Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 7 Agriculture

Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 7 Agriculture, Elective Geography Class 9 SEBA Notes and Question Answer In English Medium The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SEBA Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 7 Agriculture and select need one.

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Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 7 Agriculture

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 7 Agriculture Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here…


Chapter -7



Q.1. What is meant by agriculture? Mention briefly the factors influencing agriculture ? 

Ans : The  production of food items by way of cultivation of the land is known as agriculture. In other words all the activities that man does on land or any activities associated with land such as farming ,horticulture ,pisciculture, dairy farming ,animals sharing etc. Are call agriculture. The factors influencing agriculture are :

a) Natural factors :-

i) Soil :- Soil is one of the major factors which determine the types of agriculture. All crops cannot be grown on any types of soil. Soil is ideal for rice cultivation while black soil of Deccan is highly suitable for cotton cultivation.

ii) Climate :- The elements of climate such as temperature, rainfall ,moisture, etc. Profoundly accept plan growth police top site and crop require high temperature and high rainfall wildstorm grow certainty in such climate condition.

iii) Relief conditions :- The main  elements of relief such as altitude aspect an gradient of the slope determine and type of agriculture . crops vary depending on the altitude. 

b) Socio-economic factors :-

i) Land tenure :- The  types of ownership of land influences cultivation fullstop real owner of land are likely to improve their land while zamindars and jagirdars or tenants do not do much to improve the condition of the land.

ii) Size of farm holdings :- The size of farm  influence production scale police top small agriculture holding three events machine Nation and use of modern significance methods of cultivation.

iii) Labour :- The quality of labour has great beginnings on agriculture. Follow primitive method of agriculture while literacy levels use modern machinery and modern means of cultivation.

iv) Capital :- Availability of capital makes difference between subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture. Capital is required for commercial and plantation agriculture.

v) Marketing and Transport :- Good  market for the product encourages agriculture production. Certain crops are cultivated purely on demand. Availability of good transport facilities boost agriculture of a place.

Q.2. Explain why agriculture practice is not similar  everywhere in the world ? 

Ans : Agriculture practice is not similar everywhere in the world because:

i) Nature or physical factors such as nature of the land, surface, slope, climate, availability of water, etc. is different from place to place. 

ii) Socio-economic factors such as educational level of farmers, land tenure, size of the farmholdings, availability of the capital, etc. 

Q.3. Classify agriculture and give the basis of your classification. 

Ans : The different types of agriculture are :

(a) On the basis of permanence :

i) Permanent agriculture: Agriculture practised by people who settle down in one place and undertaken cultivation of crops both for home and undertaken cultivation of crops both for home consumption as well as for crops both for home consumption as well as for commercial purposes, is known as permanent agriculture. In permanent agriculture, people use difference method of cultivation such as crop rotation, mixed farming, livestock farming , mechanisation, intensive and extensive cultivation etc. 

ii) Shifting agriculture :- The practice of burning forest and cultivation the area for some years and then moving away to another place for cultivation is known as shifting cultivation. This type of agriculture is practiced by the hill Tribes of North East India.

b) On the basis of farm size :

i) Large -scale /extensive agriculture :- Agriculture that involves use of machinery as well as cultivation of a single crop on a large area with human is known as extensive agriculture. For future of extension up 

Agriculture are :

i) extensive.

ii) cultivation of a single crop.

iii) crop Specialization. 

iv) cultivation on a large area.

ii) Small-scale /intensive agriculture :- Agriculture wherein the cultivator spends much labour, capital and supplies all the essential input such as quality seeds, better fertiliser, adequate water, etc. On  a limited area to maximize his production with in the shortest time possible is known as intensive agriculture.. 

(c) On the basis of economic consideration :

i) Commercial agriculture :- Agriculture carried out for selling the agriculture products other than for home automation of the farmer is known as commercial agriculture. Cultivation of rubber tea coffee cotton sugarcane etc. 

ii) Subsistence agriculture :- Agriculture cultivated for conjugation by the farmer household and not for selling proposes is known as substance agriculture.

(d) On  the basis of length qualities climate and method of farming :

(i) Dry farming :- farming practised in dry region where rainfall is low and land is dry for most part of the year is known as dry farming. These reasons do not have the facility for irrigation and the crops cultivated are such that they are able to which stand dry climate condition of the place.

ii) Wet farming :- agriculture practiced in area that get abundance of rainfall is call with farming police top Cops such as rice jute banana etc Police Stop are the main crops cultivated underweight farming. With farming is mostly practised in the monsoon region.

e) special types of agriculture :

i) plantation agriculture :- agriculture very in a particular item in product on a large area employing hundreds of people using their machinery and scientific method of cultivation is known as plantation agriculture police top cultivation of rubber tea coffee cotton sugar cane etc. Agriculture and the taken under plantation agriculture.

ii) Collective agriculture :- farming characteristics by social ownership collective lawyer and sharing of agriculture product is known as collective farming police stop this form of agriculture was introduced by the former Soviet Union.

iii) Horticulture :- The cultivation of fruits vegetables and flowers is known as Horticulture Police Stop the country’s noted for horticultural cultivation are the USA from Germany Denmark and other lands. The practice of horticulture is first catching up in the India with the advancement of farming and globalisation. 

iv) Market gardening :- the cultivation of various food items fruits vegetables and flowers with a view of sketcher to the needs of the nearby towns and cities is known as market gardening police top as a result of globalisation there is a close link between the product and consumer forcing the producers to product as bar the requirements of the consumers. 

v) Mixed farming :- the farming in which animal rearing the polity farming is practised along the agriculture within the same area is known as mixed farming. 

vi) Truck farming :- The  farming in which cultivation of crops is practice particular fruits vegetables flowers with a view to export them to other regions throw track in phrase condition is known as truck farming.

Q.4. What is permanent agriculture ? Discuss briefly its characteristics. 

Ans : Agriculture practiced by people who settled down in one place and undertake cultivation of crops both for home tuition as well as for commercial purposes is known as permanent agriculture. Its main characteristics are :

i) Agriculture is done throughout the year. 

ii) The  farmers use cloud tractors irrigation and party leaders in their agriculture operations.

iii) It is  the most commonly practiced from of agriculture in the world.. 

iv) The  agriculture output in this type of agriculture is relatively high. 

v) Livestock sharing picicultural  horticultural etc are part of this form of agriculture.

Q.5. Give a brief outline of shifting cultivation. How these types of agriculture regards the environment.

Ans : the practice of burning forest and cultivating the area for Som years and then moving on to another place for cultivation is known as shifting cultivation for zooming. The cultivated clears a piece of ground by falling trees bushes and grasses which are then Bond full stop sometime the vegetation is born without following the trees. After three or four years the farmer and his family moved to another area and clear another plot of land for similar cultivation.

This was the first types of agriculture to be developed by man police stop it is known as jhum cultivation in North Eastern part of India Police Stop some of the main characteristic of the form of agriculture are:

i) Cleaning of land with the aid of fire. 

ii) Use of hand implement and human labour. 

iii) Absence of drought or draft animals. 

iv) Yield is low and not sufficient to leave any surplus. 

v) Each household can use as much land as they want or they can clear and cultivation. 

vi) Absence of private ownership of land. The land belongs to the community. 

vii) Area  dominated by shifting cultivation have sparse population. 

The main drawbacks of this from of agriculture are :

i) Degrades the environment as this agriculture is practised by burning the forest area. 

ii) A larger area gets cleared by fire which destroys both living and non-living organization of area. 

iii) Destroy the ecological balance of the area which affects the environment of the place. 

iv) Burning of the plant and bushes of the area create a lot of smoke that negative effects the atmosphere. 

Q.6. Present a comparative picture of large scale and small scale agriculture ? 

Ans : A comparative picture  of large-scale and small-scale agriculture are:

Sl.NO.Basis of differenceLarge-scale agricultureSmall-scale agriculture
(i)MeaningAgriculture which is market by the  use of machinery as well as single crop cultivation on a large area with few men.practiced on a limited area so as to maximise the production within the shortest time possible.
(ii)NatureThese are machinery extensive.These are labour intensive
(iii)Place of PracticePractice in countries where population density is low. e. g. Canda, USA, etc.Practiced in countries where population is high, e. g. Uk, India, etc.
(iv)CultivationInvolves cultivation of single crop.Involved cultivation of many crops.
(v)Other nameExtensive agricultureIntensive agriculture.

Q.7. What do u mean by plantation farming ? Discuss its characteristic ? 

Ans : Agriculture where in a particular crop is product on a layer area by employing hundreds of people using layer machinery E and scientific methods of cultivation is known as plantation agriculture forest of these types of agriculture is mostly seen in the tropical or subtropical region where the climate conditions are availability of cheap labour Faber the cultivation of various plantation crops such as tea coffee rubber coconut etc. The main characteristic of plantation agriculture are:

i) Crop  are also known as cultivation mainly for commercial purposes. 

ii) It is  cultivated on a very layer area. 

iii) Most  operation add an image only accept in the developed countries.

iv) It is labour-intensive as well as capital intensive.

v) The  final product are prepared in factories.

vi) It has close Association with plantation industries.

vii) Market demand play a scientific and rule in the form of agriculture.

Chapter 1Weather and Climate
Chapter 2People on the Earth
Chapter 3Population Growth and Distribution
Chapter 4Human Settlement
Chapter 5Concept and Classification of Resources
Chapter 6Economic Activities or Occupation
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Industry

Q.8. Describe briefly the relationship between urbanisation and market gardening.

Ans : The  Rapid spread of urbanization has greatly influenced the production of food grains and vegetables. Today market determine the types and nature of food production in the country as the people in the towns and cities have greater persisting powder agriculture operations mainly to their demands. Since people of the urban areas require lots of vegetables and food grains many agriculture farms trend to come up near search urban centres. 

This farms Especially to the needs of the of the cities and towns near by police Topsons R1 Centre required a great deal of fresh vegetables Harita culture farming gets developed close to search area per list of the various agriculture product produced by this farm get food market as they are fresh and can be supplied very quickly due to the presence of good transport and communication system in the urban areas. This development in agriculture is known as market gardening. This trend is fast catching up in India due to expansion of urbanization in the country and villages and towns are getting interlink due to the impact of globalisation.

Q.9. What  kind of environment is required for rice cultivation ? Write briefly about the geographical distribution of rice. 

Ans : rice is the principal slap food for almost half of the world population. It is mostly cultivated in the monsoon region of the world. Generally it is cultivated in the flood Plains costal Plains and the deltic plains police top it is also cultivated in certain hilly region. The geographical conditions required for its cultivation are:

i) It  need hot and humid climate. 

ii) The  temperature should be between 25°C-35°C.

iii) The  annual rainfall should be 100cm-200cm.

Geography distribution :- the countries which explains monsoon type of climate like China India Bangladesh Myanmar Thailand Vietnam Japan and Philippines are the main producer of rice in the world. It is also produced at by countries such as USA Brazil Egypt etc list of the highest rice producing country in the world is China and India is the second highest rice producing country. The main rice producing area in India are:

i) Ganga Brahmaputra valley.

ii) eastern coastal strip covering all Delta regions.

iii) North Eastern region.

Q.10. Give  an account of wheat cultivations ? 

Ans : Wheat  is the sleepy food of most people of the world and it is one of the major food crops of India. The geographical condition required for its growth are:

i) It  requires clay and sandy soil of plan areas.

ii) It  needs a cool and remotest climate during glowing season and dry warm climate at the time of repairing. 

iii) Annual rainfall should be 50cm to 100 CM. 

iv) Temperature climate is situated with force free period off 3 months. 

iv) It requires adequate water supply Police Stop now a days it is also cultivated in a low rainfall areas due to the availability of irrigation. 

Geographical distribution :- The  main wheat  producing countries of the world are USA China India Russia Canada Australia France Germany and Pakistan fullstop China is the leading producer of weight in the the world followed by the USA and India Police Stop the Ganga valley of India is the chief where producing regions.

Q.11. Discuss the importance and geographical distribution of cotton farming ? 

Ans : Cotton is one of the important cash crops of India Police top India is the original home of cotton police stop its importance lies in the fact that is gives employment to thousands of people in our country police top Cotton Industry is one of the main Argo basis industry of our country please stop the export of cotton items and raw cotton brings numerous volume of foreign income for our country Police Stop The geographical condition required for its growth are.

i) Annual rainfall should be 65cm to 115cm.

ii) Frost Free period of 190-210 days. 

iii) Well-drained highland with sandy and black soils. 

iv) High temperature is ideal for cotton. 

Geographical distribution :- The  main cotton producing countries in the world At The USA China Pakistan Russia is it India and Brazil. The USA China Pakistan Russia is India and Brazil are the major cotton producing countries of the world. Mississippi and valleys of the USA mostly produced cotton. In Egypt the Neel valley and the highway and young Si Valley of Northern China are known for their cotton producing. India Deccan Plateau and the Meghalaya plateau are favourable of rising cotton. The USA China and India are the largest cotton producing countries of the world.

Q.12. What kind of environment is required for growing tea ? 

Ans : Tea  tops the chat among the beverages crop of India. It’s important lies in the fact that it provides employment to hundreds of people and it is a good sources of foreign income for our country Police Stop The geographical conditions required for its growth are:

i) Fertile red soil and well drained soil.

ii) Warm  and most climate throughout the year. 

iii) It is  capital intensive and Technology basis plantation farming. 

Geographical distribution :- Tea is a major plantation crop of the monsoon region of Asia viz. China India Sri Lanka Indonesia and Japan. Production has also started in some African countries like Kenya Uganda and Mozambique.

India ranks first in the world in the production of tea followed by China. The chief area of tea production in India

i) Bramputra and the valleys of Assam . 

ii) Hills  of Darjeeling and areas of West Bengal.

iii) Hills of Kerala. 

Q.13.  Link the following correctly :

TeaExtensive farming is practised
In the populous countriesis a Plantation crop
In the the densely populated countriesIs a commercial croup
Shifting cultivationIs highly productive
SugarcaneIs a major crop of the monsoon region
Cotton farmingIs a faber crop
CottonIntensive farming is practised
Commercial farmingHas low productivity

Ans :

Teais a Plantation crop
In the populous countriesExtensive farming is practised
In the the densely populated countriesIntensive farming is practised
Shifting cultivationHas low productivity
SugarcaneIs a commercial croup
Cotton farmingIs a major crop of the monsoon region
CottonIs a faber crop
Commercial farmingIs highly productive

Q.14. Name the major crop cultivated in different types of agriculture such as permanent agriculture, plantation farming ,horticultural and market gardening. In which of the season at this crop raised ? What kind of geographical condition are required for such type of cultivation ? Attempt a comparative discussion.

Ans : The major crop cultivated in different types of agriculture are :

i) Permanent agriculture:Rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, sugarcane, oil seeds, vegetables , fruits ,etc.

ii) plantation agriculture: sugarcane,cotton   ,jute,tea,coffee ,coca etc. 

iii) Horticulture: potatoes,  tomatoes, cabbage ,beetroot, Bean, cucumber pumpkins ,carrot, apples, onions ,grapes watermelon ,Pears etc.

iv) Market gardening: Fruits and  various types of vegetables.

Seasons :- there are two main season in India, viz. Kharif and rabi crop season. Kharif crops  suggest rice ,milk, Maize, groundnut ,jute ,cotton, pulses and many vegetables are grown in June and July and are harvested at the end of the monsoon. The main Ravi crops such as wheat,gram ,oil seed etc. Are cultivated in October November and are harvested in april-may. Vegetables and fruits are also cultivated during both seasons.

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