NIOS Class 10 Folk Art Chapter 4 Traditional and Contemporary Method and Materials

NIOS Class 10 Folk Art Chapter 4 Traditional and Contemporary Method and Materials Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 10 Folk Art Chapter 4 Traditional and Contemporary Method and Materials and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Folk Art Chapter 4 Traditional and Contemporary Method and Materials Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Folk Art Notes Paper 244.

NIOS Class 10 Folk Art Chapter 4 Traditional and Contemporary Method and Materials

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Folk Art Chapter 4 Traditional and Contemporary Method and Materials, NIOS Secondary Course Folk Art Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Traditional and Contemporary Method and Materials

Chapter: 4


1. How were human beings inspired to paint?

Ans: Humans study nature and get inspired by nature, and start painting, describing its method and materials.

2. How did folk and tribal painter, learn to select methods and materials of painting?

Ans: After observing and experimenting with natural resources, they learnt to use methods for painting.

3. Which colours were used by most of the primitive men?

Ans: These paintings are done with white clay or lime.

4. Name the materials used for painting the objects of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Ans: While clay, lime, black clay, and Geru are used on earthenware for drawing.


Fill in the gaps:

1. Commercial folk painters make …………………… types of brushes.

Ans: Bamboo and hair.

2. The process they used for making brushes from ……………….

Ans: Bamboo.


Multiple Choice Questions

1. Name any one untraditional materials of painting.

(i) Ink.

(ii) Leaf.

(iii) Flower. 

(iv) Bamboo.

Ans: (i) Ink.

2. Name any one type of drawings to compose a painting.

(i) Material.

 (ii) Abstract.

(iii) Graph. 

(iv) None of them.

Ans: (iii) Graph. 


1. How did humans develop methods and materials of painting?

Ans: The development of painting techniques and materials by humans has been a long and complex process that evolved over millennia. The history of painting can be traced back tens of thousands of years, with evidence of early human artistic endeavours found in cave paintings, rock art, and other ancient artefacts.

(i) Early Painting Materials: The most common paint in early art was tempera paint, sometimes called egg tempera. It was made of pigment mixed with a binder of egg yolk and water. Tempera wasn’t the only painting method in the ancient world; some artists worked in encaustic, a difficult medium made of pigment mixed with melted beeswax.

(ii) Exploration and Experimentation: As human societies developed and expanded, so did their methods and materials for painting. Different cultures across the world began to explore new pigments and binding agents, often through trial and error. This experimentation led to the discovery of materials such as plant extracts, minerals, and even insects, which could be used to create a wide range of colours.

(iii) It is a way of improving relations among the different nations, by this program they can respect and understand the value of other countries in the world, which also increases the probability that the desired connections of trade and commerce, as well as political connections, will be better.

2. What are the contributions of commercial folk and tribal painters in developing methods and materials?

Ans: Commercial folk and tribal painters have made significant contributions to the development of painting methods and materials, often through their innovative use of locally available resources and traditional techniques. 

Here are some of their key contributions:

(i) Exploration of Natural Materials: Commercial folk and tribal painters often rely on natural materials sourced from their immediate environment for their artwork. This includes pigments derived from minerals, plants, and even insects. By experimenting with these materials, they have expanded the range of colours available for painting and developed unique palettes that reflect their cultural heritage.

(ii) Community Engagement: Folk paintings are quite layered and more intricately detailed when it comes to compositions; we also see a lot more decoration and embellishments in folk paintings whereas tribal art is simplistic and bereft of adornments.Commercial folk and tribal painters are deeply embedded within their communities, often working collaboratively and sharing knowledge and skills with fellow artists. This sense of community engagement fosters a spirit of creativity and innovation, as artists draw inspiration from one another and collectively push the boundaries of their artistic practice.

(iii) Traditional Techniques: Many commercial folk and tribal painters adhere to traditional painting techniques that have been passed down through generations. These techniques often involve intricate processes such as grinding pigments, preparing surfaces, and applying paint using handmade brushes or other tools. By preserving and practising these traditional methods, they contribute to the continuity of cultural heritage and artistic knowledge.

3. Make a list of traditional materials of folk and tribal art.

Ans: List of traditional materials of folk and tribal art are: 

(i) Textile Art Specific Materials:

(a) Natural dyes (derived from plants, insects, or minerals) Threads (cotton, wool, silk).

(b) Embellishments (sequins, embroidery, appliqué).

(ii) Sculptural Materials:

(a) Clay.

(b) Wood.

(c) Stone.

(d) Bone.

4. How did tribal and folk painters make brushes?

Ans: The folk and tribal painters use fingers wrapped with cloth, blades of grass etc., to use colours in the paintings. Branches of a tree are used after flattening one side of it with stone. The same process is used for making a brush from the leaf of a date tree. Commercial folk painters make better quality brushes for colouring. They make two types of brushes. One is made of bamboo sticks which taper towards one end. The other one is wrapped with cotton on one end. The brushes are made of different hair types suitable for the quality of colours, and these hairs are obtained from the tails of squirrels, rats, cows, goats etc.

5. Name the animals who provide hair to make brushes.

Ans: The animals are  provide hair to make brushes are  squirrels, rats, cows, goats etc.

6. What difference did it make in the use of materials after urbanisation and commercialisation?

Ans: Urbanisation and commercialization have had significant impacts on folk art, particularly in terms of the materials used by artists. 

Here’s how the use of materials in folk art has changed after urbanisation and commercialization:

(i) Environmental Considerations: The use of synthetic materials in folk art may raise environmental concerns due to their production processes and disposal. In contrast, traditional natural materials are often more sustainable and environmentally friendly. Some folk artists may prioritise eco-friendly practices by using recycled materials or organic pigments, reflecting a growing awareness of environmental issues in artistic practices.

(ii) Shift from Natural to Synthetic Materials: Urbanisation and commercialization often result in a transition from traditional, natural materials to synthetic ones. In rural and traditional settings, folk artists typically relied on locally available natural materials such as earth pigments, plant dyes, and handmade paper. However, with urbanisation and commercialization, artists may have easier access to commercially produced synthetic paints, canvas, and paper. This shift can alter the aesthetic qualities and cultural significance of folk art.

7. Make a list of untraditional materials of folk and tribal paintings.

Ans: List of untraditional materials of folk and tribal paintings

(i) Textural Additives:

(a) Sand or gravel (for texture).

(b) Sawdust or wood shavings.

(c) Plaster or joint compound.

(d) Fabric scraps or fibres.

(ii) Natural Resins and Polymers:

(a) Beeswax.

(b) Shellac.

(c) Pine resin.

(d) Gum arabic.

(iii) Recycled Materials:

(a) Discarded paper or cardboard.

(b) Scrap fabric or textiles.

(c) Old magazines or newspapers.

(d) Bottle caps.

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