NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 7 Social Influence and and Group Process

NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 7 Social Influence and and Group Process Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 7 Social Influence and and Group Process Notes and select need one. NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 7 Social Influence and and Group Process Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT Psychology Class 12 Solutions.

NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 7 Social Influence and and Group Process

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Psychology Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 7 Social Influence and and Group Process Notes, NCERT Class 12 Psychology Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 7

Review Questions

1. Compare and contrast formal and informal groups, and ingroups and outgroups. 

Ans: These groups differ in the degree to which the functions of the group are stated explicitly and formally. The functions of a formal group are explicitly stated as in the case of an office organisation. The roles to be performed by group members are stated differently and are often perceived negatively in comparison to the ingroup members. Perceptions of ingroup and outgroup affect our social lives. Although it is common to make these categorisations, it should be appreciated that these categories are not real and are created by us. In some cultures, plurality is celebrated as has been the case in India. We have a unique composite culture which is reflected not only in the lives we live, but also in our art, architecture, and music.

Just as individuals compare themselves with others in terms of similarities and differences with respect to what they have and what others have, individuals also compare the group they belong to with groups of which they are not a member. The term ‘ingroup’ refers to one’s own group, and ‘outgroup’ refers to another group. For ingroup members, we use the word ‘we’ while for outgroup members, the word ‘they’ is used. By using the words they and we, one is categorising people as similar or different. It has been found that persons in the ingroup are generally supposed to be similar, are viewed favourably, and have desirable traits. Members of the outgroup are viewed.

2. Are you a member of a certain group? Discuss what motivated you to join that group. 

Ans: Do yourself.

3. How does Tuckman’s stage model help you to understand the formation of groups? 

Ans: Remember that, like everything else in life, groups develop. You do not become a group member the moment you come together. Groups usually go through different stages of formation, conflict, stabilisation, performance, and dismissal. Tuckman suggested that groups pass through five developmental sequences. 

These are: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.

(i) When group members first meet, there is a great deal of uncertainty about the school function, there may be another stage known as adjourning stage. In this stage, once the function is over, the group may be disbanded. However, it must be stated that all groups do not always proceed from one stage to the next in such a systematic manner. Sometimes several stages go on simultaneously, while in other instances groups may go back and forth through the various stages or they may just skip some of the stages. During the process of group formation, groups also develop a structure. We should remember that group structure develops as members interact. Over time this interaction shows regularities in distribution of task to be performed, responsibilities assigned to members, and the prestige or relative status of members. norms represent shared ways of viewing the world.

(ii) Status refers to the relative social position given to group members by others. This relative position or status may be either ascribed (given may be because of one’s seniority) or achieved (the person has achieved status because of expertise or hard work). By being members of the group, we enjoy the status associated with that group. All of us, therefore, strive to be members of such groups which are high in status or are viewed favourably by others. Even within a group, different members have different prestige and status. For example, the captain of a cricket team has a higher status compared to the other members, although all are equally important for the team’s success. 

(iii) Cohesiveness refers to togetherness, binding, or mutual attraction among group members. As the group becomes more cohesive, group members start to think, feel and act as a social unit, and less like isolated individuals. Members of a highly cohesive group have a greater desire to remain in the group in comparison to those who belong to low cohesive groups. Cohesiveness refers to the team spirit or ‘we feeling’ or a sense of belongingness to the group. It is difficult to leave a cohesive group or to gain membership of a group which is highly cohesive. 

4. How do groups influence our behaviour? 

Ans: A group may be defined as an organised system of two or more individuals, who are interacting and interdependent, who have common motives, have a set of role relationships among its members, and have norms that regulate the behaviour of its members. 

(i) A social unit consisting of two or more individuals who perceive themselves as belonging to the group. This characteristic of the group helps in distinguishing one group from the other and gives the group its unique identity. 

(ii) A collection of individuals who have common motives and goals. Groups function either working towards a given goal, or away from certain threats facing the group. 

(iii) A collection of individuals who are interdependent, i.e. what one is doing may have consequences for others.

5. How can you reduce social loafing in groups? Think of any two incidents of social loafing in school. How did you overcome it?

Ans: Social facilitation research suggests that presence of others leads to arousal and can motivate individuals to enhance their performance if they are already good at solving something. This enhancement occurs when a person’s efforts are individually evaluated. What would happen if the efforts of an individual in a group are pooled so that you look at the performance of the group as a whole? Do you know what often happens? It has been found that individuals work less hard in a group than they do when performing alone. This points to a phenomenon referred to as ‘social loafing’. Social loafing is a reduction in individual effort when working on a collective task, i.e. one in which outputs are pooled with those of other group members. An example of such a task is the game of tug-of-war. It is not possible for you to identify how much force each member of the team has been exerting. Such situations give opportunities to group members to relax and become a free rider. This phenomenon has been demonstrated in many experiments by Latane and his associates who asked group of male students to clap or cheer taken whether a school has to be established in a village.

Two incidents of social loafing in school are mentioned below: 

(i) Social loafing is when individuals exert less effort in a group setting than they would if working alone. This behaviour occurs more often when individual contributions, such as group projects, government task forces, musical orchestras, juries, or even team sports, cannot be easily identified or evaluated.

(ii) The most obvious example of social loafing is slacking. Slackers tend to see the team task as something someone else will take care of, thus refusing to take responsibility for it. Everyone who’s ever been a part of a group project has met the “slacker” social loafer.

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