NCERT Class 12 Health and Physical Education Chapter 2 Children and Women in Sports

NCERT Class 12 Health and Physical Education Chapter 2 Children and Women in Sports Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 12 Health and Physical Education Chapter 2 Children and Women in Sports and select need one. NCERT Class 12 Health and Physical Education Chapter 2 Children and Women in Sports Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT Health and Physical Education Class 12 Solutions.

NCERT Class 12 Health and Physical Education Chapter 2 Children and Women in Sports

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Health and Physical Education Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Health and Physical Education for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Children and Women in Sports

Chapter: 2

Some Other Important Questions For Examinations


1. Which one of these is not a spinal curvature deformity?

(a) Lordosis.

(b) Scoliosis.

(c) Flat foot.

(d) Kyphosis.

Ans: (c) Flat foot.

2. Injury to the thin bona causes _________.

(a) Flat foot.

(b) Knock knee.

(c) Round shoulder.

(d) Bow legs. 

Ans: (b) Knock knee.

3. What is the other name for the Bow legs deformity?

(a) Venu Garum.

(b) Gemu Varun.

(c) Genu Varum.

(d) Varun Gemu.

Ans: (c) Genu Varum.

4. Female Athletes Triad involves _________.

(a) Osteoporosis.

(b) Amenorrhoea.

(c) Eating Disorders.

(d) All of these.

Ans: (d) All of these.

5. Eating large amounts of food at very short intervals of time is known as _________.

(a) Anorexia Nervosa.

(b) Osteoporosis.

(c) Bulimia Nervosa.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (c) Bulimia Nervosa.

6. The inward curvature of the spine is commonly known as ____________.

(a) Kyphosis.

(b) Round shoulder.

(c) Scoliosis.

(d) Lordosis.

Ans: (d) Lordosis.

7. Which asana works as remedy for round shoulder deformity?

(a) Chakrasana.

(b) Dhanurasana.

(c) Vajrasana.

(d) Both (a) and (b).

Ans: (d) Both (a) and (b).

8. What are the corrective measures for scoliosis?

(a) Le down in prone position.

(b) Stand erect with feet several inches apart.

(c) Both (a) and (b).

(d) None of these.

Ans: (c) Both (a) and (b).

9. Which one of the following is not a cause of early menarche?

(a) Low birth weight.

(b) Lack of exercise.

(c) Proper diet.

(d) Stress.

Ans: (c) Proper diet.

10. Match the following:

1. Knock knees(i) Not doing exercise of shoulders properly
2. Round shoulders(ii) Weakness of muscles and ligaments
3. Bow legs(iii) Improper diet
4. Lordosis(iv) Deficiency of calcium or phosphorous

(a) 1-(ii), 2-(i), 3-(iv), 4-(iii)

(b) 3-(ii), 1-(iv), 4-(iii), 2-(i)

(c) 2-(iv), 4-(i), 1-(ii), 3-(iii)

(d) 4-(ii), 3-(i), 1-(iv), 2-(iii)

Ans: (a) 1-(ii), 2-(i), 3-(iv), 4-(iii),

11. What is osteoporosis?

(a) Insufficient calcium in bone.

(b) Low bone density.

(c) Both (a) and (b).

(d) None of these.

Ans: (c) Both (a) and (b).

12. Scoliosis is a posture deformity related with ____________.

(a) shoulder.

(b) foot.

(c) leg.

(d) vertebral column.

Ans: (d) vertebral column.

13. Due to Cavid Pandemic, most of the children attending online classes with bad sitting posture may experience __________ later.

(a) Kyphosis.

(b) Lordosis.

(c) Scoliosis.

(d) Bow Legs.

Ans: (a) Kyphosis.


1. Kyphosis is not related with spinal curvature deformities.

Ans: False.

2. Lordosis is the inward curvature of spine.

Ans: False.

3. Amenorrhoea is a menstrual disorder in women.

Ans: True.

4. Fatigue is the major symptom of women suffering from Female Athletes Triad.

Ans: True.


1. The opposite of knock knee position is known as _____________.

Ans: bow legs.

2. If a women athlete takes less number of calories persistently for a long time, she may suffer from _____________.

Ans: anorexia nervosa.

3. Female athletes can experience disruptions in their normal menstrual cycle. These disruptions are referred to as ____________.

Ans: menstrual dysfunction.

4. The eating disorder in which a female athlete eats excessive amount of food and them vomits it in order not to gain weight is called ___________.

Ans: bulimia nervosa.

5. ___________ is a deformity which refers to excessive inward spinal curvature. 

Ans: Lordosis.


Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason(R):

Codes: (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the comact explanation of (A).

(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(c) (A) is true, but (R) is False.

(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

1. Assertion (A): in Knock Knees, the gap between ankles goes on increasing.

Reason (R): It is one of the major postural deformities.

Ans: (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the compact explanation of (A).

2. Assertion (A): Lordosis is also known as round back. 

Reason (R): Malnutrition is one of the major cause of Kyphosis.

Ans: (d) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

3. Assertion (A): Weakness of back muscles is the main reason of many postural deformities.

Reason (R): Flat foot can be corrected by running. 

Ans: (c) (A) is true, but (R) is False.

4. Assertion (A): Amenorrhea is weaking of bones due to the loss of bone density.

Reason (R): Women face societal pressure of being than.

Ans: (d) (A) is false, but (R) is true.


1. Deformities of spinal curvature are related to spine. These deformities are caused by carrying excessive weight beyond one’s capacity. In other words, we can say that weak muscles cause the formation of spinal curvature. The normal lumbar spine is characterised by a moderate anterior hyperextension curve,when viewed laterally. Although, there is no absolute standard for the determination of the degree or extent of the anterior convexity of the normal lumbar curve.

(A) What does deformity mean? 

(a) The malformation of any component of the body.

(b) The malfunction of body’s organs.

(c) The malfunction of joints of the body.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (a) The malformation of any component of the body.

(B) Lordosis deformity is

(a) Inward curvature of the spine.

(b) Arch of sole of feet.

(c) Abnormal backward curvature of the thoracic region of the spin.

(d) Aggravated lower curvature of the lumber region.

Ans: (a) Inward curvature of the spine.

(C) Scoliosis is postural deformity where the person body position become-

(a) Lateral curvature of the spine.

(b) Arch of sole of feet.

(c) Wide gap between the knees.

(d) A side way curvature of the spine.

Ans: (a) Lateral curvature of the spine.

(D) Which one of the following postural deformities is not related with spinal curve?

(a) Kyphosis.

(b) Scoliosis.

(c) Lordosis.

(d) Flatfoot.

Ans: (d) Flatfoot.


1. The role of physical activities as well as other corrective measures in functional deformities is very effective, especially during elementary school years. Posture plays a very significant role in our daily activities. Correct posture means the balancing of body in accurate and proper manner. Various types of postural deformities can be identified in individuals.

(A) From the above given picture, the deformities seen on the legs mostly is caused due to deficiency of ___________.

(a) iron.

(b) calcium.

(c) vitamin-D.

(d) Both (b) and (c).

Ans: (d) Both (b) and (c).

(B) Walking on the inner edge of the feet can be a remedy for ___________.

(a) bow legs.

(b) flat foot.

(c) overweight.

(d) leg deformity.

Ans: (a) bow legs.

(C) The person in the middle is suffering with ____________.

(a) rickets.

(b) flat foot.

(c) knock knees. 

(d) none of these.

Ans: (c) knock knees.

(D) Horse-riding is the best exercise for treating ____________.

(a) knock knees.

(b) bow legs.

(c) flat foot.

(d) all of the above.

Ans: (a) knock knees.

(E) Performing ___________ regularly can be a remedy for knock-knees.

(a) padmasana.

(b) tadasana.

(c) vajrasana.

(d) halasana.

Ans: (a) padmasana.


Q. 1. What is the round shoulder?

Ans: In this type of deformity, our shoulders become round and tilt in the forward direction.

Q. 2. Define flat foot.

Ans: Flat foot refers to a condition where the arch of the foot is flattened. The foot is not marked with curve/ arch at the base of the foot.

Q. 3. Mention the causes of scoliosis.

Ans: Scoliosis may be due to many reasons but the main reasons are diseases in the joint of bones, underdeveloped legs, infertile paralysis, rickets, etc.

Q. 4. What are Bow legs?

Ans: This is the defect of legs in which legs bend outward. The space between knees widens up and legs take curve shape.

Q.5. State the common postural deformities.

Ans: Common postural deformities are Kyphosis, Flat foot, Knock-knee, Lordosis, Bow legs.

Q. 6. Write two benefits of regular exercise. 

Ans: Benefits of regular exercise are:

(i) Improves blood circulation, which reduces the risks of hear diseases.

(ii) Prevents bone loss.

Q. 7. What are the causes of knock knee?

Ans: The causes of knock knee are as follow:

(i) Weakness of muscles and ligaments.

(ii) Overweight body.

(iii) Lack of balanced diet.

(iv) Lack of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus.

Q.8. What is Menarche?

Ans: Menarche (say “Man-ar-kee”) is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding in female humans. Girls experience menarche at different ages, as timings of menarche is influenced by female biology, as well as genetic and environmental factors, especially nutritional factors.

Q.9. Write in brief about osteoporosis. What are the causes of osteoporosis in women?

Ans: Osteoporosis is a weakening of the bones due to the loss of bone density and improper bone formation.

This condition can ruin a female athlete’s career because it may lead to bone fractures and other injuries.

Causes of osteoporosis in women are as follows:

(i) Hormonal changes occurring during menopause may reduce bone density. 

(ii) Lack of calcium and vitamin D in diet.


Q. 1. Suggest exercises as corrective measures for round shoulders.

Ans: Round shoulders is a postural deformity in which the shoulders become round as they are drawn forward, the heads is extended and the chin points forward.

The corrective measures are:

(i) Stand in correct posture.

(ii) Keep the finger tips on your shoulders and encircle your elbows in clockwise and anticlockwise direction.

(iii) Perform Chakrasana and Dhanurasana for sometime.

(iv) Hold the horizontal bar for sometime.

Q. 2. What are the corrective measures for bow legs?

Ans: Following measures be taken to avoid or correct the bow legs:

(i) Special shoes can be worn that rotate the feet outward.

(ii) Vitamin D should be given in required dose.

(iii) Walk on inner edge of the feet.

(iv) Do Ardh Chakra asana and Ardha-matsyendra asana.

Q. 3. Suggest four corrective exercises for flat foot.

Ans: The deformity of flat foot can be corrected with the help of following exercises:

(i) Jumping on toes for sometime.

(ii) Perform rope skipping.

(iii) Walking on toes.

(iv) Sit down properly. Try to grip small webs of paper with your toes. These pieces of paper should be picked up by forcefully gripping with toes.

Q. 4. What is Lordosis? What are its causes?

Ans: Lordosis is the inward curvature of spine. In fact, it is an increased forward curve in the lumbar region. It creates problem in standing and walking. The body seems to be stiff. The individual feels shame and inferiority. Lordosis can be corrected in early stage.

Causes of Lordosis: Generally imbalanced diet, improper environment, improper development of muscles, obesity and diseases affecting vertebrae and spinal muscles are such causes which result in lordosis. In addition to these causes, not performing exercises and taking excessive food are also major causes of lordosis.

Q. 5. Write about the deformities of spinal curvature.

Ans: There are three types fo spinal curvature:

(i) Lordosis: It is the inward curvature of the spine or a deformity of spinal curvature. It is an increased forward curve in the lumbar region. It creates problems in standing and walking.

(ii) Kyphosis: It is a deformity of the spinal curvature in which there is an increase of exaggeration of a backward curve or a decrease of a forward curve. It is also called as round upper back.

(iii) Scoliosis: It is a postural deformity of spinal curvature in which there is one large lateral curve extending through the whole length of the spine, or there may be two curves. This type of deformity is also called curve.

Q.6. What are the causes for bow legs? 

Ans: The causes for bow legs are:

(i) It is mainly caused due to deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in bones.

(ii) Long bones tends to be softer and bends outward under body weight.

(iii) In case of overweight children the chances of bow legs increases.

(iv) It is also caused due to the deficiency of Vitamin D, walking in a improper way or forcing the children to walk early may also lead to this deformity.

Q.7. What are the causes of female athlete triad?

Ans: The main cause of the female athlete triad is an energy imbalance. This imbalance causes you to use more energy than you consume. This results in symptoms of excess fatigue, irregular periods, and, ultimately, bone loss. Females who are very active may have this problem. It may be on purpose or on accident. The female athlete triad also may be due to an eating disorder, such as anorexia.

Q.8. Define Osteoporosis.

Ans: Osteoporosis is defined as a skeletal disorder which is due to the low level of estrogen and poor nutritional diet (especially low calcium). Osteoporosis is weakning of bones due to the loss of bone density and improper bone formation which declines the sports performance and leads to bone injuries. As athletes are active and their bones must endure mechanical stress, the likelihood of experiencing bone fracture is particularly high. Bone mass is now thought to peak between to ages of 18-25. Thus in low bone density in youth could be detrimental to an athlete’s bone health throughout her lifetime.

Q. 9. What is Menstrual dysfunction?

Ans: A menstrual disorder is an irregular condition in a women’s menstrual cycle. Most menstrual cycles occur every 22 to 35 days. Normal menstrual flow lasts 3 to 7 days, with most blood loss occurring with in the first 3 days. Increasing numbers of women of all ages have been participating in sports at both recreational and competitive level. Most girls and women derive significant health benefits from regular physical activity. They can achieve the same training effects as do men, such as decreased blood pressure, lowered heart rate and improved aerobic capacity, as well as decreased body fat.


Q. 1. Explain the causes of any five postural deformities in detail.

Ans: (i) Knock Knees: Knock knees is one of the major postural deformities. In this deformity, both the knees knock or touch each other in normal standing position. The gap between ankles goes on increasing. The individual faces difficulty in walking and running. He cannot walk or run in a proper manner. Owing to this deformity, they cannot be good players and even they are not selected defence services.

(ii) Flat Foot: Flat foot refers to a condition where the arch of the foot is flattened. The foot is not marked with curve/arch at the base of the foot. 

(iii) Round Shoulder: Round shoulder is a common postural defect or deformity, it can be cured by doing below mentioned exercise regularly.

1. Keep tips of your fingers on your shoulders and rotate your elbow to make circles in clockwise and anti- clockwise direction for sometime regularly.

2. Holding the horizontal bar regularly for sometime. 

3. Doing Chakrasana and Dhanurasana regularly for sometime.

(iv) Bow Legs: ‘Bow legs’ is also a postural

deformity. Approximately, it is opposite to knock-knees position. If there is wide gap between the knees when standing with feet together, the individual has bow legs or genuvarum. In this deformity, knees are widely apart. There remains a wide gap between knees when a bow legged person keeps his feet together. This deformity, can be observed easily, when an individual walks or runs.

(v) Lordosis: Lordosis is excessive inward curvature of the lumbar spine (just above the buttocks) and cervical vertebral column. In Lordosis the back appears to be concave when viewed from the side.

Q. 2. What are the two types of eating disorders?

Ans: Two types of eating disorders are:

Anorexia nervosa: Anorexia is a potentially life-threatening eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, intense fear of gaining weight, and a distorted perception of weight or shape. People with anorexia use extreme efforts to control their weight and shape, which often significantly interferes with their health and life activities. When you have anorexia, you excessively limit calories or use other methods to lose weight, such as excessive exercise, using laxatives or diet aids, or vomiting after eating. Efforts to reduce your weight, even when underweight, can cause severe health problems, sometimes to the point of deadly self-starvation.

Bulimia nervosa: Bulimia nervosa is a serious, potentially life-threatening eating disorder. When you have bulimia, you have episodes of bingeing and purging that involve feeling a lack of control over your eating. Many people with bulimia also restrict their eating during the day, which often leads to more binge eating and purging. During these episodes, you typically eat a large amount of food in a short time, and then try to rid yourself of the extra calories in an unhealthy way. Because of guilt, shame and an intense fear of weight gain from overeating, you may force vomiting or you may exercise too much or use other methods, such as laxatives, to get rid of the calories.

If you have bulimia, you’re probably preoccupied with your weight and body shape, and may judge yourself severely and harshly for your self-perceived flaws. You may be at a normal weight or even a bit overweight.

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