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NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 9 Religion And Philosophy In Medieval India
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Religion And Philosophy In Medieval India
Intext Questions 9.1
Q.1. Who were called Ulemas?
Ans: Religious scholars with orthodox Sunni ideas.
Q.2. What do you mean by Kalam?
Ans: Orthodox doctrine of Islam religion.
Q.3. Who was called Data Ganj Baksh?
Q.4. How many Silsilahs Ain-i-Akbari speaks about?
Q.5. Where is the Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti Khanqah located?
Q.6. What is the other name of Islamic law?
Q.7. Who is called Chirag-i-Dilli (The Lamp of Delhi)?
Ans: Sheikh Nasiruddin Mahmud.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 9.2
Q.1. Which work became the turning point in the history of Vaishnavite movement?
Ans: Bhagavata purana.
Q.2. Adi Granth is a holy work of which religion?
Ans: Sikh religion.
Q.3. How did Kabir and Guru Nanak become popular among the masses?
Ans: Their ideas were drawn from the Hindu and Muslim traditions. They also used simple Languages.
Q.4. Who said this, ‘Women who give birth to Kings should not be spoken ill of?
Ans: Guru Nanak.
Q.5. Who wrote Sur Sagar?
Q.1. How did sufi movement progress in Islam?
Ans: Islam saw the rise of many religions and spiritual movements within it. Abul Hasan Ashari founded Ashari school and evolved its own rationalist argument in defence of the orthodox doctrine of Islam. The greatest exponent of this school was Abu Hamid al Ghazali (1058-1111 AD) who is credited with having reconciled orthodoxy with mysticism. He was a great theologian who in AD 1095 began to lead a life of a Sufi. The Sufis were mystics who called for liberalism in Islam. In course of time Sufis were divided into Silsilahs.
Q.2. How will you differentiate the Chishti Silsila with Suhrawardi silsila?
Ans: 1. Chishti Silsila was founded by Sheikh Muinuddin at Ajmer. While the Suhrawardi silsila was started by Sheikh Shihabuddin Suhrawardi, but in India by Sheikh Bahauddin Jakariya.
2. Chisti saints maintained distance from the state, which Suhrawardi saints were closed to the state.
3. Suhrawardi saints accepted gifts, jagirs, and even government posts in the ecclesiastical department. Chishti saints were strictly against all this materialistic feelings.
Q.3. The Bhakti saints and the Sufi saints were the two faces of a coin. Elaborate.
Ans: It is rightly said that the Bhakti and Sufi saints were two faces of a same coin.
Similarly between the ideas of the Sufi and the Bhakti Saints:
1. The Sufis and Bhakti saints played an important role in bringing the Muslims and the Hindus together. The both favoured love and respect for all, society equality and humanity and liberal ideas in religion. They treated Hindus and Muslims alike.
2. The both Sufis and Bhakti saints were pious men in their thought, ideas and actions. Both of them laid emphasis on free thought, liberal ideas and service of humanity.
3. The both people favoured mediation in order to achieve religious satisfaction.
4. Like the Bhakti saints, the Sufis too interpreted religion as ‘love of God’ and service of humanity.
5. Like the Bhakti saints who were engaged in breaking down the barriers within Hinduism, the Sufis too infused a new life between early Bhayi and Sufis ideas laid the foundation for more liberal movement of the fifteenth century.
Q. 4. What were the similarities between Guru Nanak and Kabir?
Ans: (i) Both Guru Nanak and Kabir believed in Nirguna Bhakti.
(ii) They both worked for social upliftment.
(iii) They used simple local languages for their preachings.
Q. 5. Write a short paragraph on the Vaishnavite movement of India.
Ans: During this period, another movement based upon devotion towards a sakar form of God had also developed. This movement, called the Vaishnavite movement. It was centred around the worship of Rama and Krishna, who were seen as incarnations (avatars) of Lord Vishnu. Its main exponents were Surdas, Mirabai, Tulsidas and Chaitanya. Their path of salvation was expressed through the medium of poetry, song, dance and kirtans. Surdas, Mirabai spread this in North India.
The Vaishnavite movement spread in the east through the efforts of Chaitanya (1484-1533). Chaitanya considered Krishna not as a mere incarnation of Vishnu but as the highest form of God. The devotion for Krishna was expressed through Sankirtans (hymn session by devotees) which took place in homes, temples and even street processions. The Vaishnavite saints developed their philosophy within the broad framework of Hinduism. They called for reforms in religion and love amongst fellow beings. Their philosophy was broadly humanist.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. ______ is the religion of the Muslims.
2. This is one of the two sects of Islam.
3. Sheikh Muinuddin started _______ Silsila of the Sufi.
(d) None of these.
4. This Silsila was Be-shara.
(d) Both (a) and (b).
Ans: Both (a) and (b).
5. Bhakti Saints were divided into ______ groups or classes.
6. This sufi saint was famous as Data Ganj Baksh India.
(b) Muinuddin Chishti.
(c) Sheikh Bahauddin Zakariaya.
7. The origin of Bhakti movement in India look place at:
(b) Tamil Nadu.
8. He is a famous Bhakti saint belonging to Nirguna Sect.
(d) None of these.
9. Vaishnavite devotees praising lord Vishnu were called:
10. Guru Nanak was born at: