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NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 12 Performing Arts-Music, Dance And Drama
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Performing Arts-Music, Dance And Drama
Intext Questions 12.1
Answer the following questions:
Q.1. What are the different forms of performing arts?
Ans: Dance, Drama and Music.
Q.2. Besides entertaining and recreation what other impact does performing arts do?
Ans: It is also a source of education to masses.
Q.3. Which is the earliest text dealing exclusively with performing arts?
Ans: Bharata’s Natyashastra. It was possibly compiled between 2nd century BC and 2nd century AD.
Q.4. Name the text compiled between 8th and 9th century AD of performing arts?
Ans: Matanga ‘s Brihaddesi.
Q.5. In which work do we find the regas were first named and discussed at great length?
Ans: Brihaddesi text.
Q.6. How many ragas were mentioned in Sangeet Ratnakara?
Ans: 264 ragas.
Q.7. What was the theme of Jaya Deva ‘s Gita Govinda?
Ans: Love of Radha and Krishna.
Q.8. Name the two Tamil poets who set their Psalms (poems) to music.
Ans: Shaivite Nayanars and Vaishnavite Alvars.
Q.9. Who wrote Kitabe Navras?
Ans: Ibrahim Adil Shah II.
Q.10. What was the contribution of Baz Bahadur ruler of Malwa and his wife Rupmati to music?
Ans: They together introduced new ragas.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12.2
Q.1. What are the two divisions of Indian classical music?
Ans: (a) The Hindustani classical music of North India.
(b) The Carnatic music of South India.
Q.2. What are the different styles of Hindustani Justice?
Ans: Dhrupad, Dhammar, Thumri, Khayal and Tappa.
Q.3. What is Gharana in Hindustani classical music?
Ans: Gharana is a particular style of music based on Guru-shiksha parampara.
Q.4. Name some of the famous Hindustani music gharanas of India.
Ans: Jaipur Gharana, Kirana Gharana, Gwalior Gharana etc.
Q.5. What is Kriti in Carnatic music?
Ans: Main composition.
Q.6. Name few composers of Carnatic music of India.
Ans: (a) Shyam Shastri.
Q.7. What are some of the main instruments that accompany Carnatic music?
Ans: Flute, Veena, Nadaswaram, Mridangam, Ghatam.
Q.8. What are two similar features of Hindustani and Carnatic music?
Ans: (a) Carnatic Alpana is similar to alap in Hindustani music.
(b) Tilana in Carnatic music resembles with Tarana of Hindustani music.
(c) Both lay stress on tala or talam.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12.3
Q.1. What represents the Nataraja figure of Lord shiva?
Ans: Creation and destination of cosmic cycle.
Q.2. What are the two forms of dences?
Ans: Classical form of fence and Folk dance.
Q.3. Match the following:
|Folk dance from||State|
|Bhangra & Gidda||Maharashtra|
|Folk dance from||State|
|Bhangra and Gidda||Punjab|
|Koli||Maharashtra (Fisherman ‘s dance)|
Q.4. What are the three broad categories of a dance?
Ans: (a) Nritta (Pada Sanchalan).
(b) Nritya (Anga Sanchalan).
(c) Natya (Abhinaya).
Q.5. Name the two famous dancers of Kathak.
Ans: Pt. Birju Maharaj, pt. Sambhu Maharaj, Sitara Devi, Pt. Gopi Krishna.
Q.6. Name some well known dancers of Bharatnatyam.
Ans: (a) Geeta Chandran.
(b) Dr. Padma Subramaniam.
(c) Smt. Saroja Vaidhyanathan.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12. 4
Q.1. What were the initial forms of Drama?
Ans: The child enacts, mimics and caricates.
Q.2. Name the two plays of Bharata.
Ans: Asura Parajeya, Amrit Manthan.
Q.3. What according to Bharata is a perfect means of communication?
Q.4. Which community had professional drama companies?
Q.5. Who were Kushilavas?
Ans: Professional singers singing heroic tales dramatically.
Q.6. What are the various types of drama flourishing trade days?
Ans: (a) Stage theatre.
(b) Radio theatre.
(c) Nukkar or street plays.
(d) Mono drama (one man show).
(e) Musical theatre.
(f) Short skits.
(g) One act plays.
Q.7. Name any two plays of Kalidasa.
Ans: (a) Abhijnana Shakuntalam.
Q.8. Who wrote the Play padmavati?
Q.9. Name two plays of Jai Shankar Prasad.
Ans: (a) Ajatshatru.
(e) Karunalaya. (Any two)
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12.5
Q.1. Name the Ministry of the Government of India propagating the three forms of Performing Arts.
Ans: The Ministry of Human Resources and Development.
Q.2. Name an agency of the Government of India working in the development of Performing Arts.
Ans: Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR)
Q.3. How does government promote renowned artists?
Ans: By giving grants, scholarships, fellowships and also by arranging exchange programmes.
Q.4. How are performing arts helpful to us?
Ans: The performing arts give us balance of mind, self-restraint, and love for all. It also builds self-confident and gives us capability of adapting in all circumstances.
Q.1. What was the aim and objective of performing arts in India?
Ans: 1. Music, dance and drama have always been integrated aspects of Indian culture. Initially these art forms were used to propagate religious and social ideas. The religious and other teachings of Indian preachers reache the masses through the enactment of dramas in which music and dance were incorporated to ugage the audience.
2. In a way, performing arts have remained important sources of education for the masses.
3. Slowly and gradually, such art forms also become sources of entertainment and recreation.
4. Over the centuries art forms have developed into multifunctional disciplines, incorporating various spiritual, psychological, philosophical and aesthetic values.
Q.2. Trace the development of performing arts in India.
Ans: The earliest tradition of Indian music may be traced to Same Veda which contained the slokas that were put to music. Chanting of Vedic hymns with prescribed pitch and accent still from a part of religious rituals. The Shaivite Nayanars and Vaishnavite Alvars too set their Psalms (poems) to music.
In the Medieval period the Sufi and Bhakti saints encouraged music. Qawwalis were sung in Suft Khanqahs and devotional music like kirtan and Bhajan bacome. popular with the Bhakti saints. Names of Kabir, Mirabai, Surdasa, Tulsidas, Chandidasa, Vidyapati are closely as sociated with religious music.
In traditional Indian culture the function of dance was to give symbolic expression to reli-gious ideas. The figure of Lord Shiva as Natraja represents the creation and destruction of cos-mic cycle. It is different to say at what point of time dance originated but it is quite clear that dance came into existence as an effort to express joy.
Q.3. Describe the changes introduced in the modern Indian music.
Ans: 1. Orchestration of music on stage is a new development, use of cassettes replaced oral transmission of tunes and ragas.
2. Performances which were earlier limited to a privileged few have now been thrown open to the public and can be viewed by thousands of music lovers throughout the country.
3. Music education no longer depends on the master-disciple system but can be imparted through institutions teaching music.
4. As far as inspiration folk music is concerned we see that Christmas carols and occasions of Christians.
Q.4. What is the significance of folk songs? Name some folk songs.
Ans: India has rich legacy of folk or popular music. This music represents the emotion of the masses. The simple songs are composed to mark every event in life, festival, advent of a new sea-son, marriage and birth of a child. Mand and Bhatiali of Bengal, Ragini of Haryana and pandavani of Madhya Pradesh are some examples of folk songs of India.
Q.5. What is the importance of classical forms of dance? Name some of the classical dance forms of India.
Ans: The classical form of dance was per-formed in temples as well as in royal courts. The dance in temples had a Religious objective whereas in courts it was used purely for enter-tainment, but in both cases for the artists de-voted to this art form, it was not less than pray-ing to God.
Kathak, Manipuri, Bharatanatyam, Odissi, Mohiniattam and Kathkali are some of the forms of Indian classical dances.
Q.6. Drama has undergone a sea of change with the advent of British. Explain.
Ans: (i) The advent of the British in India changed the character of the society. In the eighteenth century a theatre was established in Calcutta by an Englishman. A Russian Named Horasim Lebedev founded a Bengali theatre which marked the beginning of modern Indian theatre in India.
(ii) English drama, especially by Shakespeare, influenced Indian drama. The stages evolved by educated Indians were different from traditional open air theatre. The states now had rolling curtains and change of scenes.
(iii) A Parsi company founded in Bombay showed that theatre could be used for commer-cial purposes.
(iii) Dramas began to depict tragedies, com-edies and the complexities of urban life. Drama wes now written in different regional languages. Side by side, folk theatre like jatra (Bengal); nautanki (U.P.), khyal (Rajasthan) and naach also flourished.
Q.7. Performing Arts have a great Potential to grow in India. Explain.
Ans: 1. Presently, all the three Performing arts (i.e. music, dance and drama) forms are flourishing in our country.
2. Many music institutions like various branches of Gandharva Maha Vidyalaya and prayag Sangeet Samiti have been imparting training in classical music and dance for more than fifty years.
3. A number of schools, colleges and universities in India have adopted these art forms as a part of their curriculum. Indira kala Sangeet Vishwa Vidyalaya of Khairagarh is a university of music.
4. Kathak Kendra, National School of Drama, Bhartiya Kala Kendra and several instutes are all propagating music in their own ways.
5. Music conferences, baithaks, lecture, demonstrations are being organised and musicians, music scholars, music teachers and music critics are trying to popularise music and dance.
6. Societies like, Spic-macay, Sangeet Natak Academy are also working hard to protect, develop and popularise Indian music, dance and drama at the national and even international level.
7. At the international level musicians have made important contribution. Different institutions of music started by pt. Ravi Shankar, Ustad Ali Akbar Khan, and Ustad Alla Rakha Khan are prestigious centres that teach Indian music to foreigners.
8. Many foreign universities have departments of Indian Performing arts and they award degrees and diplomas to students.
9. All over the whole Indian artists are invited to perform and participate in various festivals.
10. Various agencies like Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR) and the Ministry of Human Resource Development continuously propagate all these art forms by giving grants, scholarships and fellowships to renowned artists as well as to young artists and by arranging exchange programmes in the field of Indian music, dance and drama.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. These are main _______ performing arts.
2. This Veda contains Slokas of music.
(b) Sam Veda.
(c) Yajur Veda.
(d) None of these.
Ans: Sam Veda.
3. This is a music text compiled by Bharata between second century BC and second centry AD.
(a) Geet Govinda.
(d) Abhinava Bharti.
4. It is the most famous raga kavya written by Jaidev.
(a) Geet Govinda.
(b) Abhinava Bharti.
(d) None of these.
Ans: Geet Govinda.
5. Sitar and tabla were invented by _______
(b) Abhinava Gupta.
(d) Amir Khusrau.
Ans: Amir Khusrau.
6. The famous and great musician in the court of Akhtar:
(b) Amir Khusrao.
7. This is one of the most popular ragas of Hindustani Music.
8. This instrument is used mainly in Indian music.
9. He is one of the three composers to whom the compositions of Carnatic music can be attributed collectively.
10. The figure of Lord shiva representing construction and destruction of cosmic cycle.
(a) Bronze statue.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Write the names of three Performing art forms.
Ans: 1. Music.
2. Dance. and
Q.2. Write in one sentence relationship between Performing Arts and Indian culture.
Ans: The Three art forms (of performing)-Music, dance and drama-have been integral aspects of Indian culture.
Q.3. Write the name of one author to whom we owe much to.
Ans: We owe much to Bharata (a scholar of ancient India, the author of Natyashastra), for his contributions in the field of arts.
Q.4. Do you think that the political turmoil had influenced the Performing arts of India?
Ans: No, I think the political turmoil in country for many years did not diminish the influence of performing art forms.
Q.5. How did the masses and experts contributed in the art forms? Your answer should be limited in one sentence.
Ans: The masses and the experts both took great pains and interest to retain the classicism in the art forms.
Q.6. How for the Western impact has influenced the Indian Performing arts? Answer in one sentence.
Ans: Performing arts in India have been influenced to a significant extent by the western impact.
Q.7. What is the status of the Indian Performing arts in the country and outside it?
Ans: In the present times, there is an enhanced status of performing art forms (music, dance and drama) in the country and abroad.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Prepare a list of vocal modern Indian musicians.
Ans: Most famous modern Indian musicians of India are:
2. Pt. V. D. Paluskar.
3. Pt. V. N. Bhatkhande.
4. Thyagaraja Mutthuswami Dikshitar.
5. Pt. Omkar Nath Thakur.
6. Pt. Vinaik Rao patwardhan.
7. Ustad Chand Khan.
8. Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan.
9. Ustad Faiyaz Khan.
10. Ustad Nissar Hussain Khan.
11. Ustad Amir Khan.
12. Pt. Bhimsen Joshi.
13. Pt Kumar Gundharva.
14. Kesarbai Kerkar. and
15. Smt. Gangubai Hangal.