NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders

NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders Notes and select need one. NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT Psychology Class 12 Solutions.

NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Psychology Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Psychology Chapter 4 Psychological Disorders Notes, NCERT Class 12 Psychology Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 4

Review Questions

1. Identify the symptoms associated with depression and mania. 

Ans: Depressed mood, anhedonia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, excessive guilt, or recurrent thoughts of death.

2. Describe the characteristics of children with hyperactivity. 

Ans: The characteristics of children with hyperactivity are mentioned below:

(i) Fidgeting and squirming while seated. 

(ii) A child may also be impulsive and hyperactive. 

3. What are the consequences of alcohol substance addiction? 

Ans: The consequences of alcohol substance addiction are:

(i) Health Effects:

(a) Physical Health: Chronic alcohol use can lead to liver disease (such as cirrhosis), cardiovascular problems (like high blood pressure and heart disease), digestive issues, pancreatitis, and neurological damage.

(b) Mental Health: Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased risk of depression, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions.

(ii) Social and Interpersonal Consequences:

(a) Relationships: Alcohol addiction can strain relationships with family, friends, and colleagues due to behavioural changes, unreliability, and conflicts arising from alcohol-related incidents.

(b) Social Isolation: People struggling with alcohol addiction may withdraw from social activities and isolate themselves from others.

(iii) Legal and Financial Issues:

(a) Legal Problems: Alcohol abuse can lead to legal issues such as DUI (driving under the influence), public intoxication charges, or criminal behaviour associated with alcohol use.

(b) Financial Strain: Funding the addiction can lead to financial instability due to spending on alcohol, neglecting financial responsibilities, or job loss.

4. Can a distorted body image lead to eating disorders? Classify the various forms of it. 

Ans: Yes, a distorted body image can lead to eating disorders. 

Here are the various forms of eating disorders associated with body image issues:

(i) Anorexia Nervosa:

(a) Intense fear of gaining weight.

(b) Distorted perception of body size.

(c) Restrictive eating, excessive exercise.

(ii) Bulimia Nervosa:

(a) Binge eating followed by purging (vomiting, laxatives).

(b) Intense focus on body shape and weight.

(c) Feelings of loss of control over eating.

(iii) Binge Eating Disorder:

(a) Recurrent episodes of eating large quantities of food.

(b) Feelings of guilt or shame after bingeing.

(c) No regular purging behaviour.

5. “Physicians make diagnosis looking at a person’s physical symptoms”. How are psychological disorders diagnosed? 

Ans: Yes, physicians often rely on physical symptoms to help diagnose medical conditions. These symptoms can include observable signs like rashes, swelling, or abnormal physical exam findings such as high blood pressure or a rapid heart rate. Additionally, patients’ reported symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, or digestive issues, are crucial in forming a diagnosis. Physicians use their medical knowledge, clinical experience, and sometimes diagnostic tests like blood work or imaging scans to correlate these symptoms with known medical conditions and reach a diagnosis.

(i) Psychological Assessment: This includes standardised tests and tools designed to measure specific psychological factors, such as intelligence, personality traits, or symptoms of particular disorders.

(ii) Observation: Clinicians may observe the patient’s behaviour and interactions in different contexts to assess their mental state and functioning.

(iii) Diagnostic Criteria: Most psychological disorders are diagnosed based on specific criteria outlined in diagnostic manuals like the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) or ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases).

6. Distinguish between obsessions and compulsions. 

Ans: The difference between obsessions and compulsion are mentioned below: 

Obsessions are intrusive and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that cause distress or anxiety.Compulsions are repetitive behaviours or mental acts that a person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rigid rules.
They are unwanted and often irrational, causing significant distress because they intrude into a person’s consciousness despite efforts to ignore or suppress them.these actions are aimed at reducing anxiety or preventing a feared event or situation, even though they may be excessive or not realistically connected to the feared outcome.

7. Can a long-standing pattern of deviant behaviour be considered abnormal? Elaborate. 

Ans: Yes, a long-standing pattern of deviant behaviour can be considered abnormal, particularly when it significantly deviates from societal norms and affects daily functioning or well-being. 

Here’s how:

(i) Social Norms: Deviant behaviour violates the accepted standards of behaviour in a society. When persistent, it can lead to social rejection or legal consequences.

(ii) Maladaptive Functioning: Such behaviour often impairs an individual’s ability to function effectively in daily life, affecting relationships, work, or school performance.

(iii) Psychological Distress: It can cause significant distress to the individual or others, potentially indicating underlying psychological issues.

8. While speaking in public the patient changes topics frequently, is this a positive or a negative symptom of schizophrenia? Describe the other symptoms of schizophrenia. 

Ans: While speaking in public, the patient changes topics frequently. This is a symptom of derailment. This is one of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia; is the descriptive term to a group of psychotic disorders in which personal, social and occupational functioning deteriorate as a result of disturbed thought processes, strong perceptions, unusual emotional states, and motor abnormalities. 

9. What do you understand by the term ‘dissociation’? Discuss its various forms. 

Ans: Dissociation can be viewed as severance of the connections between ideas and emotions. Dissociation involves feelings of unreality, estrangement, depersonalisation.

Its various forms are mentioned below:

(i) Dissociative amnesia is characterised by extensive but selective memory loss that has no known organic cause (e.g., head injury). Some people cannot remember.

(ii) Dissociative disorders. Conditions included in this are Dissociative Amnesia, Dissociative Identity Disorder, and Depersonalisation/Derealisation Disorder.

10. What are phobias? If someone had an intense fear of snakes, could this simple phobia be a result of faulty learning? Analyse how this phobia could have developed. 

Ans: A phobia is an uncontrollable, irrational, and lasting fear of a certain object, situation, or activity. someone who was afraid to travel in a lift or climb to the tenth floor of a building, or refused to enter a room if s/he saw a lizard. You may have also felt it yourself or seen a friend unable to speak a word of a well-memorised and rehearsed speech before an audience. These kinds of fears are termed as phobias. 

Yes, a simple phobia can often result from faulty learning. This type of phobia typically develops through classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or observational learning.

Phobias are of different types: 

(ii) “Specific phobias”: Directed towards specific situations/objects varies e.g.,hydrophobia (fear of water) &  acrophobia (fear of heights)

(ii) “Social Phobia”: Fear of social situations  leading to avoiding a vast range of situations wherein they “fear” they would be revealed, scrutinised & likely humiliated by other people.

11. Anxiety has been called the “butterflies in the stomach feeling”. At what stage does anxiety become a disorder? Discuss its types.

Ans: Sometimes a fluttering feeling in your stomach can be a sign of anxiety. A person having persistent body-related symptoms which may or may not be related to any serious medical condition. People with this disorder tend to be overly preoccupied with their symptoms and they continually worry about their health and make frequent visits to doctors. As a result, they experience significant distress and disturbances in their daily life.

Types of disorder are mentioned below: 

(i) Illness anxiety disorder involves persistent preoccupation about developing a serious illness and constantly worrying

about this possibility. This is accompanied by anxiety about one’s health. Individuals with illness anxiety about their past. Others can no longer recall specific events, people, places, or objects, while their memory for other events remains intact. A part of dissociative amnesia is dissociative fugue. Essential features of this could be an unexpected travel away from home and workplace, the assumption of a new identity, and the inability to recall the previous identity. The fugue usually ends when the person suddenly ‘wakes up’ with no memory of the events that occurred during the fugue. This disorder is often associated with overwhelming stress.

(ii) Dissociative identity disorder, often referred to as multiple personality disorder, is the most dramatic of the dissociative disorders. It is often associated with traumatic experiences in childhood. In this disorder, the person assumes alternate personalities that may or may not be aware of each other. 

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