Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Geography Of Assam

Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Geography Of Assam The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Geography Of Assam and select needs one.

Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Geography Of Assam

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board SEBA Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Geography Of Assam Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Geography Of Assam

Chapter: 4


Textual Questions and Answers:

Q 1. Write briefly about Assam’s land area, population and population density with necessary data.

Ans. The total land area of Assam is 78,438 square km. Thus the population Density of Assam is 398 per square km which is higher than the national average of 382 per square km.

Assamese is the major indigenous and official language while Bengali is the official language in the three districts in the Barak Valley. Assam also has a number of schools with English as the medium of education. As per the Language Census of 2011, a total of 1, 53, 11,351 people used the Assamese language as their mother tongue and the language is ranked 12 among the 22 scheduled languages spoken in India. The total literacy rate of Assam is 72.19% according to the 2011 census study. The male literacy rate is 77.85% and the female literacy rate is 66.27% in Assam.

As per the 2011 census, the total population of Assam was 31,169,272. The total population of the state has increased from 26,638,407 to 31,169,272 in the last ten years with a growth rate of 16.93%. The total population of Assam is expected to reach 34.18 million by 2021 and 35.60 million by 2026. The Districts with higher population concentration are Kamrup, Nagaon, Sonitpur, Barpeta, Dhubri, Darrang, and Cachar.

Q 2. Briefly mention how the literacy rate of Assam is increasing.

Ans: Literacy rate in Assam has seen upward trend and is 72.19 percent as per 2011 population census. Of that, male literacy stands at 77.85 percent while female literacy is at 66.27 percent.

Q 3. How many first class and second class towns are there In Assam as per 2011 census data? 

Ans: Assam contains roughly 7 first-class towns and 6 second-class towns, according to census statistics from 2011. A ‘first class town’ has a population of one lakh or more, whilst a second class town’ has a population of 50 thousand to one lakh.

Q 4. Describe the trend of population growth in Assam from 1901-2011.

Ans: We observe that the share of Assam in India’s population is on increasing from 1.38 per cent in 1901 to 2.6 percent in 2011. In the pre independence period, 1901-1951 Assam’s population increased by 47.4 lakh from 32.9 lakhs in 1901 to 80.3 lakhs in 1951. During 1901 was 3 million which constituted about 1. 38 percent Indian’s population. after that the population of the state Increased and the population reached a figure of 7 million in 1941. This shows that Assam’s  population Increased by  more than two times 1901 and 1941. But during the post- independence period since 1951, the population of the state Increased rapidly due to migration across the border. 

Q 5. Analyse the geographical region-wise distribution of population in Assam.

Ans: Besides population growth, another important aspect is population distribution. Looking at the population distribution pattern of the state, it is observed that distribution of population and settlements is not uniform in all the regions or places. In some regions population more and its density is also more, while in other regions population is less and density is sparse. 

Generally, more settlements and population in a region indicate high density of population. Similarly, the sparse settlements and less population in a region indicate low density of population there.

According to the census data the population density of Assam was only 42 persons per km² in 1901, i.e., during the beginning of the 20th century. As time passed, population density started to grow along with population increase and the same grew by two times in 1941 (85 person per km²) as compared to 1901.

Just after the Independence, i.e., in 1951 the density of state population increased to 102 persons per km². In the subsequent period, population density increased substantially. It is seen from the table that population density was 286 in 1991, 340 in 2001 and 398 persons per km² in 2011.

Population distribution is not same in all the regions of the state depending on the varied physical environments prevalent in different regions. So, population density is also not same in all the regions. Generally, the regions having no favourable physical conditions, and developed economic and transport system have sparse settlements and less population.

As against this, the regions have high population density where the favourable physical and economic conditions prevail. In the data on population and its density in the Brahmaputra and Barak Valleys and also the hill region of Assam during 2001 and 2011 are presented. In the Brahmaputra valley population is thick due to its plain land, fertile soils and favourable conditions for development of agriculture and transport. So, about 85 percent of Assam’s population live in the Brahmaputra Valley. Its population density was 1220 persons per km² in 2001 and this increased to 1502 persons per km² in 2011.

The Upper Brahmaputra Valley region is inhabited by about 21 percent of the population of the valley accounting for population density of 371 persons per km² according to 2011 census. On the other hand, about 27 per cent of the population of the valley live in the Middle Brahmaputra Valley region which accounts for population density of 50 persons per km² in 2011.

Similarly, Lower Brahmaputra Valley region is inhabited by about 36 percent population of the Valley.

Q 6. Briefly discuss the causes responsible for variation in the Distribution of Assam’s population with suitable examples.

Ans: There are many important which are responsible for the variation distribution of the people in Assam. 

These are: 

(i) The physical environment of the place.

(ii) The developed economy.

(iii) Economic and transport system.

(iv) Social and cultural factors etc. 

The Brahmaputra and Barak Valley are thickly populated due to its: (i) Plain land, (ii) Fertile soils and, (iii) Favourable condition for economic development such as agricultural and transport system and communication facility. Because of all these facilities about 85% population of Assam live in the Brahmaputra valley. 

According to the 2011 census, the density of population 371 in upper Brahmaputra, 500 persons in middle Brahmaputra and 631 persons in lower Brahmaputra. On the other hand, Borak Valley also densely populated because of its fertile plain land with favourable conditions for transport and communication and agricultural production. The density of population is 545 persons in the valley.

Q 7. Mention the districts of Assam which have highest population and lowest population and density as per 2011 census data.

Ans: Following are the highest a and lowest population and highest and lowest density districts of Assam:

(i) Highest population district – Nagaon district. 

Lowest population district – Dima Hasao.

(ii) Highest density district – Kamrup (Metro) district.

Lowest density district – Dima Hasao.

Q 8. Analysis briefly the causes responsible for growth of population in Assam.

Ans: There are many causes responsible for growth of population in Assam. 

These are: 

(i) The natural growth of population. 

(ii) The large scale migration into the state from outside.

The natural growth of population mainly depends on birth and death rates. The birth and death rates of Assam’s population are not much difference with the average rates of Indian rate of population. If there was no large scale migration of Assam from the out side foreign country, the growth rate of Assam’s population would have not taken place at 80 high rate. So the migration from the outside is regarded as the main cause of population growth in the state of Assam.

Q 9. Mention the different human migration stream sequentially coming to Assam since the ancient times to the present.

Ans: Each flow of migration to Assam talking place from different region can be recognised as a human stream.

The social scientists have the opinion that the first human stream migrated to Assam was probably the Austric growth of people. They came from South- East Asia. The Khasis and Jaintias widely inhabited in Meghalaya state belong to this Austric group. Some of these people are found to live in the areas of Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao bordering Meghalaya.

The second human stream coming to Assam after the Austiric group was the Tibeto Barman language speaking Mongoloid people. These people came across the Himalaya from central Asia and settled in different parts of Assam. Almost all the tribes except this Khasis presently residing in Assam are basically of Mongoloid origin.

The Indo Aryan language speaking group of people migrated to Assam from the Manglik plain just after the flow of the Mongoloid people. They are originally of Caucasoid racial stock. The Brahmins, Kayasthas, Kalitas, Nath-Jogi, Koibartas etc. are the people of this racial group.

In the early part 13th century another group of Islamic people of Ind- Aryan origin came to Assam under Mahammad Bin Bakhtiar Khiliji, a Muslim General of Kutubuddin on their way to Tibet. The expanded their settlement gradually and established Muslim society and culture in the Brahmaputra and Barak Valley. 

Another important ethnic group who migrated to Assam was the Ahoms. The Ahoms basically belong to the Mongoloid stock. They came to Myanmar from China and then in 1228 under the leadership of Seu-Ka-Pha the Ahoms came across the Patkai hills from the Shan Plateau of Northern Myanmar. They settled first in upper Assam and established the Ahom kingdom. Presently, the Ahoms have their settlements mainly in Tinsukia, Dibrugarh, Sibsagar, Jorhat, Golaghat, Lakipmur and Dhemaji district of Upper Assam region and also in Morigaon, Nagaon and Sonitpur district of middle Assam region.

An important human stream to Assam was the migration of the landless Muslim peasants from the East Bengal, This migration continued from about the last decade of 19th century to just before the Independence. At first under the patronage of the landlord’s of the undeveloped Goalpara district and later on the interest of the administrators the landless peasant of the East-Bengal migrated to Assam and settled in the vast fertile land and sparsely populated region.

In the way as mentioned above, the people of various ethnic groups have been migrating to Assam from different places since ancient period to the present.

Q 10. Give the ethics identity of the Ahoms.

Ans: Another important ethnic group who migrated to Assam was the Ahoms. The Ahoms basically belong to the Mongoloid stock. They came to Myanmar from China and then in 1228 under the leadership of Seu-Ka-Pha the Ahoms came across the Patkai hills from the Shan plateau of northern Myanmar. They settled first in upper Assam and established the Ahom kingdom. Later on, they brought almost the entire Brahmaputra Valley under their rule. The Ahoms ruled for about six hundred years and made substantial contributions to the society and culture of Assam. Presently, the Ahoms have their settlements mainly in Tinsukia, Dibrugarh, Sibsagar, Jorhat, Golaghat, Lakhimpur and Dhemaji district of upper Assam region and also in Morigaon, Nagaon and Sonitpur district of middle Assam region.

Q 11. Briefly state how the transport system of Assam has been helping the state’s economy.

Ans: The transportation infrastructure is one of the most essential components in a country’s or region’s economic development. Its main purpose is to develop communication and linkages between various sections of a country. It facilitates resource, knowledge, culture, and civilization exchange. As a result, a nation’s lifeline is an efficient transportation system comprised of railways, roadways, rivers, and airways. Agriculture, industry, trade, communication, and other sectors of the economy are all heavily reliant on transportation infrastructure. When it comes to a state like Assam, this is completely true. Assam is lucky to have important resources such as a large land area, good rivers, flat geography, abundant natural resources, and enormous people potential. All of these resources can be created with the assistance of well-functioning transportation infrastructure.

Assam stands of the gateway to other state of the north-east. The development of winter north-east is dependent on the transport system of Assam. Various economic goods required economy of these state have to be transported through  Assam by way of the transport system. This has greatly boosted the economy of the state. Assam stands at the eastern corner of India. It is the transport system which connects this state with rest of India. A lot of economic goods required for the economic development of the state have to be brought from outside the state. Locally produced goods such as tea, oil, natural gas, limestone, etc.

Q 12. Write a short note on water transport system in Assam.

Ans: The water transport system of Assam is basically the inland water transport system. Assam is a land of rivers. The Brahmaputra and Barak and their numerous tributaries, which account for 32 per cent of the total water resources of India are serving as the waterways of the the state. The 891 km. long course of the Brahmaputra from Sadia to Dhubri and 121 km. long course of the Barak are navigable. The navigable waterway of the Brahmaputra (891 km. long) was declared in 1988 as the second National Waterway of the country. This waterway has been contributing much to the economic development of entire North-East India including Assam.

On the other hand, the 121 km. long waterway of the Varak river extending from Lakhipur to Bhanga was declared by the central government in 2013 as the 6th National Waterway of the country. This waterway is expected to be helpful in enhancing the economic development of the entire North-East India, especially Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh by transporting goods through ships at cheaper rate. There are two government agencies which are engaged in promoting the water transport system of Assam. These two agencies are the Central Inland- waterways Corporation and the Directorate of Inland Water Transport.

The main responsibilities of these two agencies are the effective utilization of water resources in water transport, transportation of goods and passengers using waterways as the cheapest mode of transport, proper use of the waterways of the region on commercial basis etc.

There are a number of river ports including Pandu along the Brahmaputra river. In addition to these, there are more than 30 pairs of ferry ghats on the Brahmaputra for transporting both passengers and cargo. At present, as many as 96 ferry services are operating on the river Barak, Brahmaputra and its tributaries under the three divisions of the Inland Water Transport.

Besides, the IWT department has introduced 61 numbers of cargo cum passenger services in the state connecting the interior places where road communications are not available. Moreover, large number of ferry and bhoot-bhooty services of private owners are also operating under unorganised sector for transporting goods and passengers. 

The advantages of the inland water transport of Assam are:

(a) There are more scope and opportunities for expansion of the water transport system in Assam being a land of rivers. 

(b) Expenditure for fuel in water transport is less as compared to other modes of transport.

(c) Water transport is more useful in transporting heavy goods.

(d) The inland water transport has been serving for the transport of goods and passengers within the state.

(e) Like the road transport, the water transport has no such problem of air pollution.

(f) The water transport system has been extending help to the people of places backward in road communication for movement of goods and passengers.

(g) During natural disasters, especially flood in the state the water transport plays an important role. 

(h) There are no problems like repairing, maintenance, road construction etc. in the case of water transport system, because the natural rivers and streams are used as waterways.

Q 13. Mention five major causes which  are  regarded as hindrance to the development of transport system of Assam.

Ans: Today many regions of Assam are deprived of the service of the modern transport system. Because, the entire transport system of the state is not properly and uniformly developed. 

The five major causes which are regarded as hindrance to the development of transport system of Assam are:

(a) It is really difficult to expand the transport system in Assam which is characterised by varied topographic features like hills, plateaus, plains, floodplains, wetlands etc. 

(b) Assam is linked with the mainland of India through a narrow corridor on the west and this has caused difficulties in the expansion of transport network.

(c) In some areas the soil properties of Assam are not suitable for construction and maintenance of roads. Moreover, high rainfall during summer causes damage to the roads easily. Also, the roads get damaged within a short period as no suitable and modem technologies are applied in their construction.

(d) In the case of industrial development, Assam is still backward as compared to some other states of India. One of the major causes for this is the underdeveloped transport system of the state. But, the industrial development, on the other hand may encourage the development of the transport system.

(e) In spite of immense scope and potentiality for development of tourism industry in Assam, no proper measures are taken so far for its development. If due importance is given on the development of tourism industry of the state, it is sure that the transport sector will also flourish altogether.

(f) Due to lack of large market in the state the transport system has not developed. Assam has largely failed to be actively associated with the field of trade and commerce at inter-state as well as international level and consequently the infrastructure of transport system has not been developed.

(g) The national and foreign investment in the state shows a declining trend due to some social and political unrest arising out of ethnic, communal and insurgency problems emerging from time to time. As a result, the expansion of trade and commerce has become limited and the transport sector has suffered a lot.

(h) Although the transport system has developed quantitatively, its qualitative expansion is not upto the mark. Lack of operative and technical efficiency is usually noticed in the case of road, railway, water and air transport. 

(i) In order to achieve overall development of the transport system, there is the utmost need for proper transport co-ordination among the road, railway, water and air transport. But, lack of such co-ordination is commonly observed in the state.

(i) Rapid development of transport sector has not become possible in the state, because the schemes undertaken by the governments for development and expansion of transport system are not executed in time and in proper way.

Q 14. What do you mean by the term ‘resources’? What are the major natural resources of Assam? 

Ans: Resources are those materials and substances present in our environment using which we meet our needs and desire. Resources are mainly of two types-Natural resources and human and man-made resources. The natural resources are created in nature by the natural factors. Some natural resources are renewable while other are non-renewable.

The natural resources of Assam are created under its favourable environmental conditions. As the natural environmental conditions vary from regions to regions, the natural resources also vary term of their types, characteristics and distributional patterns over the regions. Assam has a large varieties of natural resources and the major ones are land resources, forest resources, mineral resources and water resources.

Q 15. Name the major oilfields of Assam.

Ans: Major oil field of Assam are: (i) Digboi oilfield, (ii) Naharkatia oil field. (iii) Moran-Hugrijan oil field, (iv) Rudrasagar oil field, (v) Lakoa oil field, (vi) Geleki oil field, (vi) Borbola oil field, (vi) Amguri oil field, (ix) Duliajan oil field.

Q 16. Write briefly about the water resources of Assam.

Ans: Assam has extensive and boundless water resources, the large unending and everlasting rivers and many other water bodies with rich aquifer. Assam is rich in surface ground  water resources due to high rainfall, numerous perennial rivers, thousand of wetlands, etc. 

The two main rivers, the Brahmaputra and Barak rivers, carry huge amount of water. These two rivers with their tributaries amount to almost one-third of the water resources of the country. Besides there are some large and small marshes and ponds all over the state.

In the plains, the range of  underground water level in 5 metre from the surface. It is also utilised for Agriculture, industrial and domestic purpose. However, it is to be noted that water resources are not fully utilised in the state and a lot more can in this regard.

Apart from the rain water received, the state is endowed with number of perennial rivers and lake locally known as beel. The state is drained by the dance networks of two river system, viz the Brahmaputra and the Barak. These rivers have large number of tributaries joining them from both the banks.

Q 17. What are the causes responsible for degradation of Assam’s natural resources?

Ans: The natural resources are degraded not only by human factors but also by natural factors. Generally man have misconception that natural resources are the free gift of nature we can uses as we wise. 

There are three major problems arises: 

(i) Resuorces get polluted and damaged.

(ii) Resources become scarce.

(iii) Severe environmenta land socio economic problems arise.

Natural resources are essential for sustaining the existence of mankind as well as standard of living. But the natural resources of Assam are now not so protected. The resources are getting degraded day by day. 

The causes are: 

(i) The development of transport communication system, industry and energy sector effect the forest resources, (ii) The highest growth of population, (iii) Urbanization, deforestation impact the severe degradation of natural resources, (iv) Indiscriminate use of resources by human being etc.

Q 18. How has the growing population of Assam put impact on the natural resources?

Ans: The main reason for this rapid depletion is the immense pressure put on the ever- growing population of the state.

Natural resources are essential for sustaining the existence of mankind as well as standard of living. There is, in fact a misconception among us that natural resource is the free gift of nature. With such misconception in mind man haphazardly uses the natural resources. 

As a result, three major problems arise, such as: (a) Resources get polluted and damaged, (b) Resources become scarce and (c) Severe environmental and socio-economic problems arise. 

The natural resources of Assam are now not so protected. The resources are getting degraded day by day. At present the human-induced factors have become more active and influential than the natural factors.

Population of Assam has increased at faster rate during last few decades. As a result, pressure of population on natural environment is increasing.

Growth of population has led to expansion of human settlements and increase in food crop production. Man has started to settle by clearing forests and also filling up the wetlands etc. Moreover, fertile alluvial agricultural lands are being used for human settlements.

In this way the valuable resources like the forest areas, marshy lands, wetlands, agricultural lands etc. are gradually decreasing due to expansion of human settlements. Land use pattern has changed under population pressure on land and land has been put to some misuses. Because of this, problems like land erosion, loss of land fertility, soil pollution etc. are created. 

Again, the agricultural lands are needed as emphas is is given to increase food crop production due to increasing population. But the agricultural lands go on deceasing as these are also used for human settlements. So, man has expanded agricultural activities by converting the forest lands and wetlands into agricultural lands. Moreover, the natural properties of cropland soils are lost due to use of high amount of chemical fertilizers with the purpose to increase crop production.

Like the land resources, the forest resources of the state are also affected by human activities. If the on-going forest destruction process is not checked by now, the forest resources of the state will soon disappear. Massive environmental problems would emerge if the forests become insufficient to maintain the ecological balance in the state. Similarly, the mineral resources are being increasingly used especially for the development of the transport, industry and energy sector and one day these non-renewable resources would be certainly exhausted.

Presently the dimension of man’s economic activities has increased. The processes of urbanization and industrialisation in the state have progressed gradually and there are some direct and indirect impacts of these process on the natural resources. If urbanization and industrialisation continue without proper planning, the air, water and land resources will be polluted. Now it has been realised that natural resources of the state should be utilized properly and rationally and for this, resource planning is very essential. Misuse of resources should be checked by conserving them through proper planning and only then the overall development of the state can be achieved.

Q 19. Is the vast population of Assam a burden (problem) on resources of the state? Discuss.

Ans: A vast population can become a burden if its not productive as Assam is one of the northeastern states of the India and has an area of about 78,438 km square. Bordered by the Arunachal Pradesh and Bhutan and had 30.57 million people in 2011 and which will grow to about 34.18 million in 2021.

The population of India including Assam has not become exhausted with aged persons. Around 35 per cent of total population of Assam consists of person with age range 15years to 35 years i.e. the number of such people is More than 10 millions. Among the person of this youth generation there are prospects of intenes working capability. In addition to providing general and technical education to the youth generation, positive steps should be taken for empowerment of women and weak classes of the society, such steps would make development of human  resources spite of the vast population of Assam is burden (problem)at present, can be turned into resources by accepting effective planning.

The age group of 15-34 years accounts for almost 35% of the overall population of the state. If this youth force is provided effective education, intellect, technical know-how, and other benefits through competent management, and the weaker sectors of society, poor communities.

Q 20. According to you, what steps need to be followed in creating human resources in Assam? 

Ans: From my point of view, following steps to be taken in creating human resource in Assam.

(i) Proper provisions should be made by the govt. to minimize unemployment problem of Assam.

(ii) The govt should take strong steps to stop child labour or child trafiking and free education should be given for them under proper supervision.

(iii) Women employment should be developed. Preferences should be given to common in different sectors. Principles on ” Save girl chid’ should be work out.

(iv) Proper provisions should be made available for weaker section of society, minorities, disable person, poor communities. Scholarship should be made available to them.

(v) Vocational, technical and computer education should be expanded from secondary level of education.

(vi) Job opportunities should be made available for aged women, widows and unmarried women.

(vii) Special care unit should be opened in educational institution for human resource development.

(viii) NGO’s and other social service organisation should take project on development of human resources specially weaker section and women.

Q 21. Discuss briefly the role of agriculture sector on Assam’s economy.

Ans: Agriculture plays a vital role in the economy of Assam. Assam is heavily dependent on the agriculture sector. Assam is richly endowed in natural resources, such as abundant rainfall, alluvial soil, rich and diverse plant and animal genetic base. The state is well watered by rivers and the agricultural land receives water through the channels of the irrigation system. 70 percent of the people of Assam are directly or indirectly dependent on the agricultural sector.

Moreover, the main agricultural products like tea, jute, rubber, etc. exported outside the state bring a lot of revenue for the state. Over 50 per cent of the tea produce in the country comes from Assam. This also brings considerable income for the state. Several argo- based  industries of the state such as food processing industry, tea industry, tea industry, paper industry, sugar industry, oilseed industry, etc.

Q 22. What are the argo-climate region of Assam? Mention the characteristics of each them in brief.

Ans: Assam has been broadly divided into six agro-climatic zones on the basis of patterns of rainfall, terrain, soil type and climatic conditions.

Barak Valley Zone: Cachar, Karimganj, and Hailakandi are included in this district. The total cultivated land area is 2.42 lakh hectares.

Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone: Kamrup, Kamrup (metro), Nalbari, Barpeta, Baksa, Bongaigaon, Chirang, Kokrajhar, Dhubri, and Goalpara are among the 10 districts. A total of 9.30 lakh hectares are cultivated.

Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone: Tinsukia, Dibrugarh, Sibsagar, Jorhat, and Golaghat are among the districts covered. The total cultivated land area is 6.20 lakh hectares.

North Bank Plain Zone: Darrang, Udalguri, Sonitpur, Lakhimpur, and Dhemaji are among the five districts covered. The total cultivated area is 5.37 lakh hectares.

Central Brahmaputra Valley Zone: Morigaon and Nagaon districts are included. The total cultivated area is 3.28 lakh hectares.

Hill Zone: Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao districts are included. The total cultivated land area is 1.54 lakh hectares

Q 23. What are the types of rice cultivate in Assam? Briefly write about these.

Ans: Rice is cultivated in a wide range of agro-ecological situations in Assam from the hill slopes of Karbi Anglong to drought-affected upland and rain-fed lowland to very deep water conditions.

The main types of rice cultivate in the state are: 

(i) Winter rice: Winter rice is called the Sali raice. It is extensively cultivated almost all agricultural zones in Assam. It is cultivated in about 70% areas of total rice growing area of Assam. Winters rice grows well in the fertile alluvial soils of the Brahmaputra and Barak Velley. Using plantation method this rice is cultivated during July-August and crops are harvested during November-December.

(ii) Summer rice: (Bodo Rice) is cultivated in almost all  the district be of Assam. It is cultivated in the low-lying areas  during winter months and harvested during summer months of June-July before the floods. This rice  is very popular among the farmers living in the flood-affected regions. 

(iii) Autumn rice: Autumn rice is cultivated in the fertile soils of the plains and in the lower plains of the Brahmaputra Valley. It is cultivated using both sowing and planting methods in February-March and harvest in June-July.

Q 24. Why is rice considered as the principal crop in Assam?

Ans: Rice is considered as the principal crop in Assam. Because:

(i) Rice is cultivated in all the agro-climetic zones and all the district of Assam.

(ii) The production of rice is more than in any other crops.

(iii) Rice is the principal flood gain of the Assamese people.

(iv) Rice is cultivated area of 25.45 lakh hectares and produced about 50.45 lakh metric tonnes as data based on 2011-2012.

(v) Rice is cultivated in all the agro-climatic zones. i.e. all the districts of the state. 

(vi) As the 70% of total land in Assam are concerned to rice production.

(vii) The three types of rice are cultivated in Assam. These types of rice are completely covered the total population of Assam in regard to their main food.

Q 25. What are the pulses cultivated in Assam?

Ans: Blackgram, Greengram, lentil, Pea, arhar gram etc pulses are the cultivated in Assam.

Q 26. Write briefly about jhum cultivation (shafting cultivation) carried out in Assam.

Ans: Jhum cultivation is also called as shifting cultivation and is practised by tribal groups in northeastern states on a small patch of land. In this cultivation, the area is first cleared of trees and vegetation and then burnt after that. The ash that remained after burning acts as fertilizer for the soil.

The agro-climatic zone in the hills of Assam covering Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao hill district is chiefly characterised by jhum cultivation (shifting cultivation). About 66 per cent area of Karbi Anglong district and 85 per cent area of Dima Hasao are covered by hills. In these hills, jhum cultivation is practised. Jhum cultivation spans over about 5452 km² area of Karbi Anglong district and 2597 km² area of Dima Hasao district.

Generally, the tribal people carry out jhum cultivation with traditional methods by burning and clearing the forests on the suitable slopes of the hills. When soil fertility gets reduced after carrying out jhum cultivation on a plot of land for several years together, a new plot of land is selected for jhum cultivation. Jhum cultivation characterised by its shifting nature is very closely associated with the society, culture and living style of the hill tribes.

Although this type of cultivation is a type of mixed agriculture, it fails to give good production. Some environmental problems like forest destruction, soil erosion, loss of soil fertility etc. have cropped up due to this method of cultivation. So, there arises a need for eco friendly practice of jhum cultivation and more essentially efforts should be made to popularise the practice of terrace cultivation instead of jhum cultivation among the tribal people of the hills.

Q 27. What are the major aims of the Assam Industrial and Investment policy, 2014? 

Ans: The major aims of the Assam Industrial and Investment policies 2014 are:

(a) To increase the Gross Domestic product to the state by developing the manufacturing and service sectors along with various economic activities.

(b) To increase the per capita income and employment opportunities in the state, especially in the rural areas.

(c) To encourage and increase investment for the development of micro, small and medium industries.

(d) To create large number of skilled personnel.

Q 28. What do you mean by the term ‘service sectors industries’? Briefly explain taking examples form Assam.

Ans: The ‘Service sector Industries’ are those industries which service can be given to the public. For example: Trade, transport and communication, tourism industry, hotel business, banking and insurance services, all types of business, public administration etc.

Q 29. What are the major agro-based Industries of Assam?

Ans: The major agro-based industries of Assam are- tea industry, silk industry, rubber industry, paper industry, fishery industry, food processing industry, etc.

Q 30. Write about the tea industry in Assam?

Ans: The tea industry in Assam is about 172 years old. It occupies an important place and plays a very useful part in the national economy. Robert Bruce in 1823 discovered tea plants growing wild in upper Brahmaputra Valley.

A tea garden was started by the Government in 1833 in erstwhile Lakhimpur district. With the arrival in London of the fine quality tea from this garden in 1938,the commercial circle of the city took a keen interest in tea plantations in Assam and a company known as the Assam Company was formed in 1839 to take over the experimental holdings of the East India Company’s Administration over the tea gardens established in Assam till then.

About 500 thousand tonnes of tea were produced in 2009 and it increased to 590 thousand tonnes in 2012. A large number of people are now employed in tea industry. More than 6.86 lakhs people are engage on daily average in the tea industry of Assam. 

According to an another source of the Tea Board of India, the small tea growers of the state now cultivate tea in about 88 thousand hectares of land and produce about 107 thousand tonnes of tea. The leading position of Assam in tea production in India. Assam has earned the glory of producing 51 to 53 percent alone of the total tea production of India during 2001-2012.

Q 31. State the present status of the fish industry of Assam.

Ans: Presently fishery is gradually gaining importance in the economic sector of Assam. There is immense prospect for fishery development in the state. Assam is a star full of rivers and tributaries. Fishes are found in its rivers, wetlands, abandoned channels, marshes, waterbodies etc. Plenty of fishes are naturally available in the wetlands of the Barak and Brahmaputra plains and floodplains.

Fish production can be increased by multiplying fish population in these wetlands through scientific methods and plans. In spite of more demand for fish and more scope for fish production in the state, the vast wetlands and waterbodies are not properly utilized for producing fishes.

As per 2011-12s data, there are 430 government registered wetlands in the state covering about 60 thousand hectare areas. Again, there are another 767 non-registered wetlands covering a total of 40 thousand hectares of area. In addition to these wetlands, a large number of tanks, marshylands, waterbodies etc. are regarded as the fish producing grounds.

During 2011-12 all total about 4490 million fish seeds were produced from 3.94 lakh hectare of fishing ground and in the same period 2.44 lakh tonnes of fishes were produced in the state. It is observed that production of fish seeds increased by 2.5 times and fish production increased only by 1.5 times during the last ten years. 

District-wise production pattern of fish seeds during 2011-12 reveals that seeds in the state and Barpeta district is the highest producer of fish Karimganj and Nagaon district have attained the second and third position respectively. Similarly, Nagaon district ranks first in fish production in the state during the year, while Cachar and Dhubri district occupy the second and the third position respectively. The fishery sector nominally contributes to the state domestic products, which is only two per cent. Fish production in the state is not satisfactory in spite of tremendous prospects. At present, the country. But, the amount of fish produced in the state as well as imported Assam imports about 0.26 lakh tonnes of fish annually from other states or from outside is not sufficient to meet the domestic demand. As a result, there is an annual deficit of 0.52 lakh tonnes of fish in the state and so the price of fish has increased more and more.

Q 32. Mention the problems of agriculture development in Assam. 

Ans: The problems of agricultural development in Assam are:

(a) Traditional agriculture in the plains and jhum cultivation in the hills are still practised through the age-old methods.

(b) The agricultural lands of the farmers are fragmented into small plots, where it is difficult to use the modern agricultural implements and techniques.

(c) Method of irrigation is not developed and irrigation facilities are not adequate.

(d) Rice is extensively cultivated in the state and it has its significant impact on agro-economy, But, no due importance is given on application of modern agricultural methods for development of rice cultivation.

(e) Agriculture of the state is badly affected by flood and bank erosion. Annually crops of more than 25 per cent croplands of the state are damaged by flood and large areas of fertile alluvial lands are also lost annually due to river bank erosion.

(f) In order to protect the agricultural activities as well as the farmers from severe drought, there is no proper agricultural planning. 

(g) Crop protection and crop harvesting methods are not developed.

(h) Facilities for crop preservation, especially for the food crops are very limited.

(i) Farmers have become poor, because there is no provision that the farmers can directly get the reasonable price for the crops they produce.

(j) Farmers are in want of facilities for easily obtaining high quality seed, necessary fertilizers, agricultural implements and loans at subsidised rates. 

(k) There is lack of developed communication and transport system linking the interior agricultural regions with the markets of towns and cities.

(l) The agricultural sector and the agro-based industrial sectors are not progressing parallely. 

(m) There is limited use of comparatively low cost electricity in mechanization of agriculture and

(n) The overall infrastructure actually lacks in the state for agricultural development of the state.

Q 33. Why is the Industrial development in the state still slow? 

Ans: The following are the reasons for Assam’s delayed industrial development:

(i) A transportation and communication system that is underdeveloped.

(ii) There is a lack of comprehensive and integrated planning for Industrial development through proper resource utilisation.

(iii) The agro-based Industries haven’t made much headway despite good prospects. 

(iv) In general the whole infrastructure set-up of the state is not conducive to Industrial development.

(v) The transport and communication network in the state developed. 

(vi) The state faces the problem of insufficient funds.

(vii) The people and the youth in particular are  not given adequate training in employability or entrepreneurs skills to be create an interest in industry establishment.

(viii) The Industrial policy of the government is not simple and flexible.

(ix) The food processing industry has not grown due to lack of storage and preservation facilities for perishable argo-products.

(x) Inadequate planning to instil entrepreneurial passion in the local population.

Q 34. Mention the problems of tourism industry of Assam.

Ans: The problems of tourism industry are mentioned below:

(i) Lack of adequate capital investment in tourism development of the state. 

(ii) Lack of transport and strong communication system to meet the need of the foreign tourists. 

(iii) Poor infrastructure, poor accommodation, poor hotel and inn for foreign tourists.

(iv) Weak security system of Assam is also another problem.

(v) Lack of proper preservation of historical monuments wildlife, national properties bird sanctuary it hindrances in the development of Assam tourism. 

(vi) Unconsciousness of public about the tourism is another problem. People are not awake about to save wildlife of Assam. 

(vii) Lack of proper maintenance of tourist spot fails to catch the eye of tourists. Govt has failed to sanction proper aid for the maintenance of tourism. There is no International Airport to directly came to Assam. The Railway System of Assam is non standard.

Q 35. What are the prospects of economic development of Assam? 

Ans: Assam is rich in natural resources such as natural oil and gas, rubber, tea, and minerals such as granite, limestone and kaolin. Assam tea is a well recognised product all over the world.

The state is rich in mineral resources such as coal, oil, natural gas and limestone. These resources, if adequately utilised and developed, can bring high Industrial development in the state.

Argo-based Industries such as tea industry, rubber Industry, paper industry, jute industry, food processing industry, etc. have great potential to develop. However, these Industries can can flourish only in an atmosphere of government support, peaceful environment and people’s cooperation, which the state  lacks today.

It is the fact that the vast human potential of the state is not fully developed. There are about 10 million young people in the age group of 15-34 of the 31 million people in the state. Their potential has not been fully tapped.  They can be made more efficient by providing the state their potential has not been fully tapped. 

As a result the production has increased. Food crops are grown up to a remarkable extent. Among them, tea, jute, sugarcane, fruits and vegetable, fishing, rice etc. Rice is extensively cultivated in Assam. Now a days tea and Veg. Rice has made strong contribution to the economy of Assam. Efforts are being made to increase the production, efforts are made to promote necessary importance for industrialisation the small scale tea cultivation is also developed properly. Industries like oil refinery, cement industry, Paper Mill, handicraft industry, metal industry etc. are developed in Assam. Assam also rich in mineral resources and ample scope available to develop these industries to a great extent. In future these industries coil raise the economic development of Assam. For this proper plan, necessary fund, human resources it should be made available by the govt.

8 thoughts on “Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Geography Of Assam”

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