NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 8 Religion And Philosophy In Ancient India

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NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 8 Religion And Philosophy In Ancient India

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Religion And Philosophy In Ancient India

Chapter: 8


Intext Questions 8.1

Q.1. Which section of the Vedic literature envisage a progressive outlook?

Ans: The Aranyaka and Upanishad.

Q.2. Which doctrine was endorsed by Buddhism?

Ans: Law of Karma.

Q.3. Name the sects which made Buddhism and Jainism popular.

Ans: Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Saktidm.

Q.4. How did Vedic age respect female principle?

Ans: Divine mother, the goddess of abundance and personified energy (shakti).

Q.5. What are the different forms of Shaiva movements?

Ans: Agamanta, Shudha and Vira-Shaivism.


Q.1. How many schools of Shada Darshan exist?

Ans: Six.

Q.2. Name the founder of Sankhya philosophy?

Ans: Kapila who wrote the Sankhya Sutras. 

Q.3. Who is the originator of Yoga?

Ans: Yoasutra of patanjali.

Q.4. Who is said to be the author of the Nyaya Sutras?

Ans: Gautama.

Q.5. Which school of philosophy says Vedas are eternal and possess all Knowledge?

Ans: Mimamsa school.

Q.6. What is the philosophy of the Upanishad?

Ans: Vedant, the concluding portion of Vedas.

Q.7. Which school holds that knowledge is the product of the combination of four elements which leaves no trace after death?

Ans: Charvaka School.

Q.8. How many ‘tirthankaras’ does Jaina Darshan have?

Ans: 24 (Twenty four).

Q.9. When was Mahavira born?

Ans: In 599 B.C.

Q.10. Which ‘tirthankaras’ was named Vardhman Mahavira?

Ans: Twenty Fourth or the last tirthankara.

Q.11. Name the seven fundamental elements of Jainas.

Ans: Jiva, Ajivaa, Astikaya, Bandha, Samvara, Nirjana, Moksha.


Q.1. What was the childhood name of Gautama Buddha?

Ans: Siddhartha.

Q.2. Where did Gautama Buddha meditate?

Ans: Under a peepal tree at Bodh Gaya, Bihar.

Q.3. Where did Gautama Buddha get enlightenment?

Ans: Bodh Gaya, Bihar.

Q.4. What does the Sutta pitaka contact?

Ans: Buddha’s sermons, or doctrines and ethics.

Q.5. Who recited the Vinaya pitaka?

Ans: Upali.

Q.6. What are the four noble truths of Gautama Buddha?

Ans: (i) There is suffering in human life.

(ii) There is cause of suffering.

(iii) There is cessation of suffering.

(iv) There is a path of liberation.

Q.7. Which Philosophical school of India has difference of opinion about realisation of soul?

Ans: Charvaka School.


Q.1. Define the various characteristics of religious movements of ancient India.

Ans: Characteristics of religious movements of ancient India:

1. Orthodox Movement: Orthodox movement was primarily motivated by Bhakti and different religious sects like Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Shaktism evolved.

Vaishnavas worshipped Vishnu and preached single-minded devotion for Vishnu. Poet saints of this cult were called Alvars.

Shaivism believed in Worshipping of Shiva. The saints were called Nayanars. Some other movements were associated with Shaivism viz. Agamanta, Shudha and Vira-Shaivism. Shada Darshana of orthodox category considered Vedas as the final authority.

2. Unorthodox Movements: were associated with persons like Mahavira and the Buddha. This category was against the traditions of Vedic philosophy.

The Charvaka School was materialistic in their thought and did not believe in life after death.

Q.2. What was the role played by Charvaka School in the religious movement of Indian?

Ans: Role or Contribution of Charvaka School: 

(i) Brihaspati is considered to be the founder of the Charvaka School of philosophy.

(ii) It finds  mention in the Vedas and Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad thus it is supposed to be the earliest in the growth of the philosophical knowledge.

(iii) Charvaka School of philosophy holds the knowledge is the product of the combination of four elements which leaves no trace after death.

(iv) Charvaka philosophy deals with the materialistic philosophy.

(v) It is also known as the Lokayata philosophy the philosophy of the masses. According to Charvaka there is no other words. Hence, death is the end of man and pleasure the ultimate object of life.

(vi) Charvaka recognises no existence other than this material world.

(vii) Since God, soul and heaven, cannot be perceived, they are not recognised by him.

(viii) Out of the five elements fire, earth, water, air, and earth, the Charvaka do not recognise either as it is not known through perception. The whole universe according to them is thus consisted of four elements.

Q.3. How does the Charvaka School differ from the other philosophical schools?

Ans: Charvaka School has materialistic philosophy and unlike other Schools it did not believe in birth after death. They did not believe in any other existence beyond this materialistic world. Unlike other philosophies, they did not believe in god, soul, and heavens as these could not be perceived, thus they believed in what they could see.

Q.4. Explain how shada Darshana falls in the category of an orthodox system.

Ans: Shada Darshana falls in the category of orthodox school as the final authority of Vedas is recognised by all of them.

Q.5. How does Buddhist philosophy contribute to become a better human being?

Ans: 1. Buddha, the founder of Buddhism preached the people to follow eight path philosophy to become a better human being.

2. He said that we should first of all realised four noble truths. After realising these truths one can get freedom and peace of mind.

3. There is suffering in human life. There can not be suffering without a cause. The cause is cessation of suffering. For path of liberation, has to lead a way that takes to liberation. Man should follow mid-path or the right gold to get nirvana.

Q.6. How can you say that Mimamsa philosophy is basically the analysis of Vedic scriptures?

Ans: Mimamsa (School of philosophy):

(a) Mimamsa philosophy is basically the analysis of interpretation, application and the use of the text of the Samhita and Brahmana portions of the Vada.

(b) According to Mimamsa philosophy, Vedas are eternal and possess all Knowledge, and religion means the fulfilment of duties prescribed by the Vedas.

(c) This philosophy encompasses the Nyaya-vaisheshika systems and emphasises the concept of valid knowledge. Its main text is the Sutras of Gemini to have been written during the third century BC.

(d) The names associated with Mimamsa philosophy are Sabar Swami and Kumarila Bhatt.



1. The system of Indian philosophy that originated from Vedas are called ______ system. 

(a) Orthodox.

(b) Unorthodox.

(c) Shada Darshana.

(d) None of these.

Ans: Orthodox. 

2. This is one of the unorthodox systems of ancient India.

(a) Shaivism.

(b) Charvakism.

(c) Vaishnavism.

(d) Shaktism.

Ans: Charvakism. 

3. This natural force was worshipped by pre-Vedic people.

(a) The Sun.

(b) The water.

(c) The air.

(d) The earth.

Ans: The Sun. 

4. This is the synonym of Upanishad.

(a) Vedas.

(b) Yoga.

(c) Vedanta.

(d) None of these.

Ans: Vedanta.

5. A Tamil word denoting those drowned in Vishnu Bhakti.

(a) Alvars.

(b) Nayanars.

(c) Prabandhas. 

(d) Tevaran Strotra.

Ans: Alvars, 

6. Shiva devotees in Tamil region  are called _______.

(a) Alvars.

(b) Nayanars.

(c) Vasudeva.

(d) None of these.

Ans: Nayanars. 

7. This is ont one of the six schools of Hindi philosophy.

(a) Shaivism.

(b) Samkhya.

(c) Yoga.

(d) Nyaya.

Ans: Shaivism. 

8. Brihaspati is supposed to be the founder of this school of philosophy.

(a) Shaivism.

(b) Charvaka.

(c) Vedanta.

(d) Shada Darshana.

Ans: Charvaka. 

9. He is the first great thinker of Jain philosophy.

(a) Gautam Buddha.

(b) Mahavira.

(c) Rishabha Deva.

(d) Upali.

Ans: Rishabha Deva. 

10. This is a technique of logical thinking.

(a) Nyaya.

(b) Samkhya.

(c) Vaisheshika.

(d) Yoga.

Ans: Nyaya.


Q.1. What place was given to religion in the ancient Indian society?

Ans: Religion has been given very important place in the ancient times in Indian society. Therefore it had always played an important part in lives of the people.

Q.2. What had been relationship in religion and various groups of people?

Ans: It is said that we find various forms of religion in India because it assumed numerous forms in relation to different groups of people associated with them.

Q.3. Mention three vital features or characteristics of religion.

Ans: 1. Religious ideas, thoughts and practices differed among groups of people and transformations and developments took place in the various religions forms in course of time.

2. Religion in India was never static in character. The various religious movements were driven by an interest dynamic strength.

Q.4. Explain the meaning of the term ‘Right Speech’.

Ans: Man should control his speech by right resolve. It means to avoid false or unpleasant works by criticising others.


Q.1. Write a short note on the Vaishnava Movement in the south.

Ans: Vaishnava Movement in the South: 

1. The history of the Vaishnava movement from the end of the Gupta period till the first decade of the thirteenth century AD is concerned chiefly with South India.

2. Vaishnava poet saints known as Alvars (a Tamil word denoting those drowned in Vishnu-bhakti) preached single-minded devotion (ekat-mika bhakti) for Vishnu and their songs were collectively known as Prabandhas.

Q.2. Write a short note on “Shaivism”. 

Ans: Shaivism:

1. Evidence show that Shaivism had its origin in hoary antiquity. Panin refers to a group of Shiva-worshippers as Shiva-bhagavatas, who were characterised by the iron lances and clubs they carried and their skin gargarments. He refers indirectly and briefly to the forceful and outlandish rituals of these worshippers of Shiva.

2. The Nayanars hailed from all castes. This was supplemented on the doctrinal side by a large number of Shaiva intellectuals whose names were related with many forms of Lord Shaiva movements like Agamanta, Shudha and Vira-Shaivism.

Q.3. Discuss minor religious movements related with ancient India.

Ans: Minor Religious Movements of Ancient Period:

1. Worship of the female principle (Shakti) and of Surya did not achieve equal significance as the other two major brahmanical cults. The female aspect of the divinity might have been venerated in the pre-Vedic times. 

2. In the Vedic age respect was shown also to the female principle as the Divine Mother, the Goodness of abundance and personified energy (Shakti).

3. However, clear reference to the exclusive worshippers of the Devi is not to be found until a comparatively late period.

4. Surya has been venerated in India from the earliest times. In Vedic and epic mythology sun and his various aspects played a very important part.


Q.1. Write an essay on “Folk Cults”. 

Ans: Folk Cults:

1. The worship of Yakshas and Nagas and other folk deities constituted the most important part of primitive religious beliefs in which Bhakti had a very vital role to play.

2. These is sufficient proofs about the prevalence of this type of worship among the people in early literature as well as archaeology. 

3. Vasudeva / Krishna Worship: A Sutra in panini’s Ashtadhyayi refers to the Worshippers of Vasudeva (Krishna). 

4. The Chhandogya Upanishad also speaks of Krishna, the son of Devaki, a pupil of the sage Ghora Angirasa who was a sun Worshipping priest.

5. A large number of people worshipped Vasudeva Krishna exclusively as their personal God and they were at first Known as Bhagavatas. 

6. Bhagavata cult grew steadily, absorbing within its fold other Vedic and Brahminic divinities like Vishnu (primarily an aspect of the sun) and Narayana (a cosmic God). 

7. From the last Gopta period the name mostly used to designate this Bhakti cult was Vaishnava indicating the predominance of the Vedic Vishnu element in it with stress on the doctrine of incarnations (avataras).

Q.2. Discuss briefly the beginning of Vedic philosophy under the following heads:

(i) Samkhya System.

(ii) Nyaya.

Ans: Beginning of Vedic philosophy (or Background of Vedic philosophy):

(i) Religion of the early Vedic times (or of the Rig Vedic Age) of the people was very simple in the sense that it had chiefly of worship of several deities representing the different phenomena of nature through prayers. 

(ii) It was during the late Vedic Age that definite ideas and philosophies about the true nature of soul (or spirit) or Atman and the cosmic principles of Brahman who represented the ultimate reality were developed.

(iii) These Vedic philosophical concepts later on gave rise to six different schools of philosophies called Shada Darshana. They fall in the category of the orthodox system as the final authority of the Vedas is recognised by all of them.

Description of two branches of philosophy:

(i) Samkhya System:

(a) The Samkhya philosophy holds that reality is constituted of two principles one female and the other male i.e. Prakriti and purusha respectively. Prakriti and purusha are completely independent and absolute.

(b) According to this system, purusha is more consciousness, hence it cannot be modified or changed. 

(c) Prakriti is constituted of three attributes, thoughts, movement (inertia) and the change or transformation of these attributes brings about the change in all objects. 

(d) The Samkhya philosophy attempts to establish some relationship between purusha and prakriti for explaining the creation of the universe.

(e) The founder of Samkhya philosophy was Kapila, who wrote the Sankhya Sutra. 

(ii) Nyaya:

(a) Nyaya is regarded as a technique of logical thinking. According to Nyaya, valid knowledge is defined as the real knowledge, that is, one knows about the object as it exists.

(b) For instance, it is when one knows a snake as a snake or as a cup as a cup.

(c) Nyaya system of philosophy considers God who creates, sustains and destroys the universe. 

(d) Gautama (rishi) is said to be the author of the Nyaya Sutras.

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