NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 2 Self and Personality

NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 2 Self and Personality Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 2 Self and Personality Notes and select need one. NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 2 Self and Personality Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT Psychology Class 12 Solutions.

NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 2 Self and Personality

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Psychology Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 2 Self and Personality Notes, NCERT Class 12 Psychology Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 2

Review Questions

1. What is self? How does the Indian notion of self differ from the Western notion? 

Ans: ‘Self’ in the same way as you are aware of various objects in your surrounding environment, such as a chair or a table in your room.

In the Western culture, the self and the group exist as two different entities with clearly defined boundaries. Individual members of the group maintain their individuality. In the Indian culture, the self is generally not separated from one’s own group; rather both remain in a state of harmonious co-existence.

2. What is meant by delay of gratification? Why is it considered important for adult development? 

Ans: Delay of gratification, the act of resisting an impulse to take an immediately available reward in the hope of obtaining a more-valued reward in the future. 

It is considered important for adult development because any situations of life require resistance to situational pressures and control over ourselves.

3. How do you define personality? What are the main approaches to the study of personality? 

Ans: The term ‘personality’ often appears in our day-to-day discussion. The literal meaning of personality is derived from the Latin word persona, the mask used by actors in the Roman theatre for changing their facial make-up. After putting on the mask, audience expected the person to perform a role in a particular manner. It did not, however, mean that the person enacting the given role necessarily possessed those qualities. 

Psychologists interested in the study of personality, try to answer certain questions about the nature and origin of individual differences in personality. You may have observed that two children in the same family develop dramatically different personalities. Not only do they look physically at external rewards or threats available in a particular situation. The cross situational consistency of traits is found to be quite low. The compelling influence of situations can be noted by observing people’s behaviour in places like a market, a courtroom, or a place of worship. 

4. What is a trait approach to personality? How does it differ from the type approach? 

Ans: The trait theory of personality suggests that people have certain basic traits, and it is the strength and intensity of those traits that account for personality differences. The trait approach to personality is one of the major theoretical areas in the study of personality. The trait approach to personality focuses on identifying and measuring specific characteristics or traits that individuals possess. Traits are enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours that distinguish one person from another. Researchers using this approach aim to describe and understand these traits, often using factor analysis to identify the fundamental traits that underlie human personality.

On the other hand, the type approach categories individuals into distinct types or categories based on shared characteristics. Unlike traits, which are viewed as existing on a continuum and can vary in intensity, types are seen as discrete and qualitatively distinct categories. Each type is thought to represent a distinct configuration of traits that together define the type.

5. How does Freud explain the structure of personality? 

Ans: Freud’s theory also postulates that as children proceed from one stage to another stage of development, they seem to adjust their view of the world. Failure of a child to pass successfully through a stage leads to fixation to that stage. In this situation, the child’s development gets arrested at an earlier stage. For example, a child who does not pass successfully through the phallic stage fails to resolve the Oedipal complex and may still feel hostile toward the parent of the same sex. This failure may have serious consequences for the child’s life. 

6. How would Horney’s explanation of depression be different from that of Alfred Adler?

Ans: Alfred Adler’s theory posits that human behaviour is directed towards goals and serves a purpose. He believes that every person experiences feelings of inferiority at some point in their life, but this can be overcome by striving for superiority and accomplishing one’s goals.

7. What is the main proposition of a humanistic approach to personality? What did Maslow mean by self-actualisation? 

Ans: The humanistic theories are mainly developed in response to Freud’s theory. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow have particularly contributed to the development of humanistic perspective on personality. We will briefly examine their theories. The most important idea proposed by Rogers is that of a fully functioning person. He believes that fulfilment is the motivating force for personality development. People try to express their capabilities, potentials and talents to the fullest extent possible. There is an inborn tendency among persons that directs them to actualise their inherited nature. Rogers makes two basic assumptions about human behaviour. One is that behaviour is goal-directed and worthwhile. The second is that people (who are innately good) will almost always choose adaptive, self-actualising behaviour. 

self-actualising behaviour Rogers’ theory grew out of his experiences of listening to patients in his clinic. He noted that self was an important element in the experience of his clients. Thus, his theory is structured around the concept of self. The theory assumes that people are constantly engaged in the process of actualising their true self. Rogers suggests that each person also has a concept of ideal self. An ideal self is the self that a person would like to be. When there is a correspondence between the real self and ideal self, a person is generally happy. Discrepancy between the real self and ideal self often results in unhappiness and dissatisfaction. Rogers’ basic principle is that people have a tendency to maximise self-concept through self-actualisation. In this process, the self grows, expands and becomes more social.from your study of motivation in Class XI. Maslow has given a detailed account of psychologically healthy people in terms of their attainment of self-actualisation

8. Discuss the main observational methods used in personality assessment. What problems do we face in using these methods? 

Ans: When we meet new people, we often try to understand them and even predict what they may do before we interact with them. In our personal lives, we rely on our past experiences, observations, conversations and information obtained from other persons. This approach to understanding others may be influenced by a number of factors that may colour our judgement and reduce objectivity. Hence, we need to organise our efforts more formally to analyse personalities. A formal effort aimed at understanding the personality of an individual is termed as personality assessment. Assessment refers to the procedures used to evaluate or differentiate people on the basis of certain characteristics. The goal of assessment is to understand and predict behaviour with minimum error and maximum accuracy. In assessment, we try to study what a person generally does, or how s/he behaves, in a given situation. Besides promoting our understanding, assessment is also useful for diagnosis, training, placement, counselling, and other purposes.

9. What is meant by structured personality tests? Which are the two most widely used structured personality tests? 

Ans: Structured personality tests refer to standardised assessments that have a predetermined set of questions or items, typically with fixed response options. These tests are designed to measure specific personality traits, characteristics, or psychopathologies in a systematic and consistent manner.

Two of the most widely used structured personality tests are:

(i) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): The MMPI is a well-known psychological test used to assess personality traits and psychopathology in adults. It consists of over 500 true/false questions and is widely used in clinical and forensic settings.

(ii) NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI): The NEO-PI is based on the Five-Factor Model (also known as the Big Five personality traits) and measures traits such as Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. It is often used in research and clinical settings to assess personality structure.

10. Explain how projective techniques assess personality. Which projective tests of personality are widely used by psychologists? 

Ans: Projective techniques are psychological assessment tools used to uncover underlying thoughts, feelings, and aspects of personality that may not be accessible through more structured methods. These techniques are based on the premise that when individuals are presented with ambiguous stimuli, their responses will reveal hidden emotions, desires, and internal conflicts. 

Here’s how projective techniques assess personality:

(i) Ambiguous Stimuli: Individuals are shown ambiguous images or asked to create stories or complete sentences. The ambiguity allows for a wide range of interpretations.

(ii) Projection: According to psychoanalytic theory, people project their own unconscious thoughts and feelings onto ambiguous stimuli. This projection reveals aspects of their personality that they might not consciously acknowledge.

Widely Used Projective Tests:

(i) Rorschach Inkblot Test: This test involves showing individuals a series of inkblots and asking them what each one looks like or reminds them of. The examiner then analyses the content and nature of the responses to uncover underlying thoughts and feelings.

(ii) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): Participants are shown a series of ambiguous pictures and asked to create stories about them. The stories are analysed to understand the individual’s perceptions, motivations, and interpersonal dynamics.

11. Arihant wants to become a singer even though he belongs to a family of doctors. Though his family members claim to love him but strongly disapprove his choice of career. Using Carl Rogers’ terminology, describe the attitudes shown by Arihant’s family. 

Ans: In Carl Rogers’ terminology, Arihant’s family members are exhibiting conditions of worth. Conditions of worth refer to the conditions under which other people will give us positive regard. In this case, despite claiming to love Arihant, they strongly disapprove of his choice of becoming a singer. This disapproval suggests that their love and approval are contingent upon Arihant conforming to their expectations (in this case, pursuing a career in medicine like the rest of the family), rather than accepting him unconditionally for who he wants to be.

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