a boy indulged in pranks and was engaged in dalliance with Gopis as a young man.
Q.4. Our national song Vande Mataram is taken from which book?
Ans: Anand Math.
Q.5. Why do We feel that Hindi writers wrote with a purpose?
Ans: We do feel like this as various authors of Hindi took different issues of society in writings for example Swami Dayanand Saraswati wrote about reform in Hindu Society. Munshi Premchand about the poor and Mahadevi verma about plight of women.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.3.
Q 1. When and where was Baptist Press established?
Ans: In 1800 at Seerampur near Calcutta.
Q.2. When did wood’s Despatch come to India?
Ans: In 1854.
Q.3. When and where were three universities opened?
Ans: In 1857, Calcutta, Madras, Bombay.
Q.4. Which work of Sh.R.N Tagore won him Nobel Prize in 2913?
Q.5. How did Sham Karadwa help in the growth of Assamese poetry.?
Ans: He introduced Vaishnavism in Assam.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.4
Q.1. Which Indian language was written in two scripts Gurumukhi and Persian?
Q.2. Name at least two love stories of Punjab?
Ans: Heer/Ranjha, Sohni/Mahiwal, Sasi/punu.
Q.3. Which was the popular forms of compositions of Bulley Shah?
Q.4. Name the novel of Govardhan Ram?
Ans: Saraswati Chandra.
Q.5. Who started kirtan tradition in Maharashtra in the 13th century AD?
Ans: Saint Jnaneshwar.
Q.6. What reasons led to a lack of good literature in Kashmiri?
Ans: Poverty, economic backwardness and the use of Dogri.
Q.1. What was the role of the Christian missionaries in India?
Ans: (i) The Christian missionaries published dictionaries and grammar in several languages. which could be easily used for reference.
(ii) They introduced lithographic printing in India which contributed in the development of literature.
(iii) They established schools, colleges to pro-duce new class of educated people in India.
Q.2. Briefly describe the development of Hindi language.
Ans: Hindi evolved during the Apabhramsa stage during 7th and 8th centuries AD. It was characterised as Veergatha Kala or the Adi Kala. patronized by Rajputas it emerged as language mostly used in poetry of poetry like Tulsidas, kabir etc. Prithviraj Raso was the first book in Hindi language. Hindi literature looked to Sanskrit classics for its development. Later in 19th century Hindi language developed as language of the common man. It was a medium of expressing and arising the common issues of the period by writers like Dayanand Saraswati, Munshi Prem Chand and Mahadevi verma. Writers like Bhartendu Harishandra strengthened Hindi language. Hindi continued to develop in adverse circumstances as it became the language of awakening of Modern India.
Q.3. Explain the role of Persian lan-guage in Medieval India.
Ans: Role of Persian in Medieval India:
1. In the mediaeval period, Persian was adopted as the court Language.
2. Several historical accounts, administrative manuals and allied literature in this language have come down to us.
3. Babur wrote his tuzuk (autobiography) in Turkish language, but his grandson Akbar got it translated into Persian.
4. Jahangir’s autobiography (Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri) is in Persian. It is said that Noorjahan was an accomplished Persian poetess.
5. Quite a fair amount of Persian literature has been produced by the courtiers of the Mughals. Abul Fazl’s Akbarnama is a fine piece of literature.
6. Faizi wrote beautiful Persian poetry. Several notions of letters of the Mughal period (Insha) have come down to us. Besides shedding light on Mughal history, these are also styles of letter writing.
7. Another name in prose and history writing is that of Chandra Bhan, a writer of Shahjahan’s days. Similarly we have a word named Tabqat-i-Alamgiri shedding light on the days of Aurangzeb.
8. Badayuni was another writer who belonged during Akbar’s time. In the twentieth century Iqbal wrote good Persian poetry.
Q.4. Identify the contributions of In-dian Languages and literature in shaping of Indian society.
Ans: There is a great influence of Language and the literature written in that language on the society. Hindi and Sanskrit gave the religious spiritual touch to the society. The poetry of poets like Kabir, Tulsidas, Surdas etc, taught people some high morals of life.
Origin of Urdu was a great thing to happen in India during Mughals. The Urdu language was received well by the people in India and dozens of biographies and proses and poetries were composed in this language, the most prominent among them is Sare Jahan se Achcha Hindustan Hamara by Iqbal which is not less important than our national song.
We got our National Song from one of the literary works of Bengali writer Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Geetanjali of Rabinder Nath Tagore made him the first Indian to win a Nobel prize.
The Adi Granth of the Sikhs is the guiding light for the Sikhs to spend their lives.The Marathi literature played an important role in awakening people against the British and achieve freedom.
In the similar way Punjabi, Marathi, Bengali, Assamese, Gujarati, Rajasthani literature played an important role in shaping the Indian society.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Q.1. This is the mother of all scripts of modern northern Language except Urdu.
2. This is ont a form of Hindi spoken in different regions of India.
3. This language originated due to interaction between Persian setters and the locals in and around Delhi.
(c) Khadi Boli.
4. This is famous Urdu poet Iqbal’s poetry collection.
(b) Tuzuk -i-Jahangiri.
(c) Prithviraj Raso.
(d) None of these.
5. Tulsidas wrote Ramayana in this dialect of Hindi language.
(c) Braj Bhasha.
6. Akbarnama was written by _______.
(a) Abul Fazal.
(b) Chandra Bhan.
Ans: Abul Fazl.
7. Satsai, written by ______ gives us glimpse of shringar and other rasas.
8. He composed Vande Mataram.
(a) Rabinder Nath Tagore.
(b) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.
(c) Sharat Chandra Chatterjee.
(d) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
Ans: Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.
9. Universities in India at Bombay, Madras and Calcutta were established on recommendations of _______.
(b) William Carey.
(c) Charles Woods.
(d) None of these.
10. An English-Bengali dictionary was written by _______.
(b) William Carey.
(c) Charles Woods.
(d) R.C. Dutta.
Ans: William Carey.
11. This composition by Waris Shah is a landmark of Punjabi poetry.
(c) Adi. Granth.
(d) Sasi and punnu.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Write the names of two scripts used in Ashoka’s (the Mauryan Emperor) inscriptions.
Ans: 1. The Brahmin script,.
2. The Kharosthi script.
Q.2. Mention in one sentence the two levels of Languages which were evolved during the Mauryan Age.
Ans: In Mauryan Age the languages were evolved at two levels:
(i) the spoken. and
(ii) the written Language.
Q.3. Mention the names of ten writers / historians / poets of medieval India.
Ans: 1. Goswami Tulsidas.
15. Bahadur Shah Zafar. (Write any ten)
Q.4. Who wrote novel Saraswati Chandra?
Ans: Goverdhan Ram.
Q.5. What were Khanqahs?
Ans: These were centres of Sufis.
Q.6. Who wrote ‘Rajatarangini’ and in which language?
Ans: This is written by Kalhen in Sanskrit language.
Q.7. Who was Swami Dayanand?
Ans: He was a great social reformer, writer and supporter of Indian culture and languages.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Write a short note on “Sindhi Literature”.
Ans: Sindhi Literature:
(i) Sindh was one of the important centres of Sufis. Sufis established khanqahs (Ashras) in various places.
(ii) The Sufi singers of devotional music made Sindhi popular Language.
(iii) The credit for creating literature in Sindhi goes to Mirza Kalish Beg and Dewan Kaurumal.
Q.2. Write in a few sentences about the changes took place in script and Languages in Mauryan and afterward period of the Indian history.
Ans: The old Brahmi script of the Ashoka’s days had undergone a great change.
The alphabets during Ashoka’s period were uneven in size but by the time of Harshavardhan, the letters had become of the same size and regular, presenting the picture of a cultivated land.
Q.3. Discuss the position of Hindi and dialects directly related with it.
Ans: 1. A large number of people speak Hindi and use it in different other forms (probably largest number in India) that include Braj Bhusha and Avadhi (spoken in Awadh or U.P. region), Bhojpuri, Magadhi and Maithili (spoken around Mithila), and Rajasthani and Khadi Boli (spoken around Delhi and Haryana), Rajasthani variant or dialect of Hindi.
2. The Language used by Surdas and Bihari has been given the name of Braj Bhasha, that used by Tulsidas in the Ramcharitmanas is called Avadhi and the used by Vidyapati has been termed as Maithili.
3. But, Hindi, as we know it today is the one called Khadi Boli. Though Khusrau has used Khadi Boli in his compositions in the thirteenth century its extent use in literature began only in the nineteenth century. It even shows some influence of Urdu.