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NIOS Class 10 Indian Culture and Heritage Chapter 14 Science And Technology In India
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Science And Technology In India
Intext Questions 14.1
Q.1. What is the importance of developing science?
Ans: Developing science reduces our dependence on nature.
Q.2. What was the contribution of Aryabhatta in Astronomy?
Ans: He deviated from Vedic astronomy and gave it s scientific outlook.
Q.3. Who was Apastamba? What was his contribution to Mathematics?
Ans: Apastamba was a second century BC mathematician. He introduced practical geometry involving acute, obtuse, right angles.
Q.4. What were three contributions in the field of mathematics of Ancient India?
Ans: (a) Nation system.
(b) Decimal system.
(c) Use of zero.
Q.5. Which book mentions plants and herbs used for medical purposes in Ancient India?
Q.6. How many surgical instruments were mentioned in Sushrut Samhita?
Ans: 121 surgical instruments.
Q.7. Name the two books which became predecessors of the development of Indian Medicine?
Ans: Charaksamhita and Sushrutsamhita.
Q.8. How many medicinal plants were the surgeons of ancient India familiar with?
Ans: 760 plants.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.2
Q.1. What were the functions of Karkhanas in Medieval India?
Ans: Besides manufacturing of goods, They also provided technical and vocational training to young men.
Q.2. Who compiled Mrga-Paksi-Sastra in the 13th century?
Ans: Hamsa Deva.
Q.3. Who was the founder director of the Maragha Observatory?
Ans: Nasiruddin Tusi.
Q.4. Who got Lilavati translated into Persian?
Q.5. Which Mughal king introduced Mathematics as a subject of study?
Q.6. How was literature Preserved before the invention of paper?
Ans: It was preserved on palm leaves in South India. In Kashmir, literature was preserved on birch-bark (bhoj Patra).
Q.7. Which book gives an account of the casting of cannons in Medieval period?
Q.8. Name the perfume discovered by the mother of Nur Jehan?
Ans: The attar of roses.
Q.9. What does Ain-i-Akbari speak about?
Ans: About regulations of the perfume office of Akbar.
Q.10. How many observatories were set up by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II of Jaipur? Where were three observations located?
Ans: He set up five observatories each at Delhi, Ujjain, Varanasi, Mathura and Jaipur.
Q.11. Who developed Yantraja?
Ans: Mahendra Suri, a court astronomer of Firoz Shah.
Q.12. What was Yantraja?
Ans: An astronomical instrument.
Q.13. Which Unani medicine system came to India along with Mughals in Medieval period?
Ans: The Unani Tibb.
Q.14. What was the Rasachikitas deal with?
Ans: It dealt principally with a host of mineral medicines including metallic preparations.
Q.15. Which new plants arrived in India in the 16th and 17th centuries?
Ans: Tobacco, chillies, potato, guava, custard apple, cashew and pineapple.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.3
Q.1. What is science?
Ans: It can be defined as any systematic activity that seeks to gain knowledge about the physical world.
Q.2. Define technology.
Ans: Activity which seeks to put the knowledge of science into productive use.
Q.3. When was Department of Science and Technology set up by the Govt. of India?
Ans: In 1971.
Q.4. Name the two government organizations doing research for civil and defence purposes in Science & Technology.
Ans: (i) CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research).
(ii) DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organization).
Q.5. Give the names of five nuclear power stations of India.
Ans: Tarapur (Maharashtra), Kota (Rajasthan), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu), Narora (UP), Kakrapara (Gujarat).
Q.6. When and where was Bhabha Atomic Research Centre established?
Ans: In 1971, at Trombey near Mumbai.
Q.7. Which was the first Indian space satellite?
Q.8. What were the functions of INSAT-1B satellite?
Ans: It provided radio, television, telecommunication and meteorological services.
Q.9. How is immunization programme beneficial?
Ans: It reduces infant mortality.
Q.10. Where is Dakshin Gangotri located?
Ans: On the Antarctica.
Q.11. What is the area of activity of the Department of Oceanography?
Ans: It working in the field of physical, chemical, biological and geophysical oceanography and meteorology.
Q.12. Which authority is working to check pollution in the river Ganga?
Ans: Central Ganga Authority.
Q.13. Name the national authority looking for oil exploration and refining natural gases.
Ans: Oil and Natural Gas Commission.
Q.14. What is the main drawback in importing foreign technology?
Ans: It shows lack of our ability to create new technology.
Q.1. Discuss the metallurgy capabilities of the people of the Ancient India.
Ans: The glazed potteries and bronze and copper artefacts found in Indus Valley excavations tell about the metallurgic capabilities of ancient Indians. Metals and alloys were produced at great level. The Iron Pillar in the Qutub Minar complex is indicative of the high quality of alloying that was been done at that time.
Q.2. Describe the two inventions in the field of chemistry during medieval period.
Ans: Use of paper started during the Medieval period. Kashmir, Sialkot, Zafarabad, Patna, Murshidabad, Ahmedabad, Aurangabad, Mysore were famous centres of paper production.
During Mughal period, scents were manufactured in Karkhanas and also the gun powder started manufactured during their rule.
During Tipu’s time, Mysore possessed a paper-making factory, producing a special kind of paper that had a gold surface.
The paper making technique was more or less the same throughout the country, differing in preparation of the pulp from different raw materials.
Q.3. Describe the progress made by India in the field of medicine and health services.
Ans: In the field of medicine there have been many achievements. Major advances have been made in preventing and treating various diseases. Small pox has been eradicated. Treatment of diseases like tuberculosis, malaria, filaria, goiter, and cancer has been considerably improved. Research is being carried out to control communicable diseases. Research based activities have already increased life expectancy appreciably and death rate has declined, while schemes such as the immunization programme have reduced infant mortality considerably. Improved medical facilities in the form of government-run hospitals and dispensaries, research councils, and primary health center’s for rural areas are also being provided.
Q.4. State the applications of Science and Technology in the field of agriculture and its allied products.
Ans: Application of Science and Technology in the field of Agriculture:
1. After independence Indian agriculture made a remarkable progress. It is mainly because of the application of modern science and technology in agriculture that out country is in a position to produce 135 million tones of food grains today as compared to 50 million tones thirty years ago. These applications range from the cultivation of hybrid seeds to energy management in agriculture and post-harvest technology.
2. In agricultural development especial efforts have been made by Indian Council for Agricultural Research. It is a hard fact that this institution has played a leading role in growth and development of India’s agriculture. Through seventy-three agricultural, thirty-two veterinary, right agricultural engineering and one dairy colleges, the ICAR has been playing a key role in field of agriculture.
Q.5. How did rich scientific heritage acts as an asset in the modern Indian science progress?
Ans: Modern Indian science progress is broadly based upon the conclusion designed by the scientists of ancient and mediaeval India. The long researches of the great scientists of that period have passed the way for present progress in our science. Their findings and conclusions added to the rich heritage of India, which acts as an asset for the modern day scientists.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Varahamihira, the great astronomer wrote a book called _______
2. Aryabhatta was a famous _______
(d) Both (b) and (c).
Ans: Both (b) and (c).
3. He is famous as the father of Algebra and Trigonometry.
(d) None of these.
4. The outstanding work of mathematics during medieval period is ______
(c) Charak Samhita.
5. This Veda deals with diseases, cure and medicine.
(a) Sam Veda.
(b) Yajur Veda.
(c) Atharva Veda.
(d) Rig Veda.
Ans: Atharva Veda.
6. Pioneer of Surgery in India:
7. A word of medieval age in mathematics by Sridhara.
8. Bhaskara write this book.
9. Lilavati was translated into Persian by:
(a) Shah Jahan.
(c) Sheikh Abdullah.
(d) Nasiruddin Tusi.
10. Yantraja, an astronomical instrument was developed by Mehedra Suri, a court astronomer of:
(a) Firoz Tughlaq.
(b) Maharaj Sawai Jai Singh II.
Ans: Firoz Tughlaq.
11. Aryabhattiya has _______ verses.
12. This is a premier institution set up in modern India for development of industries.
13. The technique of making gun powder was brought to India by
(d) None of these.
14. What was the name of the first Indian space satellite?
15. Kakrapar Nuclear Energy Station is situated in this state.
(c) Uttar Pradesh.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Define the following terms:
(b) Technology. (M. Imp.)
Ans: (a) Science: Science can be defined as any systematic activity that seeks to gain knowledge about the physical world.
(b) Technology: It is that activity which seeks to put new knowledge (or scientific knowledge) to productive use.
Q.2. Who wrote Aryabhatta? How many varnas are there in it?
Ans: Aryabhatta (499 AD), the great ancient Indian scientist wrote Aryabhatta.
It contains 121 verses.
Q.3. Mention according to historians the name of religion whose inhabitants possessed a good knowledge first of all in the sub-continent.
Ans: According to historians the town planning of Harappan (Indus Valley) shows that the people of that region possessed a good knowledge of measurement and geometry or mathematics.
Q.4. In which century and how did mathematics developed as a separate stream of study in India?
Ans: By third century AD mathematics developed as a separate stream of study.
Indian mathematics is supposed to have originated from the Sulbasutras.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Discuss that the Indians have a rich legacy of scientific ideas and achievements in the field of science and technology.
Ans: 1. Modern India is making great strides in the field of science and technology. But could all these be achieved overnight? Certainly not. If we had to invent the wheel everyday, we would never be able to proceed beyond that.
2. The pool of scientific knowledge that has been gathered over generations is passed down to us as part of our culture. We then continue to build on this heritage (or cultural heritage related with science and technology).
3. Like people in any other part of the world Indians too have a rich legacy of scientific ideas. A desire to know the unknown, accomplished with experimentation and observation have always generates scientific temper that has led to the assumption that truth lay in the real world with all its diversity and complexity.
4. It has been the responsibility of scientists to unravel the mystery behind the truth and utilise available resources for the progress of humanity.
Q.2. Describe the development of astronomy in ancient India.
Ans: Development of Astronomy in Ancient India:
1. In ancient India Astronomy made great progress. The movement of plants came to be emphasized and closely observed.
2. Jyotishvedanga text established systematic categories in astronomy but the more basic problem was handled by Aryabhatta (499 AD). His Aryabhattiya is a concise text containing 121 verses. It keeps separate sections on astronomical definitions, methods of determining the true positions of the planets, description of the movement of the sun and the moon and the calculation of the eclipses.
3. The reason Aryabhatta gave for eclipse was that the earth was a sphere and rotated on its axis and when its shadows fell on the moon, it cause eclipse.
On the contrary, the orthodox theory explained it as a process where the demon swallowed the planet.
4. Aryabhatta deviated from Vedic astronomy and gave it a scientific outlook which became a guideline for later astronomers.
5. Astrology and horoscopy were studied in ancient India. Aryabhatta’s theories showed a distinct departure from astrology which stressed more on beliefs than scientific explorations.
Q.3. Discuss the position of development of agriculture in modern India.
Ans: Indian Agriculture in modern India:
1. After independence Indian agriculture made a remarkable progress. It is mainly because of the application of modern science and technology in agriculture that our country is in a position to produce 135 million tonnes of food grains today as compared to 50 million tonnes thirty years ago. These applications range from the cultivation of hybrid seeds to energy management in agriculture and post-harvest technology.
2. In agricultural development especial efforts have been made by Indian Council for Agricultural Research. It is a huge fact that this institution has played a leading role in growth and development of India’s agriculture. Through seventy-three agricultural, thirty-two veterinary, eight agricultural engineering and one dairy colleges, the ICAR has been playing a key role in the scientific education of the farmers as well as others engaged in different sectors related with agriculture such as farming or cultivation, animal husbandry, fisheries and forestry.
3. The challenges that lie ahead in agriculture are in the areas of increasing the yields of rice, pulses, oilseeds and many cash crops, initiating plantations and promoting social forestry, and shifting from agriculture based on chemical fertilizers to organic fertilizer.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Write an essay on the development of mathematics in ancient India.
Ans: Development of Mathematics in Ancient India:
(a) The town planning of Harappan shows that the people (of Indian Valley) possessed a good knowledge of measurement and geometry. By third century AD, mathematics developed as a separate stream of study. Indian mathematics is supposed to have originated from the Sulbasutras.
(b) Apastamba in second century BC introduced practical geometry involving acute angle, obtuse and right angle. This knowledge helped in the construction of fire altars where the rulers offered sacrifice.
(c) The Three main contributions in the field of mathematics were:
(i) The notation system.
(ii) the decimal system and the.
(iii) use of zero.
(d) The notations and the numerals were carried to the West by the Arabs. These numerals replaced the Roman numerals. Zero was discovered in India in the second century BC.
(e) Aryabhatta discovered algebra and also formulated the area of triangle, which led to the origin of trigonometry.
(f) The Surya Siddhartha is a well-known work. Varahamihira’s Brihatsamhita of the sixth century AD is another poineer work in the field of astronomy. His observation that the moon rotated around the earth and earth rotated around the sun found recognition and later discoveries were based on this assertion.
(g) Mathematics and astronomy together ignited interest in time and cosmology. These discoveries in astronomy and mathematics become the cornerstones for further research and progress.
Q.2. Discuss the progress made by ancient India in the field of medicine.
Ans: Medicine in Ancient India:
(i) Atharva Veda: Diseases, cure and medicines were mentioned for the first time in the Atharva Veda. Fever, cough, constipation, diarrhoea, dropsy, ores, leprosy and seizure are the diseases mentioned. The diseases are said to be caused by the demons and spirits entering one’s body. The remedies (or cure) recommended were replete with magical charms and spells.
(ii) From 600 BC to 400 A.D.: From 600 BC began the period of regional sciences in India. Takshila and Varanasi emerged as (two) main centres of medicine and learning. The two important texts in this field are Charak-samhita by Charak and Sushrutsamhita by Sushruta.
(iii) Medicine, Surgery and Contri-bution of Sushruta:
(a) The plants and herbs used for medicinal purposes have been mentioned in Charak Samhita.
(b) Surgery came to be mentioned as a separate stream around fourth century AD. Sushruta was a pioneer of this discipline. He considered surgery as “the highest division of the healing arts and least liable to fallacy.” He mentions 121 surgical instruments. Along with this he also mentions the methods of operation, bone setting, cataract and so on.
(c) Plastic Surgery in Ancient India: The surgeons in ancient India were familiar with plastic surgery (repair of noses, ears and lips).
(d) Botany: Sushruta mentions 760 plants. All parts of the plants such as roots, barks, flowers, eaves etc. were used.
(e) Diet to Patient: In ancient India stress was laid on diet (e.g.salt free diet for nephrites).
Both the Charaksamhita and the Sushrutsamhita became the predecessors of the development of Indian medicine in the later centuries.
Q.3. Write short notes on each of the following:
(a) Development of Metallurgy in Ancient India.
(b) Development of Geography as a branch of science in Ancient India.
Ans: (a) Development of Metallurgy in Ancient India:
(i) The glazed potteries and bronze and copper artefacts found in the Indus Valley excavations point towards a highly developed metallurgy.
(ii) The Vedic people were aware of fermenting grain and fruits, tanning leather and process of during.
(iii) By the first century AD mass production of metal like iron, copper, silver, gold and of alloys like brass and bronze were taking place.
(iv) The Iron Pillar in the Qutub Minar complex is indicative of the high quality alloying that was being done.
(v) Alkali and acids were produced and utilised for making medicines.
(vi) This technology was also used for other craft like producing dyes and colours.
(vii) Textile during was popular. The Ajanta frescoes reflect on the quality of colour. These paintings have survived till date.
(b) Development of Geography as a branch of Science in Ancient India:
(i) The constant interaction between man and nature forced people to study geography.
(ii) Though the people were clear about their own physical geography that of China and also of the western countries, They were unaware of their position on the earth and the distance with other countries.
(iii) Indians also contributed to ship building.
(iv) In the ancient period, voyages and navigation was not a familiar for the India. However, in the early Medieval period with the development of the concept of tirtha and tirtha yatra a vast mass of geographical information was accomplished. They were finally compiled as parts of puranas. In several cases separate sthala puranas were also compiled.