Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of the World

Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of the World The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of the World and select needs one.

Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of the World

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board SEBA Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of the World Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Geography of the World

Chapter: 3



Q 1. Write a brief  about the earth’s lithosphere and hydrosphere.

Ans: The lithosphere is the solid outermost layer of the Earth. It consists of the Earth’s crust and the uppermost part of the mantle. The lithosphere is divided into several tectonic plates that float on top of the underlying asthenosphere. It is the foundation upon which all life on Earth depends.

The hydrosphere, or water sphere, mostly covers the depressions of the lithosphere. Some amount of water is also found in the rocks and much exists in the form of water vapour in the atmosphere. The oceans represent about 71 percent of the globe and therefore contain the great bulk of the water. The average depth of the oceans is about 3,800 m.

Q 2. How was the earth in the early day according to the continental Drift Theory?

Ans: According to the continental drift theory, in the early stage, that is about 300 million years before the earth’s lithosphere was together as a single landmass, which was surrounded by hydrosphere. This state of lithosphere of the earth is known as pangaea and the hydrosphere surrounding the pangaea is known as panthalassa. 

After passage of sometime a narrow and elongated sea was formed almost in the middle of the pangaea in east-west direction. It is known as Tethys sea. Formation of this Tethys sea divided the pangaea into two parts in north-south direction. Its northern part is called Angaroland or Laurasia and the southern part is called Gondowana Land.

Q 3. Write briefly about the topography of the ocean floor.

Ans: The water surface of the ocean is smooth, their bottom topography is very rough. The way mountains, hills, plateaus, plain etc. make the topography of the lithosphere rugged, in the same ridges, trenches, etc also turn w0ay oceanic floor rough. The average depth of the ocean floor is 4000 meter.

Generally, from the coast to the middle of oceans and seas there exist surrounding continental shelf, continental slope, deep sea plain, oceanic ridge and Island and deep sea trench. The shallow part of the oceans and seas the coasts is called the continental shelf. The considerably deep part after the continental shelf is known as the continental slope. After the continental slope there exist very deep oceanic floor, deep oceanic trench and a large number of seathered ridge, islands the appearing above the sea level.

Q 4. Write briefly about the distribution of oceans and continents.

Ans: The continents of Asia, Europe, and Africa form the first part of the lithosphere; the continents of North America and South America form the second part; Australia, including a large number of islands, forms the third part of Oceania; and the continent of Antarctica forms the fourth part.

The Pacific Ocean, on the other hand, is located between Asia, North America, and South America; the Atlantic Ocean is located between North America and South America and Europe and Africa; the Indian Ocean is located in the south of Asia, east of Africa, and west of Oceania; the Northern or the Arctic Ocean is located on the north of North America, Europe, and Asia; and the Southern Ocean is located on the south of Asia, east of Africa, and west of Oceania.

Q 5. Write in short about the landforms present on the earth’s land surface.

Ans: A landform is a feature on Earth’s surface that is part of the terrain. Mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains are the four major types of landforms. Minor landforms include buttes, canyons, valleys, and basins.

The highest landform on Earth is a mountain: Mount Everest in Nepal. It measures 8,850 meters (29,035 feet) above sea level. It is part of the Himalaya range that runs across several countries in Asia.

Landforms can exist under water in the form of mountain ranges and basins under the sea. The Mariana Trench, the deepest landform on Earth, is in the South Pacific.

There are many high mountain ranges running across the continents with the Himalaya range of Asia having the highest peak, Mt Everest at 8848m.many   high plateaus are also found, with the Pamir plateau of Asia being the highest.

Q 6. Briefly discuss the physical characteristics of Asia.

Ans: The physical characteristics of Asia are:

(i) Asia is the largest among the continents of the world. Except some islands of the East Indies the entire continent of Asia falls within the northern hemisphere.

(ii) The 90° E line of longitude (imaginary) passes through the centre of Asia. 

(iii) In Asia there are various kinds of physiography feature like lowlands, plains, plateaus, hills, mountains, valley etc.

(iv) There are innumerable rivers and many lakes in Asia. Such as Amur, Yensey, Una, Hwang Ho etc.

(v) The climate of Asia is diversified, There is high variation in climate.

(vi) Mineral resources of almost all type in varying amounts are found in Asia. Among these petroleum and iron are important. Asia is famous in the world for its petroleum and natural gas reserves.

(vii) Out of total world’s production of rice about 90% is produced in Asia, especially in its tropical monsoon regions.

(viii) Asia is the largest continent of the world. It is full diversities. It is the only continent in the world where there are high degree of variations in climate and natural vegetations.

Q 7. Give your answer with reasons:

(a) Why do 90% percent of the world’s total population concentrate in the northern hemisphere?

Ans: Because most of the landmasses in the Northern hemisphere have fertile soil, which is better for people to live in, 90% of the world’s people congregate in the Northern hemisphere. It also has sufficient vegetation, minerals, ores, and other resources required for human survival and settlement. It is seen that nearly 57% of the hydrosphere is confined to the southern hemisphere while over 67% of the total lithosphere of the world is confined to the northern hemisphere. In other words, there is much more land area in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere.

(b) What is the reason behind lack of permanent human settlement in Antarctica?

Ans: The Antarctica is the smallest ocean of the world. This is surrounded by the Northern part of Asia, Europe and North America. Due to its location in the north polar region the Antarctica region is covered by ice. The thick ice covered the area for the whole year. So, there is lack of permanent human settlement in Antarctica.

Q 8. Give a short answer to the following questions?

(a) Which physical features have created a natural boundary between Asia and Europe?

Ans: Ural mountain and Ural river has created a natural boundary between Asia and Europe.

(b) Which is the longest mountain range of the world and where it is located?

Ans: The longest mountain range of the world is the Andes mountain range. It is located in South America.

(c) In terms of land area, which are the largest and smallest countries of the world?

Ans: In terms of land area, Largest country: Russia.

Smallest country: Vatican city.

(d) Which country of the world is spread across two continents?

Ans: Russia is spread to Asia and Europe continents of the world.

(e) In terms of population which are the largest and smallest countries of the world?

Ans: In terms of population, Largest country: China

Smallest country: Vatican City

(f) What are the names of major mountain ranges in North America? In which part of the continent is it located?

Ans: The name of the major mountain range of North America is Rocky mountain range.

The length of this mountain range is 9800 M.

The mountain is located in western part of North America.

(g) Which part of the world’s largest desert and Where is located?

Ans: Sahara desert situated in the northern part of Africa.

(h) Write the names of two northerly And two eastly rivers of Asia.

Ans: Ob and Lona are northerly and Amur, Hwang Ho are the easterly rivers of Asia.

(i) Write the names of one major mountain range, one river and one desert of Australia.

Ans: Great dividing range, Murray and Great Victoria.

(j) Write the names of three countries of Europe located in the Mediterranean region.

Ans: Italy, France, Greece.

Q 9. Write short notes:

(a) Pangea.

Ans: Pangaea or Pangea: was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. It assembled from the earlier continental units of Gondwana, Euramerica and Siberia during the Carboniferous approximately 335 million years ago, and began to break apart about 200 million years ago, at the end of the Triassic and beginning of the Jurassic. In contrast to the present Earth and its distribution of continental mass, Pangaea was centred on the equator and surrounded by the superocean Panthalassa and the Paleo-Tethys and subsequent Tethys Oceans. Pangaea is the most recent supercontinent to have existed and the first to be reconstructed by geologists.

(b) Arctic Oceans.

Ans: Arctic Ocean: is Earth’s northernmost body of water. It encircles the Arctic, and flows beneath it. Most of the Arctic Ocean is covered by ice throughout the year although that is starting to change as temperatures climb. Pale and stark on the surface, the Arctic Ocean is home to a stunning array of life.

(c) The continents of Oceania. 

Ans: The continent of Oceania: is formed by the great island of Australia and many other small and large islands located in the south-west Pacific ocean including New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea etc. Located on the south of Asia this continent is completely a part of southern hemisphere. It roughly extends from 0° equator on the north to 48 south latitude on the south, and 180 longitude on the east to 113 east longitude on the west.

The land area of this continent is about 8 million km, which constitutes 5.4 per cent of the world’s total land area. Australia is the largest country of this smallest continent, and it is the sixth largest country of the world. The continent of Oceania is surrounded by the islands of Java, Sumatra, Celebes, etc of the South-East Asia and the Pacific ocean on the north; the Southern ocean on the south; the Pacific ocean on the east; and the Indian ocean on the west. Along with Australia and New Zealand the continent of Oceania altogether has 14 countries. As per 2014 estimates, Oceania has about 38 million population.

Australia, the main land of Oceania, is an ancient plateau. It has narrow coastal plains all around. The eastern part of Australia is a highland region formed by the Great Dividing Range and Snowy mountain. This region is known as the Australian Alps. The Murray and Darling rivers have created a great plain in the south-eastern part of Australia. Besides these two major rivers, the other important rivers of Australia are Baliando, Fitzroy, Flinders, Victoria, Sowan, etc. Among the lakes. Eyre, Barlee, Camezie, Mackay, Carey etc. are worth mentioning. The western part of Australia is covered with a wide desert. Among the deserts of Australia, the Great Victoria, Great Sandy. Tanamy. Simpson, Gibson, Little Sandy, Tirarie, Pedirka, etc are important.

(d) The rivers of Asia.

Ans: There are innumerable revers and many and many lakes in Asia Here, only the major rivers and lakes are mentioned. The rivers of Asia may be classified into four groups, such as (a) the rivers flowing into the Arctic Sea, (b) the rivers flowing into the Pacific ocean (c) the rivers flowing into the Indian ocean, and (d) the inland rivers.

The major rivers flowing into the Arctic ocean are Ob. Yenisey and Lena Among the rivers flowing into the Pacific ocean the Amur, Hwang Ho, Yangtze Kiang. Mekong and Menam are important. On the other hand, the major rivers that flow into the Indian ocean include the Salween, Irrawaddy. Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Euphrates and Tigris. There are also some inland rivers of the continent. The notable ones are the Ural, Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Tarim, Helmand and Jordan.

The continent has many small and large lakes. Some of these are saline water lakes, while some are fresh water lakes. The Caspian lake (sea), Arallake (sea) and Dead Sea are the important saline water lakes. On the other hand, the major fresh water lakes include, the Baikal, Manas Sarovar and Ular lakes. It is important to note that the Caspian sea is the largest lake in the world.

(e) The lake of Africa.

Ans: The African Great Lakes are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift. They include Lake Victoria, the third-largest fresh water lake in the world by area, Lake Tanganyika, the world’s second-largest freshwater lake by volume and depth, and Lake Malawi, the world’s eighth-largest fresh water lake by area. Collectively, they contain 31,000 km3 (7,400 cu mi) of water, which is more than either Lake Baikal or the North American Great Lakes. This total constitutes about 25% of the planet’s unfrozen surface fresh water. The large rift lakes of Africa are the ancient home of great biodiversity, and 10% of the world’s fish species live in this region.

(f) The rivers of Europe.

Ans: The rivers of Europe: Europe is a large region, with several major rivers that connect its many countries. There are five primary rivers in Europe: the Danube, the Volga, the Loire, the Rhine and the Elbe. Travelling these lengthy waterways on a river cruise is an ideal way to experience several countries in one trip.

(g) The Appalachian Highland region.

Ans: The Appalachian Highland Region: On the basis of physiographic character North America can be mainly divided into four divisions. In this divisions are is also called the Appalachian Highland Region. The coastal west is characterised by the mountain ranges like Cascada, Sierra Nevada and coast range and the eastern part extending from Newfoundland in the north to Florida in the South being characterised by hills and mountains narrow valleys, fragmented plateaus etc. forms the rugged Appalachian highland. The Allegheng and Blue Ridge mountains are located in the Southern part of this region. There is a wide plain land of the Atlantic coast east located on the east of Appalachian highlands stretching from Nova scotia in the north of Panama in the south.

(h) The lakes of North America.

Ans: The lakes of North America Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, Ontario, Great Bear, Great Slave, Winnipeg, and Great Salt are among the continent’s major lakes. The Great Lakes of North America, in particular, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes in North America’s upper mid-east, near the Canada-United States border. Around 21% of the world’s surface freshwater is contained in these lakes.

Q 10. Write the difference between:

(a) Continental shelf and continental slope.

Ans: The differences between continental shelf and continental slope are:

Continental shelf:

(i) A shallow and gently sloping platform extending out from the adjoining continental landmass into the sea is called Continental Shelf.

(ii) It is almost a uniform zone of sea bed with a gentle gradient.

(iii) They are shallower, thus enables sunlight to penetrate through the water. This encourages abundant growth of grass, sea weeds, and plankton. Hence these zones become the richest.

Continental slope: 

(i) A steep slope which descends from the edge of the continental shelf to the deep ocean- bed is called continental slope.

(ii) It forms a boundary between the Continental Crust and the oceanic crust.

(iii) This zone is free from deposits as they are steep. The most important characteristic of. continental slope is the presence of deep canyons and trenches.

(b) Everest peak and Godwin Austen peak.

Ans: The differences between Everest peak and Godwin Austen peak are: 

Everest peak:

(i) It is the highest peak on the planet (8848 m).

(ii) It is part of the Himalayan mountain range.

Godwin Austen peak:

(i) It is the second-highest peak on the planet (8611 m).

(ii) It is part of the Karakoram mountain range.

(c) The continent of Oceania and continent of Antarctica.

Ans: The differences between Oceania and Antarctica continents are:

Antarctica is bigger than Europe and almost double the size of Australia. Most of Antarctica is covered in ice over 1.6 kilometres thick (1 mile). Because it experiences such little rain, Antarctica is considered a desert.

Australia is the largest landmass on the continent of Oceania. Oceania is a region made up of thousands of islands throughout the Central and South Pacific Ocean. It includes Australia, the smallest continent in terms of total land area.

(d) Gobi desert and Atacama desert.

Ans: The differences between Gobi desert and Atacama desert are:

The Gobi Desert of Asia is a cold winter desert in the interior of a continent. The Atacama is a cool coastal desert on the west coast of South America.

Q 11. Choose the correct answer:

(a) Which is the world’s second largest Ocean?

(i) Indian ocean.

(ii) Pacific ocean.

(iii)  Southern Ocean.

(iv) Atlantic ocean.

Ans: (iv) Atlantic ocean.

(b) Which is the smallest continent of the world?

(i) Europe.

(ii) North America.

(iii) Oceania.

(iv) Antarctica.

Ans: (iv) Antarctica.

(c) In which ocean Falkland Islands is located?

(i) Atlantic ocean.

(ii) Arctic ocean.

(iii) pacific ocean.

(iv) Indian ocean.

Ans: (i) Atlantic ocean.

(d) Which sea has separated the continents of Asia and Africa?

(i) Caspian sea.

(ii) mediterranean Sea.

(iii) Arabian sea.

(iv) Red sea.

Ans: (iv) Red sea.

(e) What has naturally separated Asia from Europe?

(i) Caucasus Mountain.

(ii) Ural mountain range.                   

(iii) Volga river.

(iv) Caspian sea.

Ans: (ii) Ural mountain range.

(f) In which continent is Ecuador located?

(i) South America.

(ii) North America.

(iii) Asia.

(iv) Africa.

Ans: (i) South America.

(g) What is the capital of Brazil?

(i) Rio de Anterior.

(ii) Lima.

(iii) Brasilia.

(iv) sao.

Ans: (iii) Brasilia.

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