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NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 13 Indian Architecture
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Intext Questions 13.1
Q.1. What do you mean by the evolution of Indian culture?
Ans: The emergence and decay of great empires and dynasties in the sub -continent influenced the growth and shape of Indian culture.
Q.2. How did Harappans protect their civilization?
Ans: The Harappans protected their civilization by building a walled city having fortification of the gates.
Q.3. How were the engineering skills of Harappan people evident?
Ans: The public Bath at the site of Mohenjo Daro is an evidence of their engineering skills .
Q.4. Where was the remains of Buddha buried?
Q.5. Where were the Buddha ‘s statues found?
Ans: Lumbini, Sarnath, Bodh Gaya, Kushinagar.
Q.6. When was the first temple built in India?
Ans: During Gupta period.
Q.7. What do you mean by Stupas, Viharas and Chaityas?
Ans: Religious architectural remains related to Lord Buddha.
Q.8. Where was a dockyard excavated?
Ans: At Lothal in Gujarat.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 13.2
Q.1. How did Mehasthenes describe the palace of Chandra Gupta Maurya?
Ans: A large palace carved out of wood.
Q.2. Name the two stupas that show the achievement of Mauryan architecture.
Ans: Sanchi stupa and Sarnath stupa.
Q.3. Where were the teachings of Dhamma inscribed in Ashoka reign?
Ans: On Monolithic stone pillars.
Q.4. Name the few schools of architecture of early historic period.
Ans: (a) Gandhara school.
(b) Mothura school.
(c) Amaravati School.
Q.5. Where are Udaygiri caves?
Ans: In Orissa.
Q.6. Who built the Kailash temple of Ellora?
Ans: The Rashtrakutas.
Q.7. Who built the Ratha temples at Mahabalipuram?
Ans: The Pallavas.
Q.8. What is Dravida style of architecture?
Ans: A temple architecture style having Vimana or Shikhara, high walls and the gateway topped by Gopuram.
Q.9. Name the temple built by Chola king at Tanjore.
Ans: Brihadeshwara Temple.
Q.10. Define Nagara style of architecture.
Ans: Temples constructed with shikharas (spiral roofs), the garbhagriha (sanctum) and the mandap (pillared halls).
Q.11. Who built the Sun temple at Konark?
Ans: Narshimha Deva I.
Q.12. Name the famous Jain temple at Mount Abu, Rajasthan.
Ans: Dilwara Temple.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 13.3
Q.1. What was the style of architecture of the Turkish?
Ans: Domes, arches, minarets.
Q.2. Name some of the tombs and mosques constructed during the Sultanate period.
Ans: (a) Quwwat -ul-Islam Mosque at Delhi.
(b) Qutub Minar ar Delhi.
(c) Tomb of Mohammad Tughlaq at Delhi.
(d) Tomb of Firoz Tughlaq at Delhi.
(e) Tomb of Ibrahim Lodi at Delhi.
(f) Sher Shah Tomb at Sasaram.
Q.3. Which is the largest dome in the world?
Ans: Gol Gumbaz.
Q.4. What is pietra dura?
Ans: Decorative design in inlay work in buildings constructed during Mughal period.
Q.5. Which building reflects the grandeur of the mighty Mughal Empire?
Ans: Buland Darwaja.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 13.4
Q.1. Which were the most famous churches Goa built by protuguese?
Ans: Basilica Bom Jesus and the church of Saint Francis.
Q.2. Name the architect who designed the Rashtrapati Bhawan.
Q.3. Which architectural style can be obtained in buildings built during British empire in India?
Ans: Greek and Roman architectural style.
Q.4. What is contained in the Victoria Memorial building in Calcutta these day?
Ans: It houses museum full of colonial artefacts.
Q.5. Who designed the city of Chandigarh?
Ans: French architect Lee Corbusier.
Q.6. Name the architect who designed the India International centre of Delhi.
Ans: An Austrian architect Stein.
Q.7. Name some famous architects of modern India.
Ans: (i) Raj Rawal.
(ii) Charles Correa.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 13.5
Q.1. Name 5 cities that came up in the ancient period in India.
Ans: Harappan, Mohenjo-Daro, Kalibanga, Varanasi, Ayodhya, Hastinapur, Ujjain, Shravasti, Kapilavastu, Kaushambi. (Any five).
Q.2. Name 5 places where ports were set up by the British.
Ans: Any 5 out of panaji, Bombay, Machilipatnam, Nagapattinam, Madras, Calcutta.
Q.3. Name 5 hill stations developed by the British.
Ans: Any 5 out of Mussoorie, Simla, Nainital, Darjeeling, Shillong, Nilgiri, Kodaikanal.
Q.4. Who lived in the Civil Lines?
Ans: Civilian officers.
Q.5. What was the Cantonment?
Ans: Army area.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 13.6
Q.1. Name 4 famous places of Chennai.
Ans: The High court Building, The lce House, Church of St. John, General post office, Marina Beach.
Q.2. Name 4 famous places of Kolkata.
Ans: Any 4 out of Howrah Bridge, Marble palace, Writers Building, Fort William, Eden Gardens, Victoria Memorial Hall.
Q.3. Name 4 famous places of Mumbai.
Ans: Any 4 out of Secretariat, Council Hall, Elphinstone College, Victoria Terminus (modern Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus), Gateway of India.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 13.7
Q.1. Match the cities within Delhi with the King who built them.
Q.2. Name 4 famous Sufi saints of the Jahanpanah area.
Ans: Kuthuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki, Nizamuddin Auliya, Sheikh Nasiruddin Mahmud, Amir Khusrau.
Q.1. Describe architectural style of Harappan Civilization.
Ans: 1. The excavations at Harappa and Mohenjodaro and several other sites of the Indus Valley civilization revealed the existence of very modern urban civilization with expert town planning and engineering skills.
2. In fact the most vital characteristics of Harappan architecture are superior town planning skills and cities that have been built on a clear geometric pattern or grid layout.
3. Roads cut each other at right angles and were very well laid out.
4. Another remarkable feature was the existence of well-Planned sewage system in the residential parts of the city. Small drains from the house were connected to large ones along the side of the main roads. The drains were covered and loose covers were provided for the purpose of cleaning them.
5. The planning of the house also meticulous.There is evidence of stairs and houses were generally double storied. Doors were in the side lanes to prevent dust from the main roads from entering the houses.
Q.2. Elaborate the contributions of Guptas, pallavas and Chole Rulers in the temple architecture of India.
Ans: 1. The Gupta period marks the beginning of the construction of free-standing Hindu temples. An example of this is the temple at Deogarh which had a central shrine or garbhagriha where the image of the deity was placed.
2. The Rath temple of Mahabalipuram built by the Pallavas are very good examples of rock -cut temple. Mast probably the stability and permanence of rocks attracted the patrons of art and builders who decorated these temples with beautiful sculpture.
3. In Southern India the pallavas, Cholas (along with other ruling dynasties of the peninsula) were great builders of temple. The pallava Rulers built the several temples at Mahabalipuram. Pallavas also built other structural temples like Kailashanath temple and Vaikuntha perumal temple at Kanchipuram.
4. The Cholas built many temples most famous being the Brihadeshwara Temple at Tanjore. The Cholas developed a typical style of temple architecture of South Indian called the Dravida style, complete with Vimana or Shikhara, high walls and gateway topped by Gopuram. Magnificent temples were built at Belur, Halebid where the stone engravings reached even greater heights.
Q.3. What were the different styles of architecture and sculpture found in India?
Ans: Architectural forms: The Indian architecture accommodated the local and regional cultural traditions, local material, social requirements, economic prosperity, weather conditions, ritualistic symbol, mythological beliefs and religious practices of different ages or times.
It included Harappan architecture, Mauryan architecture, cave architecture, rock-cut temples, free standing temples. Then came the Mughal architecture which brought with it arches and domes . Finally the British architecture made its impact on Indian architecture.
Q.4. Buddhism and Jainism had contracted in the architecture development of India. Discuss.
Ans: 1.Emergence of Buddhism and Jainism helped in the development of early architectural style in India. The Buddhist stupas was built at places where Buddh’s remains were preserved and at the major sites where important events in Buddha’s life took place.
2. Stupas were built at huge mounds of mud, enclosed in carefully burnt small standard bricks, at the places where the Buddha’s remains were buried. One was built at his birth place, Lumbini, the second at Gaya where he attained enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree, the third at Sarnath where he gave his first sermon, and the fourth at Kushinagar where he passed away, attaining Mahaparinirvana at the age of eighty.
3. Buddha’s burial mounds and places of major events in his life became important landmarks of the significant architectural buildings in the country. These became important sites for Buddha ‘s order of monks and nuns-the Sangha. Monasteries (Viharas) and centres of preaching, teaching and learning came up at such places.
4. Congregational halls (Chaityas) for teaching and interaction between the common people and the monks were also built.
5. From now on religion began to influence architecture. While Buddhists and Jains began to build Stupas, Viharas and Chaityas, the first temple buildings activity started. Mount Abu (related with Jains) in Rajasthan is known for the Dilwara temples dedicated to Jain thirthankars. These were built in pure white marble and adorned with exquisite sculpture. These were built under the patronage of Solanki rulers.
The first temple building (of the Hindus) activity started during the Gupta rule. The stupas of Sanchi and Sarnath are symbols of the achievement of Mauryan architecture. The gateways of the Sanchi stupa (Madhya Pradesh) with the beautiful sculpture depicting scenes from Jatak stories are specimens of the skill and aesthetic sense of the artisans.
6. A large number of statues of the Buddha were built by the artisans of the Mathura and Gandhar schools especially after first century AD under the influence of Kushanas.
7. The Amaravati School developed under the patronage of the Satavahanas of the Andhra region. A great stupa was built at Amaravati in the lower Godavari region.
Q.5. How would you view the construction of monuments during the regime of Delhi Sultanate?
Ans: With the establishment of regional Kingdoms in Bengal, Gujarat and the Deccan beautiful buildings having their own style were constructed. The Jame Masjid, the Sadi Saiyyad Mosque and the Shaking towers Ahmedabad are a few examples of this architecture.
In Mandu (Central India) the Jame Masjid, Hindola Mahal and Jahaz Mahal were built.
In the Deccan the Sultans erected a number of buildings. The Jame Masjid at Gulbarga, the Madarsa of Mahmud Gawan (of Bahemani kingdom) at Bidar, Ibrahim Rauza, Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur and the fort at Golkonda are just a few famous buildings.
Gol Gumbaz has the largest dome in the world.
All these buildings (of 22th to 15th centuries) vary in design and style from the buildings of North India.
The rulers of Vijayanagar empire which was established during this period (i.e.Sultanate period) also erected several grand temples and buildings.
Q.6. The architecture during Mughal period was a synthesis of the Indian, Persian, Mongol and Mughal styles. Elaborate.
Ans: 1. With the arrival of Turks during the thirteenth century came a new technique of architecture. Architectural styles of Persia, Arabia and Central Asia were introduced in India.
2. The engineering features of these build-ings (constructed among Sultanate period) were the domes, arches and minarets. The palaces, mosques and tombs built by the rulers have these features. However these features were blended with the features of the indigenous sr-chitecture and a new synthesis in architecture was achieved.
3. The process of synthesis in the field of Indian architecture further refined and reached its heights during the Mughal rule.
4. The earliest buildings of Delhi Sultanate period (1206-1526) is Quwwatul Islam Mosque at Delhi and the Qutub Minar. The latter is a tower, whose height is 70 meters. It is a tapering tower that has five stories. There are beautiful engravings of calligraphy both in the mosque and on the tower.
5. Several other buildings were later built by the Sultans. The tombs of Mohammad Tughlaqabad are some examples.
6. During the Afghan ruler the tombs of Ibrahim Lodi at Delhi and Shershah’s Tomb at Sasaram (Bihar) were constructed. The archi-tecture of this period also shows how ingenious styles were adopted and utilised by the builders.
During these years the Turks were still in the process of settling down. The rulers were threatened by the Mongols, who made sudden invasions from the north. This is why the build-ings of this period are strong, sturdy and practi-cal.
7. The advent of the Mughals brought a new era in architecture. The synthesis of style which began earlier reached its zenith during this time. The architecture of Mughal style began during Akbar’s Age. The first building of Akbar’s rule was Humayun’s Tomb at Delhi. In this grand building red stone was used. It has a main gateway and the tomb is placed in the midst of a garden. Many consider it a precursor of the Taj Mahal.
8. Akbar constructed forts at Agra and Fatehpur Sikri. The Buland Darwaza reflects the grandeur of the mighty Mughal Empire. This building was made following Akbar’s victory over Gujarat. The tomb of Salim Chisti, palace of Jadha Bai, Ibadat Khana, Birbal’s House and other buildings at Fatehpur Sikri reflect a synthesis of Persian and Indian elements.
9. During the reign of Jehangir (1605-2627), Akbar’s Mausoleum was built at Sikander near Agra. He built beautiful tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula which was constructed completely of marble.
10. Shahjahan was the greatest builder amongst the Mughals. He used marble extensively. Decorative design in lay work (called pietra dura, beautiful arches and minars were the features of his buildings The Red Fort and Jama Masjid of Delhi and above all the Taj Mahal are some of the buildings built by Shahjahan. Taj Mahal, the tomb of Shahjahan’s wife is built in white marble and reflects all the architectural features that were developed during the Mughal period. It had a central dome, four element minarets, gateway, inlay work and gardens surrounding the main building or structure of the Taj Mahal.
11. The Mughal style of architecture had a profound influence on the building of the later period.
Q.7. Narrate the story of Delhi in your own words.
Ans: Delhi has a history much older than that. It is believed that there are at least seven important old cities that have come together to form Delhi. The first city of Delhi is believed to have been established on the right bank of the Yamaha by Yudhishthira, the oldest of the pandava brothers by the name of Indraprastha. Surely, you remember the story of Mahabharata, which is the legend of the pandavas and Kauravas.
According to folklore, Delhi was founded by Raja Dhilu. During the 2nd century A.D, Ptolemy, the geographer marked Delhi in this map as Daidala.
But it was much before this that among the innumerable Harappan sites figures the city now called Delhi. The evidence of this can be seen if you visit the National Museum at Delhi.
Q.8. Find out the truth about the saying Delhi hai dil walo ki. Write an essay on it. You can search on the internet or get books from a library.
Ans: Students do yourself.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Evidence of great Architectural skills of Harappans were found at:
(d) Both (a) and (c).
2. Buddha was buried at:
3. The first temple in India was built during the empire of the:
(d) None of these.
4. The famous temple of Brihadeshwara was built by:
(a) The Mauryan.
(b) The Guptas.
(c) The Cholas.
(d) The Mughals.
Ans: The Cholas.
5. The Pallavas built this temple at Mahabalipuram.
(a) Ratha Temple.
(b) Brihadeshwara Temple.
(c) Sum Temple.
(d) Lingaraja Temple.
Ans: Ratha Temple.
6. Famous Dilwara Temples are at _______.
7. The Viceroy ‘s residence in Delhi was designed by this architect.
(d) Charles Correa.
8. Surkoda Rajgir is a city developed during:
(a) Harappan Civilization.
(b) British rule.
(c) Mughal rule.
(d) Gupta rule.
Ans: Harappan Civilization.
9. The famous Victoria Terminus is situated in _______
Ans: Mumbai .
10. Pandavas built this city of Delhi.
(c) Lal kot.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Which is the earliest and most remarkable evidence of Indian Architecture? Write its one unique and outstanding feature or achievement.
Ans: The earliest and most remarkable evidence of Indian architecture is found in the cities of the Harappan Civilization. Its unique and outstanding feature or achievement is well -planned town planning.
Q.2. How have been the Indian architectural styles classified in the post-Harappan period?
Ans: In the post-Harappan period architectural styles have been classified as Hindu, Buddhist and Jain.
Q.3. Mention one feature of medieval Indian architecture to indicate unity in diversity. What happened after that period?
Ans: The mediaeval period of Indian history saw the synthesis of Persian and Indigenous styles of architecture.
Thereafter the colonial period brought the influence of Western architectural forms to India.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Discuss the origin of architecture.
Ans: 1. Architecture is not a modern phenomenon. It was born as soon as the early cave man (of the stone age) began to build his own shelter to live in.
2. The early man first began to create and fix his own shelter when he stepped out from the natural habitat of dense jungle covers.
3. With the artistic faculties of man awakened in the search of larger and better sheltered spaces.
4. Man started to build, with inherent aesthetic sense, shelters that seemed pleasing to the eye.
In this way the origin of architecture started. A confluence of several factors paid contribution in its beginning. Out of these factors the main were the needs of the man, his imagination, available materials, skills of the early man, tools and implements discovered by the man. Capacities of the builders and capabilities of the workers also contributed in origin of architecture.