NCERT Class 12 Health and Physical Education Chapter 7 Physiology and Injuries in Sports

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NCERT Class 12 Health and Physical Education Chapter 7 Physiology and Injuries in Sports

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Physiology and Injuries in Sports

Chapter: 7

Some Other Important Questions For Examinations


1. Which of the following is not a component of physical fitness?

(a) Strength.

(b) Balance.

(c) Speed. 

(d) Endurance.

Ans: (b) Balance.

2. Which of these is a physiological factor determining flexibility?

(a) Connective tissues.

(b) Age.

(c) Joint structure.

(d) All of these.

Ans: (d) All of these.

3. Which of these is not a benefit of exercises related to cardiorespiratory fitness?

(a) Decreased resting heart rate.

(b) Increase stroke volume.

(c) Increased flexibility.

(d) Increased cardiac output.

Ans: (c) Increased flexibility.

4. Regular exercise decreases the blood pressure (systolic and diastolic blood pressure) by up to ___________ mmHg at rest.

(a) 10

(b) 20

(c) 15

(d) 15

Ans: (a) 10

5. Which of these is not a soft tissue injury?

(a) Abrasion.

(b) Fracture.

(c) Contusion. 

(b) Sprain.

Ans: (b) Fracture.

6. Which of these is the procedure for the treatment of sprain?

(a) PRICE.

(b) MICE.

(c) NICE.

(d) Both (a) and (b).

Ans: (d) Both (a) and (b).

7. Which of these is not a part of the MICE procedure?

(a) Mobilization.

(b) Ice.

(c) Execution.

(d) Compression.

Ans: (c) Execution.

8. Which of these is not a type of fracture?

(a) Stress fracture.

(b) Damage fracture.

(c) Impacted fracture.

(d) Transverse fracture.

Ans: (b) Damage fracture.

9. Which is the beneficial effect of exercise on the process of ageing?

(a) Improved mental health.

(b) Control over weight.

(c) Enhanced capacity of lungs.

(d) All of these.

Ans: (d) All of these.

10. Soft tissue injuries does not include which one of these?

(a) Skin injury.

(b) Ligament injury.

(c) Dislocation.

(d) Muscle injury.

Ans: (c) Dislocation.

11. How many physiological factors determined Physical fitness?

(a) Two.

(b) Four.

(c) Five.

(d) Three.

Ans: (b) Four.

12. Flexibility is not determined by which physiological factors?

(a) Muscle strength. 

(b) Age, gender.

(c) Injury.

(d) Aerobic capacity.

Ans: (d) Aerobic capacity.

13. Endurance is determined by which physiological factor?

(a) Aerobic capacity.

(b) Flexibility.

(c) Age, gender.

(d) Injuries.

Ans: (a) Aerobic capacity.

14. Strength is determined by which physiological factor?

(a) Body weight.

(b) Muscle coordinator.

(c) Joints.

(d) Muscle stretching.

Ans: (a) Body weight.

15. Cardiac output is ___________.

(a) Blood pumped by heart per minute.

(b) Blood pumped per heart bead.

(c) Blood pumped per minute during intense exercise.

(d) Blood pumped per hour.

Ans: (a) Blood pumped by heart per minute.

16. Taking in oxygen from the atmosphere into the body is known as ___________.

(a) Exhalation. 

(b) Inhalation.

(c) Stroke value.

(d) Aerobic capacity.

Ans: (b) Inhalation.

17. Intake of oxygen and given out carbon dioxide through alveoli is called __________.

(a) Circulation.

(b) Vital capacity.

(c) Respiration.

(d) Aerobic capacity.

Ans: (c) Respiration.

18. Which of the following is a function of muscles? 

(a) Oxygen intake.

(b) Oxygen Transport.

(c) Structure and support.

(d) Blood flow.

Ans: (c) Structure and support.

19. Exercise does not lead to __________.

(a) Increase in size of muscles.

(b) Better reaction time.

(c) Increased muscle speed.

(d) Minute volume decreases.

Ans: (d) Minute volume decreases.

20. Muscles consist of ____________.

(a) Voluntary muscles.

(b) Involuntary muscles.

(c) Cardiac muscles.

(d) Red fibres.

Ans: (d) Red fibres.

21. Match the following

1. SpeedA. Age/gender
2. StrengthB. Aerobic capacity
3. EnduranceC. Muscle size
4. FlexibilityD. Explosive strength

A. 1D, 2C, 3B, 4A.

B. 1C, 2B, 3A, 4D.

C. 1B, 2D, 3A, 4C.

D. 1A, 2B, 3D, 4C.

Ans: A. 1D, 2C, 3B, 4A.

22. Match the following:

1. Component of physical fitnessA. Contusion
2. Effect of exercise on cardio respiratory systemB. Flexibility
3. Effect of exercise on muscular systemC. Increase in endurance
4. Muscle injuryD. Improvement in body shape

A. 1B, 2C, 3D, 4A.

B. 1D, 2A, 3B, 4C.

C. 1A, 2C, 3B, 4D.

D. 1C, 2D, 3A, 4B.

Ans: A. 1B, 2C, 3D, 4A.


1. When we perform regular exercise, the muscles of the heart increase in size and strength. 

Ans: True.

2. Regular performing of exercise slows down ageing process.

Ans: True.

3. Muscle size cannot be increase with the help of different methods of strength training.

Ans: False.

4. Regular exercise decreases the resting heart rate.

Ans: True.

5. External injuries are caused by forces insight the body.

Ans: False.


1. The strength of the muscle largely depends upon the ___________ of the muscle.

Ans: size.

2. In __________ fracture the end of the fractured bone enters into another bone.

Ans: impacted.

3. If exercise is performed regularly and for a longer period, it increases ___________.

Ans: endurance.

4. __________ air is the amount of air that flows in and out of the lungs in each quiet respiratory movement.

Ans: Tidal.

5. A ___________ is an irregular cut in the skin from a sharp object or sharp edged sports equipment. 

Ans: laceration.


Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R):

Codes: (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false.

(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

1. Assertion (A): Flexibility decreases with the advancement of age.

Reason (R): Gender also determines the flexibility as females tend to be more flexible than males.

Ans: (b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

2. Assertion (A): Contusion is a muscle injury.

Reason (R): A direct hit with or without any sports equipment can be the main reason of contusion.

Ans: (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

3. Assertion (A): A sprain is a twist, pull or tear of a muscle or tendon.

Reason (R): Tendon is a cord of tissue that connects the muscle to bone.

Ans: (d) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

4. Assertion (A): A bone fracture is a full or partial break in the continuity of bone tissue.

Reason (R): There is only one way by which a bone can fracture.

Ans: (c) (A) is true, but (R) is false.


1. Sports injuries are those injuries which are common in the field of games and sports. During practice, training or competition, any player can be injured. Perhaps, there is no player who has not been injured during his sports career. Indeed, it is natural to get injured. Though coaches, physical trainer and sports doctor have been making their best possible efforts to prevent injuries, but they have not been completely successful so far. Though it is certain that with appropriate steps the chances of acquiring injuries can be reduced during the game.

(A) Which one of the following is not a causes of sports injury?

(a) Inadequate warming up.

(b) Lack of sports facilites.

(c) Practice during fatigue.

(d) Proper knowledge of spots skills.

Ans: (d) Proper knowledge of spots skills.

(B) You should use Ice on a soft tissue injury after _____________.

(a) 5 minutes.

(b) 10 minutes.

(c) 20 minutes.

(d) 15 minutes.

Ans: (a) 5 minutes.

(C) An ankle sprain is an example of which type of injury?

(a) Skin.

(b) Hard issue.

(c) Soft tissue.

(d) Bone.

Ans: (c) Soft tissue.

(D) Which of the following is not a type of fracture?

(a) Stress fracture.

(b) Oblique.

(c) Contusion.

(d) Commutated.

Ans: (c) Contusion.

2. The St. Columbus school attended a CBSE Cluster Basketball Tournament. During the semi-final match. Raghav, one of the players fell down and was injured on the shoulder. He was immediataly given first aid by the coach Mr. Vinay, who had the knowledge of first aid. Warm-up session is essential for players to avoid any serious injuries during the match. Example: Dislocation and fracture, Sprain and Strain.

(A) Breakage of bones is called __________.

(a) Fracture.

(b) Sprain.

(c) Contusion.

(d) Laceration.

Ans: (a) Fracture.

(B) Contusion is also known as __________.

(a) Bruise.

(b) Abrasion.

(c) Bone.

(d) Tendons.

Ans: (a) Bruise.

(C) The first-aid given to sprain injury is ____________.

(a) RICER.

(b) Following doctor advice.

(c) Giving massage to affected part.

(d) Applying muscle ointment.

Ans: (a) RICER.

3. My father was facing age-related health problems’ especially high blood sugar, obesity, hypertension, etc. I consulted my physical education teacher regarding my father’s problems because once he had discussed this topic in my class. He told me that he will meet my father at home. He came and suggested my father to start regular exercise or walking for at least one hour. My father started to do regular walking. After few months his above-mentioned problems reduced dramatically.

On the basis of the above passage, answer the following questions.

(A) What are the common age-related health problems?

(a) sugar.

(b) obesity.

(c) Walking.

(d) (a) and (b) both.

Ans: (d) (a) and (b) both.

(B) Which physical activity help in maintaining functional fitness of aged population?

(a) Walking.

(b) eating.

(c) Sleeping.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (a) Walking.

(C) What values are shown by the physical education teacher and the daughter?

(a) sportsmanship.

(b) teamwork.

(c) honesty.

(d) All the above.

Ans: (d) All the above.


1. Ramya and Deepthi were state level badminton players of our school. They used to practice hard even during off season. One day while practicing, due to lack of proper warm up, Ramya had injured her elbow and Deepthi had a sprain in her ankle joint. They were sent to hospital and first aid was administered.

(A) Sprain is an injury caused to

(a) Bone.

(b) Skin.

(c) Ligament.

(d) Muscle.

Ans: (c) Ligament.

(B) The letter ‘C’ in PRICER stands

(a) Conduction.

(b) Compression.

(c) Concussion.

(d) Contraction.

Ans: (b) Compression.

(C) The test to be conducted for bone injuries

(a) X-ray.

(b) Blood Test. 

(c) ECG.

(d) EEG.

Ans: (a) X-ray.

(D) Simple fracture is also known

(a) Compound.

(b) Greenstick.

(c) Spiral.

(d) Transverse.

Ans: (b) Greenstick.

(E) The main objective of first aid

(a) Save life.

(b) Provide medical help. 

(c) Clear airways.

(d) Check blood circulation.

Ans: (a) Save life.


Q. 1. Name some immediate effect of exercise.

Ans: Increase in heart rate, stroke volume, blood flow etc.

Q. 2. What do you mean by sprain?

Ans: Sprain is a ligament injury, which occur due to overstretching or tearing of ligaments.

Q. 3. Define physiology.

Ans: Physiology is the study of how the human body functions i.e. how the organs, systems, tissues, cells and molecules work together to maintain our internal environment.

Q. 4. Calculate how much blood is pumped by the heart in one minute.

Ans: Blood pumped by the heart in one minute is Cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume

= 72 beats/min x 70mL approximately

Q. 5. What is ‘stroke volume’?

Ans: The amount of blood pumped into the aorta with every heartbeat is known as the stroke volume. In an untrained male, it is 70mL/ beat to 90 mL/beat.

Q. 6. What is oxygen uptake? 

Ans: Oxygen uptake or VO² is the oxygen consumption or uptake per kilogram of body weight. It is a good measure of the respiratory system.

Q. 7. What is tidal volume?

Ans: Tidal volume is the amount of air inspired or expired per breath. This can be increase with the help of endurance training. In untrained individuals, tidal volume is about 500mL/breath, whereas in trained persons, it is increased to 600-700 mL/breath.

Q. 8. What is Cardio-vascular system?

Ans: It sends oxygen to various muscles, tissues & arteries and at the same time returns The Deoxygenated blood to the lungs to be re-oxygenated and return the fuel to The Active tissues of the different parts of body.

Q. 9. What kind of sports injury can be termed as abrasion?

Ans: In dermatology, an abrasion is a wound caused by superficial damage to the skin, no deeper than the epidermis. Mild abrasion is known as grazes or scrapes, a more traumatic abrasion that removes all layers of skin, is known as avulsion.

Q. 10. What is incision?

Ans: An incision of skin and subcutaneous tissue is a surgical procedure performed in order to drain an abscess. An incision is a cut or a wound produced by cutting with a scalpel.

Q. 11. What are acute injuries?

Ans: Acute injuries are the injuries that occur due to sudden trauma to the tissue. The symptoms of acute injuries present themselves almost immediately. For example sprains, fractures etc.

Q. 12. What do you mean by PRICE? 

Ans: PRICE is one of the standard treatment procedures for sports injuries. The word PRICE stands for Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation.


Q. 1. Discuss the physiological factors that determined strength.

Ans: The following are the factors for determining strength:

(i) Muscle composition: There are two types of fibres in muscles i.e., fast twitch fibres and slow twitch fibres. The muscles which consist of more percentage of fast twitch fibres will produce more strength.

(ii) Size of the muscle: The strength of an individual depends on the size of the muscle. As larger and bigger muscle produce more force and with the help of different methods of strength training, the size of the muscle can be increased.

(iii) Body weight: There is a positive relationship between body weight and strength. The individuals who are heavier are stronger than the individuals who are lighter in weight.

Q. 2. Explain four causes of sports injuries.

Ans: Four causes of sports injuries:

(i) Not Considering Safety Means: During game if we do not consider the safety means we may get injured.

(ii) Aggression or Violence: Aggression or Violence during game is also the cause of accident or injuries.

(iii) Wrong Training Methods: Poor or wrong training methods; overtraining or overexertion of muscles may cause injury.

(iv) Not Wearing Protective Guards: Players not wearing protective guards or not considering the safety equipments is one of the causes of injury.

Q. 3. What are long term effects of exercise on muscular system?

Ans: Long term effects of exercise on muscular system are:

(i) Increase in Size and Number of Mitochondria: Aerobic exercises leads to increase in size and numbers of mitochondria and which take in more oxygen and produce more ATP and energy.

(ii) Increase in Myoglobin Storage: Long term effect of aerobic exercise is to increase the storage of myoglobin which transports oxygen to mitochondria. Large amount of myoglobin means large amount of oxygen and large amount of energy.

(iii) Increase in Glycogen Storage: Glycogen is generally stored in muscles and liver. Regular exercise helps the body to increase the storage of glycogen which may give continuous energy for 90 to 120 minutes.

(iv) Increase in Oxidation/ Metabolism: Endurance exercise training increases the capacity skeletal muscle fat oxidation by increasing mitochondrial density. Long term exercises demand a lot of energy, and to meet this demand, metabolism increases due to oxidation of fat. This leads to increase in provision of energy.

Q. 4. What are the symptoms of dislocation?

Ans: Symptoms of dislocation are:

(i) Severe pain over the joint.

(ii) Swelling at the joint may be visible. 

(iii) Inability to make movements of the joint easily.

(iv) Deformity in the shape of a joint.

(v) Bruising.

(vi) Visibly deformed joint (Bones look out of place).

Q. 5. What are the effects of cardio respiratory system?

Ans: (i) Heart muscles become strong and on account of this change the stroke volume of heart increases.

(ii) As a result of regular exercise, new capillaries are formed in the body. On account of this change the colour of skin improves. It becomes reddish.

(iii) The flexibility of blood vessels improves. 

(iv) The risk of high blood pressure and other heart problems decreases.

Q. 6. Give the classification of sports injuries.

Ans: There are two types of sports injury. They are classified as:

(a) Soft tissue injuries. 

(b) Hard tissue injuries.

(i) Soft Tissue injuries.

Skin injuries: It is an injury over skin like Contusion, Abrasion, Recreation, Incision, etc.

(ii) Muscle injuries: In this injury the muscles, tendons and ligaments are affected like sprain strain.

(b) Hard Tissue Injuries: These injuries involve damage to bones of skeletal system like fracture and dislocation.

Q. 7. Mention the causes of sports injuries.

Ans: The main causes of accidents or injuries in sports are:

(i) Lack of Fitness: Lack or less of physical fitness may cause injury or accident.

(ii) Equipment Failure: Equipment fault or failure of equipment can be causes accidents in sports.

(iii) Not Performing Warming Up: Not performing proper warming up before the activity is the main cause of injuries during sports.

(iv) Not Rules: Player not following the rules and following regulations of the activity can cause injury.

(v) Poor playfied: Poor maintenance of playfield or playfield not as per rules of the game.

Q. 8. Differentiate between Minor Injuries and Serious Injuries.

Ans: (i) Minor Injuries: These injuries do not affect much to the players as they are less painful. The pain of these injuries vanishes after some time. In minor injuries there is localized inflammation caused due to some damage over skin or muscles tissues. These injuries are caused by overuse of affected part and relieved by sufficient rest and support. In some cases specific treatment is also needed.

(ii) Serious Injuries: These injuries affect the health and decline the performance of the player. In these injuries skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments or bones are damaged along with rapture of blood vessels. Thus there is localized inflammation and lot of pain around the affected part.

Q. 9. What is sprain?

Ans: Sprain is the injury of ligament or tendon around the joints. It occurs due to overstretching of ligament or twisting of joint. In sprain injury there is rupture of ligament or tendons. Sprain is very painful and it restricts the movement of joint. There is swelling as there is a lot of internal bleeding. Sprain injury is common to knee, ankle, wrist or elbow joints. It can be prevented by proper warming-up and avoiding jerky movement.

Q. 10. What are the symptoms of bone Injury?

Ans: Symptoms of Bone Injury: 

(i) The joint/bone will appear fixed with no movement being possible.

(ii) Fracture part is deformed.

(iii) Severe pain around fracture or around the joint bone.

Q. 11. How would you provide First Aid to Laceration Injury? 

Ans: (i) If injury is deep go for stitches at the earliest.

(ii) Care should be taken till the injury is totally healed up.

(iii) Clean the surface of the affected part.

(iv) Avoid infection by putting medicinal cream over it.

(v) Stop bleeding at the earliest by compression or by pressing or put compression bandages.

(vi) Apply ice or cold compression for some time.

(vii) Cover the affected part with medicinal cotton bandage or apply band-aid.


Q. 1. Discuss five techniques used to avoid sports injuries.

Ans: One of the important objectives of sports medicine is preventing injuries. It also prevents other physical, mental, social and financial harm accompanying sports injuries. General techniques that can prevent sports injuries are:

(i) Warm-Up and Cool-Down: A well structured warm-up and cool-down is necessary to increase blood and nutrient flow and concentration. Also it helps in relaxation, improved flexibility and recovery of muscles.

(ii) Planning a Session: Careful planning of training and rehabilitation sessions allows gradual specific adaptations. It reduces the damage to the tissues as a result of training.

(iii) Using Protective Equipment: The use of protective equipment like proper footwear, helmets, goggles, gum shield, shin pads and gloves prevents many sports injuries.

(iv) Adherence to the Rules: If all performers are aware of the adhere to the rules and laws of the particular sport, then injuries can be reduced to great extent.

(v) Psychological Training: Some form of mental skills training and practice could reduce injuries by reducing anxiety and improving concentration.

Q. 2. What are soft tissue injuries? Explain about any two injuries.

Ans: There are following types of soft tissue injuries:

(i) Contusion.

(ii) Strain.

(iii) Sprain.

(iv) Abrasion.

(i) Contusion: Contusion is a muscle injury. A direct hit with or without any sports equipment can be the main reason of contusion. Contusion is common in boxing, wrestling and kabaddi. In contusion blood vessels in the muscles are broken and sometimes bleeding may occur In the muscles. Stiffness and swelling are common features at the site of contusion. Sometimes, in such cases muscles fail to respond. In severe cases muscle becomes completely inactive.

(ii) Strain: Strain is also a muscle injury. Strain can be mild as well as severe. Sometimes, the complete muscle can be ruptured. In case of complete rupture, it is not possible to move that part of limb. There may be severe pain around the rupture. There may be many situations during the practice of clash when a strain may occur.

Q. 3. Discuss physiological factors determining speed.

Ans: Below are the effects of age on the body:

(i) Mobility of the nervous system: Our muscles contract and relax at maximum possible speed such as in sprinting events. This rapid contraction and relaxation of muscles is made possible by rapid excitation and inhibition of the concerned motor centres.

This is called the mobility of the nervous system. The nervous system can maintain this rapid excitation and inhibition only for a few seconds after which the excitation spreads to the neighboring centres causing tension in the entire body.

(ii) Muscle composition: The muscles, which have more percentage of fast twitch fibres contract with more speed in comparison to the muscles which have lower percentage of fast twitch fibres. In fact, the muscle composition is genetically determined and cannot be changed by training. Different muscles of the body have different percentages of fast twitch fibres. So, different parts of body have different speed performances.

(iii) Explosive strength: For every quick and explosive movement, explosive strength is indispensable. For example, a quick punch in boxing cannot be delivered if the boxer lacks explosive strength. Explosive strength further depends on muscle composition, muscle size and muscle coordination. It also depends on metabolic process. Except muscle composition, the remaining factors can be improved through training which ultimately improve the speed up to limited extent.

(iv) Flexibility: Upto some extent, flexibility also determines the speed. In fact, good flexibility allows maximum range of movement without much internal resistance. Flexibility also enables complete utilization of explosive strength.

(v) Bio-chemical reserves and metabolic power: For maximum speed performance the muscles require more amount of energy at a very high rate of consumption.

Q. 4. Describe the preventive steps for sports injuries.

Ans: Preventive steps for sports injuries are:

1. Treat even seemingly minor injuries very carefully to prevent them becoming a big problem.

2. Train on different surfaces, using the right footwear.

3. Introduce new activities very gradually.

4. If you experience pain during training, stop your training session immediately.

5. Avoid training when you are tired.

6. Allow lot of time for warming-up and cooling-off. 

7. Check over training and competition courses beforehand. 

8. Increase your consumption of carbohydrate during periods of heavy training. 

9. Never train hard if you are stiff from the previous effort.

10. Pay attention to hydration and nutrition.

11. Increase in training should be matched with increase in resting.

12. Training and competition areas should be clear of hazards. 

13. Any increase in training load should be preceded by an increase in strengthening. 

14. Use appropriate training surfaces.

Q. 5. Explain short term effects and long term effects of exercise on cardio respiratory system.

Ans: 1. Short-Term Effects of Exercise

(i) Respiratory Rate Increases: Our body requires more oxygen during exercise, and to meet this increased demand, the respiratory rate (breathing rate) increases. The normal respiration rate for an adult at rest is 12 to 20 breaths per minute. per minute, but during exercises it increases to 40 breaths per minutes.

(ii) Tidal Volume Increases: The amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one breath is known as tidal volume. Tidal volume increases as a result of exercise to take in more oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from our body. 

(iii) Rate of Exchange of Gas Increases: Regular exercise increases the rate of exchange of gas in lungs.

2. Long-Term Effects of Exercise

(i) Increased Efficiency of Respiratory Muscles: Due to regular exercise efficiency of respiratory muscles increases, inhalation and exhalation become fluent. This helps to meet the demand of oxygen.

(ii) Increased Lung volume: Continuous exercises done for long duration help to increase the capacity and volume of lungs Vital capacity increases almost 100% as compared to that of a normal individual.

(iii) Increased Pulmonary Diffusion: Pulmonary Diffusion refers to the capacity of the lungs to allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass in and out of the blood Regular submaximal exercise training develops the scope of increasing the exchange of gasses to oxygen in this process the size of the alveoli also increases.

Q. 6. Define strain and its causes, prevention and first aid management.

Ans: A strain is a twist, pull, or tear of a muscle or tendon. Tendon is a cord of tissue that connects the muscle to bone. It is an acute, noncontact injury that results from overstretching or over-contraction. Although it’s hard to tell the difference between mild and moderate strains, degree (a complete tear). Areas of the body that are most vulnerable to sprains are ankles. knees and wrists.

Strains are of three types.

Mild: When there is a slight tear of some ligament fibres and there is no loss of function.

Moderate: When rupture is accompanied with some loss of function.

Severe: When there is total rupture of ligament or even separation from bone causing complete loss of movement.

Cause: Strains occur suddenly (acute strain) or develop slowly over time (chronic strain). Causelt includes lifting of heavy objects, running, jumping. throwing etc.

Prevention: Regular stretching and strengthening exercise for any kind of sport can be the preventive measure for strain.

First aid and Management of Strain Injury:

Strain is generally treated by two methods, i.e. PRICE and MICE procedure. The word PRICE stands for Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation.

(i) Immediately give protection to strained area, so that again injury cannot happened.

(ii) Rest to player and completely restrict the movement of affected part.

(iii) Immediately apply cold compression or ice over the affected part to stop internal bleeding. Repeat this process for several times after some intervals.

(iv) Compression bandage should be applied over the affected part to reduce this swelling. 

(v) Elevate the affected part above the level of heart by splint or support.

Q. 7. What is a Ankle Bone Fracture and Fractures of Foot?

Ans: (i) Ankle Bone Fracture: The ankle takes much of the force of twisting injuries together with the knee. When the ankle is well supported, e.g. in the ski boot these forces are transmitted to the shin bone and the knee ligaments. The joints in the foot act to convert a simple inward or outward force on the foot into a twisting force which may then damage ligaments or bones around the ankle.

Ankle bone fracture is one of the commonest of all injuries. Ankle fracture may occur on inner or outer side of the ankle bones when the foot ‘turns under’. Ankle usually swells with bruising which appears within a few hours of injury. Tender to touch, it hurts to push the foot inwards and outwards. It may be impossible to walk on the ankle. Bad bruising or swelling suggests a complete rupture of the ligaments.

(ii) Fractures of Foot: Fractures of foot are usually caused by direct blow to foot. Sometimes standing on foot or fall from height on foot may be the cause of foot fracture. Many types of fractures may occur. Pain is felt. It is tender to touch, and hurts to move the foot. Swelling, bruising  of the foot occurs within few hours.

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