# NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 3 Population Composition

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## NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 3 Population Composition

Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Geography Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Geography: Fundamentals of Human Geography, Geography: India People and Economy, Geography: Practical Work in Geography. NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 3 Population Composition Notes, NCERT Class 12 Geography Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 3

PART – I FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

1. Name the three age-groups of population and also mention their ages.

Ans: Age is one of the major elements of population composition. Different age groups of a population can be divided into three categories: child (0-14 years old), adult (15-64) and elder (65 years old and above). The child age group and elder age group combined makeup the dependents of a population.

2. Which age group is economically most important?

Ans: The age composition of a population refers to the population’s distribution of individuals by age group. The proportion of the population that is classified as children, working-age, or elderly is a significant driver of the population’s social and economic structure.

3. What is sex ratio and how is it measured?

Ans: Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in a given population. In a society that has males and females equal in number, the sex ratio is 1:1 or 1000 females for every 1000 males.

4. What do you know about the age-pyramid?

Ans: A population pyramid, also called an age structure diagram or an age-sex pyramid, is a graphical illustration – typically in the shape of a pyramid – which depicts the distribution of various age groups for each gender in a geographical area such as the European Union, a country or a region.

5. What type of population is called rural population?

Ans: If a region is made up of open land and is occupied by less than 2,500 people, the bureau considers it a rural region. Those areas with a minimum of 50,000 people are urban areas.

6. Explain the term ‘literacy’.

Ans: Literacy in geography involves students developing their reading and viewing, writing and creating, and speaking and listening skills. They use this to explore, interpret and evaluate geographical phenomena and issues, and communicate their ideas geographically.

7. How many categories of occupations have been identified by the United Nations?

Ans: These groups form the most detailed level of the classification structure and are aggregated into 130 minor groups, 43 sub‑major groups and 10 major groups, based on the similarity of the skill level and skill specialisation required. 7.43.

8. Define an ageing population.

Ans: An ageing population is an increase in the number of older people within a population, whilst the number of young people remains low or does not increase.

9. What is age-sex pyramid?

Ans: A population pyramid, also called an age structure diagram or an age-sex pyramid, is a graphical illustration – typically in the shape of a pyramid – which depicts the distribution of various age groups for each gender in a geographical area such as the European Union, a country or a region.

10. What do you mean by an aging population?

Ans: An ageing population is an increase in the number of older people within a population, whilst the number of young people remains low or does not increase. As a society develops, changes occur to the economy and society, and this alters a population’s composition.

1. Write a short note on occupational structure of population.

Ans: (i) in all countries the working population is engaged in primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities for their livelihood.

(ii) The percentage of people engaged in these activities is called occupational structure.

(iii) In developing countries, the percentage of people engaged in primary occupations is high compared to people engaged in secondary, tertiary, or quaternary activities.

(iv) In developed countries, the percentage of people engaged in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities is more compared to people engaged in primary activities.

(v) Trade and infrastructure are advanced. So, more people are required in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities.

(vi) The More people engaged in secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities, the more developed the country.

(vii) Thus, the occupation structure of the country is an indicator of the country’s economic development level.

2. What do you mean by sex composition?

Ans: Changes in sex composition mostly reflect the changes in the socio-economic and cultural patterns of a society. The sex ratio defined as the number of males per 100 females in the population is an important social indicator to measure the degree of equity between males and females in a society at a given point of time.

3. Differentiate between rural population and urban population.

Ans:

4. Distinguish between progressive population and regressive population.

Ans:

5. Distinguish between productive population and dependent population.

Ans:

6. What do you mean by population composition? What are its components?

Ans: Population composition refers to the structure of the population. Population composition helps to know the number of males or females, their age-groups, literacy, their occupation, their income level and health conditions etc.

7. Explain how gender discrimination affects sex ratio.

Ans: Female gender discrimination due to a cultural preference for males is a common global problem, particularly in Asian regions. India is no exception. Gender discrimination manifesting as increased female mortality, female infanticide, and sex-selective abortion has received considerable attention in recent years.

8. Describe Three kinds of age pyramids associated with Three kinds of population situations.

Ans: There are usually three types of age pyramids –

(a) The expansive age pyramid.

(b) stationary age pyramid. and

(c) constructive age pyramid. And all three pyramids are of different shapes.

1. Write a geographical essay on age-sex structure of the population.

Ans: The distribution of population by age and sex are among the most fundamental demographic characteristics of human populations as well as of demographic statistics. It Plays an important role for the development of any society. Critically depends upon the age and sex Structure of the Population moreover. It is well known that many developed countries and international agencies study the distribution trajectory. The future size and structure of the population depend on the current age-sex Structure of the population. moreover in the current context of global concerns of environmental degradation and climate change.

Age is a more complex characteristic than sex. The aye is normally defined by a person at his/her last birthday at the time of the survey. Thus demographically. Age is considered as the completed years while many cultures use age with varied other meanings. The definition of sex Almost all Population characteristics vary significantly with different ages. As a component of population analysis. Most of the analysis is based on the age-sex structure of the formation.

Usefulness of Age sex Information:

In the previous section we have studied  that the age-sex date is of prime importance and is used for various purposes in social sciences. Age-sex  Structure conveys the relative numbers of children. Young and old as well the  balance of men and women to different ages. Such information is useful for women of different ages. Such information is useful for  Formulations of several country-specific policy-making and planning Purposes. It can be observed that many population characteristics vary Significantly with different ages and therefore. The demographic with different ages and therefore the demographic dynamics can only be understood with a careful analysis of the age-sex Structure data. As a component of population analysis most of the demographic analyses are based on the age-sex Structure of the population. The future population growth also critically  depends upon the age-sex Structure.

2. Write a detailed note on Rural-Urban composition.

Ans: Here’s a detailed breakdown of the components and dynamics of Rural-Urban composition:

(i) Definition of Rural and Urban Areas:

(a) Rural Areas: A rural area is an open swath of land that has few homes or other buildings, and not very many people. A rural area’s population density is very low. Many people live in a city, or urban area.

(b) Urban Areas: Urban areas are very developed, meaning there is a density of human structures, such as houses, commercial buildings, roads, bridges, and railways. “Urban area” can refer to towns, cities, and suburbs. An urban area includes the city itself, as well as the surrounding areas.

(ii) Population Distribution:

(a) Rural Population: Rural population refers to the population in areas that have a lower population density than urban areas and are spread over a larger area out than urban centres. Rural population is the population living outside of cities. Work in these areas is often more focused on agriculture than urban areas.

(b) Urban Population: Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. The data are collected and smoothed by the United Nations Population Division.

(iii) Factors Influencing Rural-Urban Composition:

(a) Economic Opportunities: Economic opportunity means providing an equal chance for people to earn a living wage. To achieve a situation in which people have this kind of opportunity, governments must ensure adequate education and training, rights for workers and an economic climate in which legitimate businesses can grow.

(b) Infrastructure and Services: Infrastructure is often categorised as hard or soft. Hard infrastructure is the tangible, physical assembly of structures such as roads, bridges, tunnels, and railways. Soft infrastructure is the services required to maintain the economic, health, and social needs of a population.

(c) Quality of Life: Quality-of-life (QOL) surveys are another tool that are used globally to measure standards of living based on indicators other than economic ones. Introduced as a concept to Geography in the 1970s, quality of life is the general well-being of individuals and societies.

(d) Industrialization and Urbanization: Industrialisation is the process of transforming any society into an industrial society (by developing industries), whereas, in urbanisation, the rural population migrates towards the urban areas.

(iv) Challenges and Opportunities:

(a) Rural-Urban Migration: Rural-urban migration refers to the movement of people from rural to urban areas to seek better job opportunities and meet better living requirements. For example, the movement of a former farmer from a village to work as a guard in Mumbai is considered rural-urban migration.

(b) Urban-Rural Disparities: Disparities are pretty vast in nature as a topic. There are several differences between rural and urban society in terms of architecture, education, career opportunities, etc. Generally, we see Indian society divided into rural society, urban society, and tribal society based on geographical locations and socio-cultural factors. The urban area consists of towns and cities. Before independence, the concept of rural and urban society was not valid. Just after the globalisation process everything in the world was changing, the formation of towns and cities took place and the process of urbanisation started from there itself. An urban area is the spatial concentration of people who are working in non-agricultural activities, in other words, the occupational components in the urban plethora are mainly official and industrial.

(c) Rural Development: Rural development is a dynamic process, which is mainly concerned with the rural areas. These include agricultural growth, putting up of economic and social infrastructure, fair wages as also housing and house sites for the landless, village planning, public health, education and functional literacy, communication etc.

(d) Urban Planning: Urban planning is the process of guiding and directing the use and development of land, urban environment, urban infrastructure, and related ecosystem and human services-in ways that ensure the maximum level of economic development, high quality of life, wise management of natural resources, and efficient operation of infrastructures.

(v) Impacts on Society and Economy:

(a) Rural-Urban Linkages: Rural-urban linkages, denote connections between the rural and urban societies or the acts of connecting them. Connections or linkages between the two societies are caused by various factors and in different dimensions of the two societies.

(b) Socio-Cultural Changes: Socio-Cultural change is nothing new. However, with the changing face of our world it seems that this type of change has become a more important focus. Socio-Cultural change refers to the ways people perceive and react to different situations that involve cultural differences.

(c) Economic Growth: Economic growth refers to an increase in the size of a country’s economy over a period of time. The size of an economy is typically measured by the total production of goods and services in the economy, which is called gross domestic product (GDP). Economic growth can be measured in ‘nominal’ or ‘real’ terms.

(vi) Policy Implications:

(a) Balanced Regional Development: It does not imply equal development of all regions of a country. Rather it indicates utilisation of development potential of all areas as per its capacity so that the benefit of overall economic growth is shared by the inhabitants of all the different regions of a country.

(b) Sustainable Urbanisation: Sustainable urban development is important for many reasons, ranging from long-term economic benefits to improved quality of life and reduced environmental impact. By investing in sustainable initiatives, cities can create jobs and growth, while at the same time reducing energy usage, waste, and pollution.

(c) Rural Empowerment: Rural development is the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in rural areas, often relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas.

3. What population characteristics are revealed by an age-sex pyramid having a wide base and rapid tapering pyramid?

Ans: An age-sex pyramid with a wide base and rapid tapering sides typically indicates certain population characteristics.

Here’s what such a pyramid might reveal:

(i) High Birth Rate: High birth rate is a birth rate that would lead to a growing population over a time. It must be seen considering (or relative to) the death rate. Currently the global birth rate is 19 per 1000 population (per year) compared with 8 deaths per 1000 population per year.

(ii) Young Population: This is because they have a ‘younger’ population overall: high fertility rates across these countries mean they have larger populations of young children and adolescents. On focus on youth in the 15-to-24-year age range, USAID defines youth as individuals aged 10–29. USAID defines the different periods of youth as follows: early adolescence (10-14) adolescence (15–19) emerging adulthood (20–24) and transition to adulthood (25–29).

(iii) Potential for Population Growth: A region’s population will grow as long as their crude birth rates are higher than their crude death rates. A crude birth rate (CBR) is the total number of live births for every 1,000 people in a given year. So, a crude birth rate of 10 would mean ten babies are born every year for every 1,000 people in that region.

(iv) High Dependency Ratio: A high dependency ratio indicates that the economically active population and the overall economy face a greater burden to support and provide the social services needed by children and by older persons who are often economically dependent.

(v) Healthcare and Education Needs: Understanding geography, including the arrangement of health services and the location and nature of environmental exposures, is crucial in assessing the interrelations inherent in many health-related risk exposures.

(vi) Pressure on Resources: Resource pressure and security are becoming increasingly pivotal in a world where the balance between growing human demands and the availability of finite resources is precarious.

(vii) Potential for a Demographic Transition: In demography, demographic transition is a phenomenon and theory which refers to the historical shift from high birth rates and high death rates in societies with minimal technology, education (especially of women) and economic development, to low birth rates and low death rates in societies with advanced technology.

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

(i) Which one of the following has caused the Sex ratio of United Arab Emirates to be Low:

(a) Selective migration of male working population.

(b) High birth rate of males.

(c) Low birth rate of females.

(d) High out migration of females.

Ans: (c) Low birth rate of females.

(ii) Which one of the following figures represents the working age group of the population?

(a) 15 to 65 years.

(b) 15 to 64 years.

(c) 15 to 66 years.

(d) 15 to 59 years.

Ans: (d) 15 to 59 years.

(iii) Which one of the following countries has the highest Sex ratio in the world?

(a) Latvia.

(b) United Arab Emirates.

(c) Japan.

(d) France.

Ans: (a) Latvia.

(iv) The percentage of youthful population in the world is

(a) 23%

(b) 36%

(c) 60%

(d) 25%

Ans: (b) 36%.

(v) In the third world countries the population of old and aged people constitute:

(a) 10%

(b) 15%

(c) 6% to 8%

(d) 4% to 8%

Ans: (d) 4% to 8%.

(vi) Population composition is also called:

(a) Sex composition.

(b) Age structure.

(c) Demographic.

(d) Literacy rate structure.

Ans: (c) Demographic structure.

(vii) Sex ratio is measured in terms of the number of females per ______________ males.

(a) 10000

(b) 1000

(c) 10

(d) 100000

Ans: (b) 1000.

(viii) Which of the following countries rank high on human development?

(a) Mexico.

(b) India.

(c) Nigeria.

(d) USA.

Ans: (d) USA.

(ix) How many people die annually from densely populated urban areas?

(a) 5 million.

(b) 20 million.

(c) 15 million.

(d) 10 million.

Ans: (d) 10 millions.

(x) The current rate of population growth in the world is ____________ people a year.

(a) 60 million.

(b) 70 million.

(c) 50 million.

(d) 40 million.

Ans: (a) 60 million.

(xi) In how many countries have unfavourable sex ratio is found?

(a) 52

(b) 62

(c) 72

(d) 82

Ans: (c) 72.

(xii) Which attribute does not distinguish people?

(a) Age.

(b) Sex.

(c) Occupation.

(d) Industries.

Ans: (d) Industries.

(xiii) In European countries the deficit of males is due to ______________.

(a) Low birth rate.

(b) High death rate.

(c) Better status of women.

(d) Better status of man.

Ans: (c) Better status of women.

(xiv) The ageing population has an age more than ______________.

(a) 40 years.

(b) 45 years.

(c) 50 years.

(d) 60 years.

Ans: (d) 60 years.

(xv) Expanding population pyramid shows ______________.

(a) Wide base.

(b) Narrow base.

(c) Developed economy.

(d) Uniform width.

Ans: (a) Wide base.

(xvi) Which type of age-sex pyramid is Australia?

(a) Expanding.

(b) Constant.

(c) Declining.

(d) Negative.

Ans: (b) Constant.

(xvii) Lowest sex ratio is found in ______________.

(a) Egypt.

(b) UAE.

(c) Kuwait.

(d) Iran.

Ans: (b) UAE.

2. Write Short Notes on.

(i) In how many countries (according to UNO) the sex ratio is favourable?

Ans: 139 countries.

(ii) Which countries of Asia has a lower sex ratio?

Ans: China, India, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan.

(iii) What is the age structure?

Ans: Age structure represents the number of people of different age groups.

(iv) Which diagram shows age-sex structure?

Ans: Population pyramid.

(v) Which country’s population shows a constant pyramid?

Ans: Australia.

(vi) Which country shows a declining population pyramid?

Ans: Japan.

(vii) Which country shows an expanding population pyramid?

Ans: Nigeria.

(viii) Why are women discouraged to migrate to towns?

Ans: Due to lack of security, high cost of living.

(ix) When is sex ratio unfavourable?

Ans: When the number of men is more than the number of women.

(x) What is the average world sex ratio?

Ans: 990 females per 1000 males.

(i) What do you understand about population composition?

Ans: Population composition refers to those characteristics of population which are measurable and which help us distinguish one group of people from the other. Age, sex, literacy, occupation are some of the important components which reflect the composition of the population. These components in different societies have different proportions. They also affect the life of all the people in a society and help in setting future agenda for development.

(ii) What is the significance of age structure?

Ans: The age structure of a population refers to the numbers of people in different age groups.

(a) If the number of children in the population is high, the dependency Ratio in the population will be high and the chances of increase in population in future will also be more.

(b) The proportion of the population in the age group of 15–59 years shows a large working population.

(c) A large growing population in the age group of 60 or above indicates large expenditure on the care of the aged.

(iii) How is the Sex ratio measured?

Ans: The ratio between the number of women and men in the population is called sex ratio.

It is calculated using the formula in some countries:

Male Population / Female population × 1000.

But in India it is worked out using the formula:

Female population/ Male Population × 1000.

Or the number of females per thousand males.

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