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NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 10 Religious Reform Movements In Modern India
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Religious Reform Movements In Modern India
Intext Questions 10.1
Q.1. State the circumstances that lead to the foundation of Brahma Samaj.
Ans: Evil practices prevalent in the society such as Sati pratha, caste system etc.
Q.2. What were the principles of Brahman Samaj?
Ans: Oppose idol worship, No to sacrifices, No to offerings, Sati pratha condemnation, Human dignity.
Q.3. How did prarthana Samaj help reducing social disparities?
Ans: By doing intercaste marriages, inter-caste dining, widow remarriage, improvement of the lot of women and depressed classes.
Q.4. Who was M.G.Ranade?
Ans: A strong follower of prarthana Samaj.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 10.2
Q.1. Who founded Arya Samaj?
Ans: Arya Samaj was founded by Dayanand Saraswati.
Q.2. Where was first Dayanand Anglo-Vedic College established?
Ans: At Lahore in 1886.
Q.3. How according to Gadadhar Chattopadhaya can you achieve salvation?
Ans: The service of mankind is a means to attain salvation.
Q.4. What was the original name of Swami Vivekananda?
Ans: Narendra Nath Datta.
Q.5. What according to Swami Vivekananda was the highest religion?
Ans: Service to the poor and downtrodden.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 10.3
Q.1. Where was The Theosophical Society founded?
Ans: In U.S.A.
Q.2. Who founded the Theosophical Society?
Ans: H.P.Blavatsky-a Russian and Col. H.S. Olocott -an American.
Q.3. Where was the headquarters of the Theosophical Society in India?
Ans: Adyar near Madras.
Q.4. Who established Home Rule Leagues in 1916?
Ans: Mrs. Annie Besant.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 10.4
Q.1. Who started Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College?
Ans: Sayyid Ahmed Khan.
Q.2. Where is the Aligarh Muslim University located?
Q.3. What were the views of Sayyid Ahmed Khan for Muslim women?
Ans: Removal of Purdah system and education for women.
Q.4. Where was the Muhammadan Literary Society established?
Ans: At Calcutta in 1863.
Q.5. Give the names of any three famous socio-religious reformers of the Parsis.
Ans: Dadabhai Naoroji, S.S. Bengalee and Nauroji Furdomji.
Q.1. What was Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s role in the society reforms in India?
Ans: 1. Raja Rammohan Roy felt greater revulsion for many practices prevailing in India, that enjoyed religious approval.
2. He was strongly opposed to the practice of Sati, the burning of the widow on the husband’s funeral pyre. It was due to the efforts of Rammohan Roy that Sati was abolished by the government in 1829.
3. Raja Rammohan Roy was also deeply opposed to the caste system that prevailed in Indian society. A humanist and democrat to the core, he wrote and talked against the caste system.
4. Another significant area that concerned Raja Rammohan Roy was Hindu theology. Study of the Vedas and Upanishads gave him ground to show that monotheism was the original Hindu belief and hence he denounced polytheism and idolatry.
5. Raja Rammohan Roy proclaimed that there is only one God for all religions and for all humanity.
6. He wrote in Bengali and English. He was an ardent promoter of English education. He was also well versed in the Persian language and some of his most liberal and rational ideas were expressed in his early writings in that language.
7. To bring his ideas into practice, Raja Rammohan Roy founded Brahmo Sabha in 1828 which later came to be learn as Brahmo Samaj. This institution worked to propagate the ideas, thought and philosophy of Rammohan Roy.
Q.2. How would you say that prarthana Samaj was doing religious as well as social reforms?
Ans: They devoted themselves to the work of social reform such as inter-caste dining, inter-caste marriage, widow remarriage and improvement of the lot of women and depressed classes.
Mahadev Govind Ranade (1843-1901) devoted his entire life to prarthana Samaj. He was the founder of the Widow Remarriage Association (1861) and the Deccan Education Society, He established the poona Sarvajanik Sabha as well. To Ranade, religious reforms was inseparable from social reform.
Q.3. How will you justify the Arya Samaj ‘s faith in Vedas?
Ans: Dayanand and Arya Samaj help the Vedas as infallible and reservoir of knowledge for all ages. This organization gave call and work for the idea “back to the Vedas”.
Q.4. Explain how Rama Krishna Mission helped in awakening India in the nineteenth century?
Ans: Swami Vivekananda, the founder of Rama Krishna Mission was proud of Indian’s spiritual heritage. He condemned the caste system, rigid rituals, century old superstitions and advocated theory of liberty, free thinking and equality. The principal features of this mission was its insurance on the upliftment of the masses, and thus helped India in awakening.
Q.5. Discuss the effects of Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan in removing the evils of Muslim community.
Ans: 1. Sayyid Ahmed Khan realised that unless the Muslims adapted themselves to the changed circumstances of British rule, they would be deprived of all new opportunities for status and prosperity. He was highly impressed by modern scientific thought and worked all his life to reconcile it with Islam.
2. Sayyid Ahmed Khan interpreted the Quran in the light of rationalism and science. He urged the people to develop a critical approach and freedom of thought.
3. Sayyid Ahmed Khan warned against fanaticism, narrow-mindedness and exclusiveness. He asked the people to be broad minded and tolerant.
4. In 1883 he said,”Now both of us (Hindus and Muslims) live on the air of India, drink the holy waters of the Ganga and Jamuna. We both feed upon the products of the Indian soil, we are a nation and the progress and welfare of the country, and both of us, depend on our unity, mutual sympathy, and love, while our mutual disagreement, obstinacy and opposition and illfeeling are sure to destroy us.”
5. Sayyid Ahmed Khan believed that the religious and social life of the Muslims could be improved only with the help of modern Western scientific knowledge and culture. Therefore, promotion of modern education was the first task all his life. As an official, he founded school at many places. He got many western books translated into Urdu.
6. Sayyid Ahmed Khan started the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at 1875 at Aligarh. It was meant to be a centre for spreading western sciences and culture. Later this college grew into the Aligarh Muslim University.
7. The liberal, social and cultural movement started by Sayyid Ahmed Khan among the Muslims is known as the Aligarh Movement as it originated in Aligarh. The Anglo-Oriental College was the centre of this movement. It aimed at promoting modern education among Muslims without weakening the ties to Islam. It became the central educational institution for Indian Muslims.
8. The Aligarh Movement was large of responsible for the Muslim revival that followed. It provided a focal point for the scattered Muslim population in different parts of the country. It gave them a common fund of ideas and a common language-Urdu. A Muslim press was developed for the compilation of works in Urdu.
9. Sayyid Ahmed Khan ‘s efforts extended to the social sphere as well. He worked for Social reforms. He wanted women to be educated and advocated the removal of the Purdah. He was also against polygamy.
Q.6. The contribution of the Theosophical Society in the development of Indian society cannot be forgotten. Elaborate.
Ans: 1. The Theosophical Society was introduced to India in 1879 and its headquarters was set-up at Adyar near Madras in 1886. Its influence spread under Annie Besant in 2893 who played an important role in India ‘s struggle for freedom.
2. The society fought against untouchability and advocated upliftment of women. Annie Besant dedicated her entire life to the cause of Indian society. She described her mission in these words: “The Indian world is first of all the revival, the strengthening and uplifting of the ancient religions. This has brought with it a new self-respect, and pride in the past, belief in the future, and as an inevitable result, a great wave of patriotic life, the beginning of the rebuilding of a nation.”
3. One of Mrs. Besant ‘s many achievements in India was the establishment of the Central Hindu School. She made India her permanent home and took a prominent part in Indian politics.
4. “The needs of India are, among others, the development of a national spirit and an education founded on Indian ideas and enriched, not dominated by the thoughts and culture of the west.” She always supported Home Rule for for Indians and established a Home Rule League in 1916 to spread the message of self rule.
5. Branches of the Theosophical Society were opened all over India and its journal Theosophist had a wide circulation. The society gave a helping hand in social and religious reforms, especially in South India. Most of the world done by it was influenced by Mrs. Annie Besant.
Q.7. Write a short note on the reforms undertaken by the Sikh reformers.
Ans: After 1920 the Sikh movements gained momentum when the Akali Movement rose in Punjab. The chief object of the Akalis was to improve the management of the Gurudwaras or Sikh Shrines that were under the control of priests or Mahants who treated them as their private property. In 1925,a law was passed which gave the right of managing Gurudwaras to the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Sati pratha was abolished in the year ______
2. Sati pratha was abolished on the initiative taken by this social reformer.
(a) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
(b) Raja Rammohan Roy.
(c) Debendra Nath Tagore.
(d) Sayyid Ahmed Khan.
Ans: Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
3. Brahmo Samaj was founded in 1828 by _______
(a) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
(b) Debender Nath Tagore.
(c) Sayyid Ahmed Khan.
(d) Raja Rammohan Roy.
Ans: Raja Rammohan Roy.
4. He succeeded Raja Rammohan Roy as the leader of Brahma Samaj.
(a) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
(b) Keshab Chandra Sen.
(c) Debender Nath Tagore.
(d) Narendra Nath Datta.
Ans: Dadender Nath Tagore.
5. Madam H.P. Blavatsky and Col.H.S. Olcott founded this society.
(c) Brahmo Samaj.
(d) Prarthana Samaj.
6. Aligarh Movement was started by:
(a) Gadadhar Chattopadhaya.
(b) Mool Shanker.
(c) Sayyid Ahmed.
(d) None of these.
Ans: Sayyid Ahmed.
7. Gadadhar Chattopadhaya was later famous as:
(a) Swami Vivekananda.
(b) Dayanand Saraswati.
(c) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
(d) Ramkrishna paramhansa.
Ans: Ramkrishna paramhansa.
8. He was disciple of Ramananda Paramhansa and founded Ramakrishna mission.
(a) Dayanand Saraswati.
(b) Swami Vivekananda.
(c) Sayyid Ahmed.
(d) M.G. Ranade.
Ans: Swami Vivekananda.