NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Therapeutic Approaches

NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Therapeutic Approaches Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Therapeutic Approaches Notes and select need one. NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Therapeutic Approaches Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT Psychology Class 12 Solutions.

NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Therapeutic Approaches

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Psychology Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Therapeutic Approaches Notes, NCERT Class 12 Psychology Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 5

Review Questions

1. Describe the nature and scope of psychotherapy. Highlight the importance of therapeutic relationships in psychotherapy. 

Ans: Psychotherapy (also called talk therapy) refers to a variety of treatments that aim to help a person identify and change troubling emotions, thoughts, and behaviours.

(i) Trust and Safety: A strong therapeutic relationship creates a safe space where clients feel comfortable exploring difficult emotions and experiences without fear of judgement or rejection.

(ii) Empathy and Understanding: Therapists’ empathic understanding helps clients feel validated and heard, which can be therapeutic in itself and essential for fostering personal growth and healing.

(iii) Collaboration and Goal Achievement: Clients are more likely to engage actively and work towards therapeutic goals when they perceive their therapist as supportive and invested in their well-being.

(iv)Transference and Countertransference: These phenomena highlight how past relational patterns influence current therapeutic relationships, offering opportunities for insight and growth.

2. What are the different types of psychotherapy? On what basis are they classified? 

Ans: The different types of psychotherapy are mentioned below:

(i) Cognitive Therapy: Cognitive therapies locate the cause of psychological distress in irrational society develop core schemas or systems, which include beliefs and action patterns in the individual. Thus, a client, who was neglected by the parents as a child, develops the core schema of “I am not wanted”. During the course of life, a critical incident occurs in her/his life. S/ he is publicly ridiculed by the teacher in school. This critical incident triggers the core schema of “I am not wanted” leading to the development of negative automatic thoughts. Negative thoughts are persistent irrational thoughts such as “nobody loves me”, “I am ugly”, “I am stupid”, “I will not succeed”, etc. Such negative automatic thoughts are characterised by cognitive distortions. Cognitive distortions are ways of thinking which are general in nature but which distort the reality in a negative manner.

(ii) Psychodynamic Therapy: Based on Freudian principles, it explores unconscious thoughts and past experiences to understand current behaviours and emotions. It’s used for addressing long-standing emotional struggles and relationship patterns.

(iii) Humanistic Therapy: Emphasises the individual’s inherent potential for growth and self-actualization. Therapists provide empathy and unconditional positive regard to help clients explore their feelings and self-concept.

Classification:

(i) Humanistic Therapy: Highlights personal growth, self-awareness, and the client’s capacity for self-determination and fulfilment.

(ii) Existential Therapy: Addresses existential concerns such as meaning, freedom, responsibility, and the inevitability of death.

(iii) Behaviour Therapy: Focuses on observable behaviours and principles of learning to modify behaviour patterns.

3. Discuss the various techniques used in behaviour therapy. 

Ans: The various techniques used in behaviour therapy: 

(i) Behavioural Assessment: This involves systematically assessing the target behaviour(s) to identify specific patterns, triggers, and consequences. It helps therapists understand the context in which the behaviour occurs and develop a tailored treatment plan.

(ii) Behavioural Activation: Focuses on increasing engagement in positive and rewarding activities to counteract patterns of withdrawal and avoidance seen in depression and other mood disorders.

(iii) Relaxation Techniques: Include progressive muscle relaxation, deep breathing exercises, and guided imagery to reduce physiological arousal and anxiety. These techniques are often used in conjunction with exposure therapies.

(iv) Systematic Desensitisation: A technique used to treat phobias and anxiety disorders, involving gradual exposure to feared stimuli or situations while simultaneously engaging in relaxation techniques to reduce fear and anxiety responses.

(v) Exposure Therapy: Involves gradually exposing individuals to feared objects, situations, or memories in a controlled and safe environment. It helps reduce anxiety responses through repeated exposure until the fear diminishes.

4. Explain with the help of an example how cognitive distortions take place. 

Ans: Cognitive distortions occur as negative thoughts and negative expectations. People with cognitive distortions have more negative predictions, where they frequently overestimate that an action will have a negative outcome.

Behavioural Assessment:

(i) Functional Assessment: Systematically identifies antecedents (triggers), behaviours (responses), and consequences (reinforcements) associated with the target behaviour. Helps understand the function of the behaviour and informs intervention strategies.

Behavioural Activation:

(ii) Encourages engagement in adaptive and enjoyable activities to improve mood and increase positive reinforcement for healthy behaviours. Commonly used in the treatment of depression and other mood disorders.

Relaxation Techniques:

(iii) Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR): Involves tensing and then relaxing muscle groups sequentially to reduce physical tension and anxiety.

5. Which therapy encourages the client to seek personal growth and actualise their potential? Write about the therapies which are based on this principle. 

Ans: Humanistic-existential therapy encourages the client to seek personal growth and actualise their potential. It states that psychological distress arises from feelings of loneliness, alienation, and an inability to find meaning and genuine fulfilment in life.

6. What are the factors that contribute to healing in psychotherapy? Enumerate some of the alternative therapies. 

Ans: Ethics in Psychotherapy Some of the ethical standards that need to be practised by professional psychotherapists are:

(i) Informed consent needs to be taken. 

(ii) Confidentiality of the client should be maintained. 

(iii) Alleviating personal distress and suffering should be the goal of all attempts of the therapist. 

(iv) Integrity of the practitioner -client relationship is important. 

(v) Respect for human rights and dignity. 

(vi) Professional competence and skills are essential.

(vii) Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies are so called, because they are alternative treatment possibilities to the conventional drug treatment or psychotherapy. There are many alternative therapies such as yoga, meditation, acupuncture, herbal remedies and so on. In the past 25 years, yoga and meditation have gained popularity as treatment programmes for psychological distress. 

Yoga is an ancient Indian technique detailed in the Ashtanga Yoga of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras. Yoga as it is commonly called today either refers to only the asanas or body posture component or to breathing practices or pranayama, or to a combination of the two. Meditation refers to the practice of focusing attention on breath or on an object or thought or a mantra. Here attention is focused. In Vipassana meditation, also known as mindfulness based meditation, there is no fixed object or thought to hold the attention. The person passively observes the various bodily sensations and thoughts that are passing through in her or his awareness.

7. What are the techniques used in the rehabilitation of the mentally ill? 

Ans: The treatment of psychological disorders has two components, i.e. reduction of symptoms, and improving the level of functioning or quality of life. In the case of milder disorders such as generalised anxiety, reactive depression or phobia, reduction of symptoms is associated with an improvement in the quality of life. However, in the case of severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia, reduction of symptoms may not be associated with an improvement in the quality of life. Many patients suffer from negative symptoms such as disinterest and lack of motivation to do work or to interact with people. Rehabilitation is required to help such patients become self-sufficient. The aim of rehabilitation is to empower the patient to become a productive member of society to the extent possible. In rehabilitation, the patients are given occupational therapy, social skills training, and vocational therapy. In occupational therapy, the patients are taught skills such as candle making, paper bag making and weaving to help them to form a work discipline. Social skills training helps the patients to develop interpersonal skills through role play, imitation and instruction. The objective is to teach the patient to function in a social group. Cognitive retraining is given to improve the basic cognitive functions of attention, memory and executive functions. After the patient improves sufficiently, vocational training is given wherein the patient is helped to gain skills necessary to undertake productive employment. 

8. How would a social learning theorist account for a phobic fear of lizards/ cockroaches? How would a psychoanalyst account for the same phobia? 

Ans: A social learning theorist would approach the phobic fear of lizards or cockroaches by emphasising the role of observational learning and social experiences. Social learning theories work on the principle that our experience, be it positive or negative such as phobia of lizards/cockroaches are the result of a learning process which starts early in life. Small children can play with snakes if they are not aware of the danger involved. 

psychoanalyst account for the same phobia are mentioned below: 

(i) Unconscious Conflicts: Psychoanalysts would explore whether the phobia represents a manifestation of unconscious conflicts or unresolved issues from early childhood. For example, a fear of heights might stem from a traumatic experience or symbolic fear related to feelings of vulnerability or loss of control.

(ii) Defence Mechanisms: They might consider how the phobia functions as a defence mechanism. Phobias can sometimes serve to protect the individual from confronting deeper, more unsettling emotions or memories.

(iii) Symbolic Meaning: Psychoanalysts would interpret the phobia symbolically, looking beyond the literal fear to uncover hidden meanings and associations. For instance, a fear of water might symbolise a fear of emotional depth or overwhelming feelings.

(iv) Developmental Factors: They would also examine developmental factors, such as stages of psychosexual development (according to Freudian theory) or attachment issues, which could contribute to the formation of specific phobias.

(v) Past Experiences: Significant past experiences, particularly those that might have been repressed or forgotten, could be explored as triggers for the phobia.

9. What kind of problems is cognitive behaviour therapy best suited for?

Ans: The kinds of problems is cognitive behaviour therapy best suited mentioned below: 

(i) Anxiety Disorders: Including generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, social anxiety disorder (social phobia), specific phobias, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). CBT helps clients identify and change distorted thought patterns and behaviours that contribute to anxiety.

(ii) Depressive Disorders: Such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia). CBT focuses on identifying negative thinking patterns and promoting more adaptive ways of thinking and behaving to alleviate depressive symptoms.

(iii) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): CBT, particularly in the form of trauma-focused CBT, helps individuals process traumatic experiences and manage associated symptoms like flashbacks, nightmares, and hypervigilance.

(iv) Eating Disorders: Including bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and some cases of anorexia nervosa. CBT targets distorted thoughts and behaviours related to body image, eating habits, and self-esteem.

(v) Substance Use Disorders: CBT is effective in helping individuals overcome addiction by addressing triggers, cravings, and underlying thought patterns that contribute to substance abuse.

(vi) Insomnia: CBT for insomnia (CBT-I) focuses on improving sleep habits, addressing negative thoughts about sleep, and promoting relaxation techniques to manage insomnia effectively.

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