NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth

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NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth

Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Geography Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Geography: Fundamentals of Human Geography, Geography: India People and Economy, Geography: Practical Work in Geography. NCERT Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth Notes, NCERT Class 12 Geography Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 2

PART – I FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

1. What is meant by crude birth rate?

Ans: The crude birth rate is the annual number of live births per 1,000 population. Method of measurement. The crude birth rate is generally computed as a ratio.

2. Name four determinants of fertility.

Ans: Contraception Abortion Analysing fertility levels Education.

3. Explain the meaning of population density.

Ans: Population density is the number of people per unit of area, usually transcribed as “per square kilometre” or square mile, and which may include or exclude, for example, areas of water or glaciers. Commonly this is calculated for a county, city, country, another territory or the entire world.

4. What is international migration?

Ans: International migration occurs when people cross state boundaries and stay in the host state for some minimum length of the time. Migration occurs for many reasons. Many people leave their home countries in order to look for economic opportunities in another country.

5. What is the current growth rate of world population?

Ans: This is based on historical UN estimates and its medium projection to 2100. Global population growth peaked in the 1960s at over 2% per year. Since then, rates have more than halved, falling to less than 1%. The UN expects rates to continue to fall until the end of the century.

6. What is migration?

Ans: Human migration is the movement of people from one place to another with intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily, at a new location. The movement often occurs over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is the dominant form of human migration globally.

7. What are the pull factors of migration?

Ans: Push factors describe the reasons that individuals might emigrate from their homes, including poverty, lack of social mobility, violence, or persecution. Pull factors describe the reasons that an individual might settle in a particular country.

8. What is the most populous country in the world?

Ans: In 2022, India overtook China as the country with the largest population in the world, with more than 1.43 billion people. China now has the second-largest population in the world, still with just above 1.4 billion inhabitants, however its population went into decline in 2023.

9. What is population density?

Ans: Population density is the measure of the number of individuals living within a specific area. To determine population density, the number of individuals is divided by the size of the area. Number of people residing in a square kilometre Population density = Number of people/Land area.

10. What is meant by the growth rate of the population?

Ans: The annual average rate of change of population size, for a given country, territory, or geographic area, during a specified period. It expresses the ratio between the annual increase in the population size and the total population for that year, usually multiplied by 100.

11. Define fertility.

Ans: Fertility is the ability to have babies or to reproduce. When fertility rates in a community increase, more babies are born. Fertility is the quality of a human’s ability to produce offspring, which is dependent on age, health, and other factors.

12. How is the population?

Ans: The death rate is the ratio of the number of individuals who died in a population in a given period of time to the initial total population. Thus the actual rate of growth of a population is the difference between the birth rate and death rate.

1. How many people are added to the world population each year?

Ans: 80 million.

2. Name two river valleys which were densely populated in the early ages.

Ans: Indus and ganga.

3. Name three components of population change.

Ans: Birth rate, Death rate and migration.

4. Which climate zone is densely populated?

Ans: Cool Temperate Zone.

5. Name a mineral belt in Africa which has a dense population.

Ans: Katanga-zambia copper belt.

6. How many times has the world population increased during last 500 years?

Ans: 10 times.

7. How much time will some developed countries take to double its population?

Ans: 318 years.

8. Why have life expectancy been reduced in some developing countries?

Ans: Due to deadly HIV/AIDS, epidemic and.

1. Saudi Arabia is sparsely populated. Why?

Ans: The country’s low population density is due to its vast desert areas which render large parts of the country inhospitable. Some areas therefore actually have high density and in 2010 more than half of the population lived in the 10 largest cities in the country.

2. Distinguish between crude birth rate and crude death rate.

Ans:

3. Give reasons for the high density of population in the world.

Ans: Areas with well developed farming of crops or animals are often densely populated. Areas with lots of jobs and opportunities for people to make money are usually densely populated. Government policy can have a significant impact upon population densities. India is so densely populated because most places in India have natural resources that sustain agriculture and industries. The availability of water and the number of cities have also contributed to population.

4. Write a short note on migration.

Ans: Migration is defined as movement from one country, place or locality to another in search of better opportunities to settle. When people move from one place to another, the place they move from is called the Place of Origin and the place they move to is called the Place of Destination.

5. Make a list of the countries show their doubling time of population.

Ans: The doubling time is the time it takes for a population to double in size/value. It is applied to population growth, inflation, resource extraction, consumption of goods, compound interest, the volume of malignant tumours, and many other things that tend to grow over time.

6. What do you mean by population control measures?

Ans: Population control is the methodology or the practice used to control and maintain the type, location and number of people that inhabit the earth. Quality and status of life have undergone a drastic change over a century. We have to thank the improvised and advanced technologies around the world for this.

7. Write a short note on population control.

Ans: Population control is the methodology or the practice used to control and maintain the type, location and number of people that inhabit the earth.

8. What was the impact of the Industrial Revolution in population growth of the world?

Ans: The Industrial Revolution led to a significant shift in population distribution. The main reason for this shift was the creation of new job opportunities in factories and other industrial settings, which attracted people from rural areas to urban areas.

9. Distinguish between positive and negative growth of population.

Ans:

10. Differentiate Out migration and in migration.

Ans:

1. Mention the areas of low density population of the world and give the reasons.

Ans: Areas of low population density can be found in various regions of the world, often due to a combination of geographical, environmental, economic, and social factors. Here are some:

(i) Deserts: Deserts cover more than one-fifth of Earth’s land area, and they are found on every continent. A place that receives less than 25 centimetres (10 inches) of rain per year is considered a desert. Deserts are part of a wider class of regions called drylands.

(ii) Mountainous Regions: Mountainous regions are generally located in the margins and interior portions spanning almost all the continents. These are mainly found to be located in two major zones. First major zone extends into the circum-pacific belt comprising the region surrounded by the Pacific Ocean.

(iii) Polar Regions: The polar regions (Fig. 12.1) are the areas located between the North or South Pole and the Arctic or Antarctic Circles marked by dashed lines at 66°33′ north or south latitude on the world maps, respectively. The distance between the Arctic (Antarctic) Circle and the North (South) Pole is about 2602 km.

(iv) Greenland (Population Density: 0.14 people per sq km) The world’s largest island, Greenland, is covered in an immense ice sheet, making it by far the most sparsely populated country.

(v) Sparse Rural Areas: There are three main types of settlements in rural areas classified according to population density and spread. They include compact settlements, semi-compact settlements, and dispersed settlements.

(vi) Protected Areas: A Protected Area is a clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values.

2. Which areas of the world have high population density? Which factors have contributed to high population density in these areas?

Ans: Several areas of the world have high population density, typically driven by a combination of factors such as favourable environmental conditions, economic opportunities, historical factors, and infrastructure development.

Some notable regions with high population density include:

(i) East Asia: East Asia borders Siberia and the Russian Far East to the north, Southeast Asia to the south, South Asia to the southwest, and Central Asia to the west. To the east is the Pacific Ocean and to the southeast is Micronesia (a Pacific Ocean island group that is classified as part of Oceania).

(ii) South Asia: South Asia, subregion of Asia, consisting of the Indo-Gangetic Plain and peninsular India. It includes the countries of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka; Afghanistan and the Maldives are often considered part of South Asia as well.

(iii) Southeast Asia: Southeast Asia, a vast region of Asia situated east of the Indian subcontinent and south of China. It consists of two dissimilar portions: a continental projection (commonly called mainland Southeast Asia) and a string of archipelagoes to the south and east of the mainland (insular Southeast Asia).

(iv) Western Europe: Definition. A geographic region of the European continent surrounded by the North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, including Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and other member countries of the Western European Union.

(v) Nile River Valley: The Nile River Valley is the area surrounding the river that is susceptible to flooding.

(a) Egypt: Egypt is a Northern country in Africa through which the Nile River flows.

(b) Nubia: Nubia is a region surrounding the Nile River that lies between Southern Egypt and Northern Sudan.

(vi) Urban Centers Worldwide: Major urban centres are densely populated cities characterised by economic activity, cultural diversity, and significant infrastructural development.These cities serve as hubs for commerce, government institutions, education, and transportation systems.

3. Describe the migration and pull and push factors of migration.

Ans: Migration refers to the movement of people from one place to another, whether within a country or across international borders. Migration can be influenced by a variety of factors, commonly categorised as push and pull factors.

Push Factors:

(i) Economic Factors: Economic geography takes a variety of approaches to many different topics, including the location of industries, economies of agglomeration (also known as “linkages”), transportation, international trade, development, real estate, gentrification, ethnic economies, gendered economies, core-periphery theory.

(ii) Conflict and Violence: A violent conflict involves at least two parties using physical force to resolve competing claims or interests. While a violent conflict may involve only non-state actors, often, the term is used as a synonym for war which involves at least one government.

(iii) Environmental Factors: Air, water, climate, soil, natural vegetation and landforms are all environmental factors. By definition, the environmental factors affect everyday living, and play a key role in bringing health differences across the geographic areas.

(iv) Social and Political Factors: The term can be defined as the changed socio-political distance between host and immigrant societies. It includes political factors, living environment, social factors, institutional factors and mass media.

Pull Factors:

(i) Economic Opportunities: Economic opportunity means providing an equal chance for people to earn a living wage. To achieve a situation in which people have this kind of opportunity, governments must ensure adequate education and training, rights for workers and an economic climate in which legitimate businesses can grow.

(ii) Political Stability and Security: Political stability is a situation characterised by the preservation of an intact and smoothly functioning government or political system, avoiding significant disruptions or changes over an extended duration.

(iii) Quality of Life: Quality-of-life (QOL) surveys are another tool that are used globally to measure standards of living based on indicators other than economic ones. Introduced as a concept to Geography in the 1970s, quality of life is the general well-being of individuals and societies.

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

(i) Which one of the following continents has the highest growth of population?

(a) Africa.

(b) South America.

(c) Asia.

(d) North America.

Ans: (a) Africa.

(ii) Which one of the following is not an area of sparse population?

(a) The Atacama.

(b) South-east Asia.

(c) Equatorial region.

(d) Polar regions.

Ans: (b) South-east Asia.

(iii) Which one of the following is not push factors?

(a) Water shortage.

(b) Medical/educational facilities.

(c) Unemployment.

(d) Epidemics.

Ans: (b) Medical/educational facilities.

(iv) Which one of the following is not a fact?

(a) Human population increased more than ten times during the past 500 years.

(b) Nearly 80 million people are added to the world population each year.

(c) It took 100 years for the population to rise from 5 billion to 6 billion.

(d) Population growth is high in the first stage of demographic translation.

Ans: (c) It took 100 years for the population to rise from 5 billion to 6 billion.

(v) In every five persons in the world live in ____________.

(a) China.

(b) India.

(c) Nigeria.

(d) U.S.A.

Ans: (a) China.

(vi) Ten most populous countries make up ____________ percent of world’s population.

(a) 65%

(b) 55%

(c) 60%

(d) 50%

Ans: (c) 60%

(vii) How much did the human population increase during the past 500 years?

(a) 12 times.

(b) 6 times.

(c) 10 times.

(d) 8 times.

Ans: (c) 10 times.

(viii) The third most populous nations in year 2000 was:

(a) Nigeria.

(b) Japan.

(c) China.

(d) U.S.

Ans: (d) U.S.

(ix) India’s population will double itself in.

(a) 38 years.

(b) 34 years.

(c) 36 years.

(d) 32 years.

Ans: (c)  36 years.

(x) By 2025 the world population will be.

(a) 6.8 billion.

(b) 8 billion.

(c) 6 billion.

(d) 8.6 billion.

Ans: (b) 8 billion.

(xi) The term crude birth rate (CBR) is close in meaning to which of the following terms?

(a) Mortality.

(b) Fertility.

(c) Migration.

(d) None.

Ans: (b) Fertility.

(xii) Total fertility rate is

(a) Total number of children born to a woman.

(b) Average number of children born to a woman.

(c) Total children born in a year.

(d) None of these.

Ans: (a) Total number of children born to a woman.

(xiii) Australian population will double itself in ____________ years.

(a) 104 years.

(b) 116 years.

(c) 70 years.

(d) 36 years.

Ans: (a) 104 years.

(xiv) The first stage of demographic transition model shows:

(a) Decline in death rate and high birth rate.

(b) Decline in birth rate and death rate.

(c) Low birth and death rate.

(d) High birth rate and death rate.

Ans: (d) High birth and death rate.

(xv) Migrants who move into a new place are called:

(a) Emmigrants.

(b) NRI.

(c) Immigrants.

(d) None.

Ans: (c) Immigrants.

(xvi) Migrants who move out of a place are called:

(a) Immigrants.

(b) Migrants.

(c) Foreigner.

(d) None.

Ans: (a) Immigrants.

(xvii) How many times has the world population increased during the last 500 years?

(a) 4%

(b) 6%

(c) 8%

(d) 10%

Ans: (d) 10%.

(xviii) The ten most populated countries have world population:

(a) 50%

(b) 60%

(c) 70%

(d) 80%

Ans.(b) 60%.

(i) Name three geographical factors that influence the distribution of population.

Ans: The geographical factors which influence the distribution of population are:

(a) Availability of water.

(b) Landforms.

(c) Climate.

(d) Soils.

(ii) There are a number of areas with high population density in the world. Why does this happen?

Ans: High density is found due to the following reasons:

(a) Development of agriculture such as in South-East Asia and East Asia. These areas have favourable climate, fertile soils, long growing season and irrigation facilities.

(b) Industrial development such as in Western Europe and North-east USA. These areas have rich mineral deposits, industries, urbanisation and high standard of living.

(iii) What are the three components of population change?

Ans: The three components of population change are:

(a) Birth Rate: If births exceed death within a given period of time there will be natural increase in population. If the deaths exceed the position will be reversed.

(b) Death Rate: It is related to the epidemics, disasters and Prolonged famines. These cause rapid increases in deaths within a country. Consequently there is a rapid change in population.

(c) Migration: It includes migration and immigration. Migration leads to decrease and immigration leads to increase in population.

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