NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 6 Attitude and Cognition

NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 6 Attitude and Cognition Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 6 Attitude and Cognition Notes and select need one. NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 6 Attitude and Cognition Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT Psychology Class 12 Solutions.

NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 6 Attitude and Cognition

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Psychology Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 6 Attitude and Cognition Notes, NCERT Class 12 Psychology Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 6

Review Questions

1. Define attitude. Discuss the components of an attitude. 

Ans: Attitude is the manner, disposition, feeling, and position, etc. with regard to a person or thing. It is the way you think about any particular person or thing. ‘Aptitude’ is a capability or talent innate or acquired for performing some particular task.

(i) Affective Component: This involves feelings or emotions associated with the attitude object. For example, feeling happy or sad about a particular event.

(ii) Behavioural Component: This relates to how the attitude influences behaviour or actions. It reflects the way one behaves when exposed to the attitude object, such as avoiding or seeking out certain situations.

(iii) Cognitive Component: This involves beliefs or thoughts about the attitude object. It includes knowledge, perceptions, and thoughts about something, like believing that exercise is good for health.

2. Are attitudes learnt? Explain how? 

Ans: Yes, attitudes are learned. 

They are formed through various processes, including:

(i) Classical Conditioning: Associating a neutral stimulus with a positive or negative experience, leading to a change in attitude. 

For example: if a song is played during a pleasant experience, one might develop a positive attitude toward that song.

(ii) Operant Conditioning: Attitudes are reinforced through rewards or punishments. Positive reinforcement for certain behaviours can strengthen corresponding attitudes.

(iii) Observational Learning (Social Learning): Observing others and modelling their behaviours and attitudes. 

For example: children often adopt attitudes observed in parents or peers.

(iv) Socialization: Influences from family, culture, and social groups play a crucial role. Norms and values imparted by society shape attitudes.

(v) Direct Experience: Personal experiences can strongly influence attitudes. Positive or negative interactions with people or situations can lead to the development of corresponding attitudes.

(vi) Persuasion: Communication from others, such as advertisements or social influence, can change or reinforce attitudes.

3. What are the factors that influence the formation of an attitude? 

Ans: The factors that influence the formation of an attitude:

(i) Personal Experience: Direct experiences with objects, people, or situations significantly shape attitudes, especially if the experiences are strong or memorable.

(ii) Social Influences: Family, friends, peers, and social groups impact attitude formation through shared beliefs and norms.

(iii) Cultural Influences: Cultural background and societal norms play a role in shaping attitudes, as they dictate acceptable behaviours and beliefs.

(iv) Education and Information: Knowledge gained through education, media, and information sources influences attitudes by providing facts and perspectives.

(v) Emotional Factors: Emotions and moods can affect attitudes, as people may form attitudes based on how something makes them feel.

4. Is behaviour always a reflection of one’s attitude? Explain with a relevant example. 

Ans: Behaviour is often influenced by one’s attitude, but it’s not always a direct reflection. Various factors, such as social norms, emotions, context, and external pressures, can also affect behaviour. People may act differently in different situations, even if their underlying attitudes remain the same.

Imagine a person who strongly believes in environmental conservation and expresses this attitude through vocal support for green initiatives. However, due to financial constraints or convenience, they may still choose to drive a fuel-inefficient car instead of opting for a more eco-friendly alternative. In this case, their behaviour (driving a fuel-inefficient car) does not completely reflect their attitude (support for environmental conservation). Their actions are influenced by practical considerations and constraints rather than solely by their attitude towards the environment. Thus, behaviour can be shaped by various factors beyond attitude alone.

5. Differentiate between prejudice and stereotype. 

Ans: Prejudices are examples of attitudes towards a particular group. They are usually negative, and in many cases, may be based on stereotypes (the cognitive component) about the specific group. As will be discussed below in the section on social cognition, a stereotype is a cluster of ideas regarding the characteristics of a specific group. All members belonging to this group are assumed to possess these characteristics. Often, stereotypes consist of undesirable characteristics about the target group, and they lead to negative attitudes or prejudices towards members of specific groups. The cognitive component of prejudice is frequent and shows low adjusting capacity, anxiety, and feelings of hostility against the outgroup. 

(i) A strong social identity and ingroup bias: Individuals who have a strong sense of social identity and have a very positive attitude towards their own group boost this attitude by holding negative attitudes towards other groups. These are shown as prejudices. 

(ii) Scapegoating: This is a phenomenon by which the majority group places the blame on a minority outgroup for its own social, economic or political problems. The minority is too weak or too small in number to defend itself against such accusations. Scapegoating is a group based way of expressing frustration, and it often results in negative attitudes or prejudice against the weaker group. 

(iii) Kernel of truth concept: Sometimes people may continue to hold stereotypes because they think that, after all, there must be some truth, or ‘kernel of truth’ in what everyone says about the other group. Even a few examples are sufficient to support the ‘kernel of truth’ idea. 

(iv) Self-fulfilling prophecy: In some cases, the group that is the target of prejudice is itself responsible for continuing the prejudice. The target group may behave in ways that justify the prejudice, that is, confirm the negative expectations. For example, if the target group is described as ‘dependent’ and therefore unable to make progress, the members of this target group may actually behave in a way that proves this description to be true. In this way, they strengthen the existing prejudice.

6. Prejudice can exist without discrimination and vice versa. Comment. 

Ans: Prejudices are examples of attitudes towards a particular group. They are usually negative, and in many cases, may be based on stereotypes (the cognitive component) about the specific group. As will be discussed below in the section on social cognition, a stereotype is a cluster of ideas regarding the characteristics of a specific group. All members belonging to this group are assumed to possess these characteristics. Often, stereotypes consist of undesirable characteristics about the target group, and they lead to negative attitudes or prejudices towards members of specific groups. 

7. Your friend eats too much junk food, how would you be able to bring about a change in her/his attitude towards food?

Ans: Changing someone’s attitude towards food can be challenging but here are some strategies you could try:

(i) Educate Without Pressure: Share information about the benefits of a balanced diet and the risks of excessive junk food consumption. Use facts rather than criticism.

(ii) Cook Together: Invite your friend to cook healthy meals with you. This can be a fun way to bond and learn about nutritious ingredients.

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