Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 2 Rise of Gandhi and the Freedom Movement of India

Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 2 Rise of Gandhi and the Freedom Movement of India The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 2 Rise of Gandhi and the Freedom Movement of India and select needs one.

Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 2 Rise of Gandhi and the Freedom Movement of India

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board SEBA Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 2 Rise of Gandhi and the Freedom Movement of India Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Rise of Gandhi and the Freedom Movement of India

Chapter: 2


Very Short Answer Questions

Q1. When was Mahatma Gandhi born?

Ans: October 2, 1859.

Q2. In which country did Gandhi first apply the technique of Satyagraha?

Ans: South Africa.

Q3. Why did Rabindranath Tagore renounce his Knighthood?

Ans: Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

Q4. Under whose leadership was the Khilafat movement started in India?

Ans: Maulana Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali.

Q5. When did the Chauri Chaura incident take place?

Ans: February 5, 1922.

Q6. Under what circumstances did the Lala Lajpat rai lose his life?

Ans: Lala Lajpat Rai lost his life when he was ‘lathi-charged’ by the British for leading a protest against the Simon Commission at Lahore.

Q7. When and in which session of the Indian National Congress was Purna Swaraj declared to be chief goal of the Indians?

Ans: In 1920, at the Lahore session of congress, it was decided that the goal of the congress was to attain Purna Swaraj.

Q8. Gandhi started his Salt March from Sabarmati Ashram to the sea coast at Dandi. What was the distance between Sabarmati Ashram to the sea coast at Dandi?

Ans: The distance between Sabarmati Ashram to the sea coast at Dandi was 385 kms.

Q9. Who was known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’?

Ans: Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan.

Q10. Who was the sole Congress representative at the second Round Table Conference in London?

Ans: Mahatma Gandhi.

Q11. Name the British Prime Minister who announced the Communal Award in 1932.

Ans: Ramsay Macdonald.

Q12. During the course of which movement did Gandhi give the slogan ‘Do or Die’?

Ans: Quit India Movement of 1942.

Q13. Who was the founder of the Azad Hind Fauj?

Ans: Rasbihari Bose (the originator of the idea was Captain Mohan Singh).

Q14. “Give me blood and shall give you freedom”. This famous quote is attributed to which Indian leader?

Ans: Subhash Chandra Bose.

Q15. What is the name if the international boundary line between India and Pakistan?

Ans: Radcliffe Line.

Long Answers:

Q1. What do you understand by the term ‘Satyagraha’? Briefly write about the three local disputes where Gandhi first applied the technique of Satyagraha in India.

Ans: The word Satyagraha was first used by Gandhi in South Africa. It is a compound of two separate words, Satya which means ‘truth’ and agraha which means ‘holding fest’.Its root meaning is holding on to truth.

The concept of Satyagraha was developed by Mahatma Gandhi while he was in South Africa. He used this concept as a chief weapon of resistance against the discriminatory South African regime. 

The three local disputes where Gandhi first applied the technique of Satyagraha in India are discuss below:

Gandhi’s activities in South Africa transformed him into a mature and idealist leader. With this impression he returned to India in 1915. He had to be actively involved and became successful in solving three local disputes- in Champaran (North Bihar), in Kheda (Gujarat) and in Ahmedabad during 1917-18, which recognised him as an influential political leader.

In Champaran, he took up the cause of peasants against landlords, in Kheda that of farmers against the collection of land-revenue when their crops failed, and in Ahmedabad that of the mill-workers against the mill owners. In each of the cases, the strategy was Satyagraha, and the principles were truth and non-violence.

Q2. Why was the Khilafat movement started in India?

Ans: As a result of the defeat of Turkey in the First World War, the influence of the Khalifa was greatly reduced. The Muslims regarded the Sultan of Turkey as their Khalifa or spiritual head. They became upset when they found that he would retain no control over his empire’s holy places. The Muslims in India became apprehensive of the fate of the Khalifa and formed a Khilafat Committee under the leadership of Maulana Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali. Its object was the restoration of the Sultan of Turkey as Khalifa (Caliph) of Islam.

Q3. Why did Mahatma Gandhi launch the non-cooperation movement of 1920-22? What were its programmes? What made Gandhi to suspend the movement?

Ans: Non-cooperation movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi, in order to overthrow the British government in India and grant self-governance or purna swaraj to India. The Non-Cooperation movement was suspended in February 1922 because of the start of the Chauri Chaura incident. In Chauri Chaura which was a town in the state of Uttar Pradesh, a violent mob set fire to the nearby police station, which killed almost 22 policemen. After this incident, Mahatma Gandhi suspended the movement, because the principle of Ahimsa was violated.

The Non-Cooperation Movement ignited the emotions of the people. Both Hindus and Muslim participated in it. There was huge bonfire of foreign cloth in different places. Shops selling foreign goods and liquor were picketed. Many students left government schools and colleges. The peasants of Midnapore in Bengal organized a very effective no-tax campaign. The Congress set up National educational institutions like the Kashi Vidyapeeth, Baneras Vidyapeeth, the National Muslim University of Aligarh etc.

Seth Jamona Lal Bajaj declared that he would give Rupees one lakh a year for the maintenance of non-practising lawyers. Forty lakh volunteers were enrolled by the Congress. Twenty thousand ‘Charkhas’ were manufactured.

The people started deciding their disputes by means of arbitration. The Tilak Swaraj Fund which was started to finance the Non-cooperation movement was able to collect over a crore of rupees within a short period. The women too actively took part in the movement.

The Non-cooperation movement had two aspects positive and negative. The former included the promotion of Swadeshi, particularly the revival of hand-spinning and weaving; removal of untouchability among the Hin-dus; promotion of Hindu-Muslim unity; prohibition of the use of alcoholic drinks, and the collection of a crore of rupees for the memorial of Tilak.

The negative side is usually referred to as the triple boycott; namely, boycott of Legislatures, Courts and educational institutions schools and colleges maintained or aided by the Government. The minor items of boycott included surrender of titles, honours etc.

The negative necessitated some positive steps, like setting up arbitration boards to take the place of Courts, and National schools and colleges where students leaving Government schools and colleges might continue their education.

Much against the wishes and instructions of Gandhi, people at certain places did not remain peaceful. On February 5, 1922, there was serious mob violence at Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur district of United Province. The local police attacked the protestors and then they violently collided with the police.

Three protestors were killed in police firing. Protestors burnt down the police station and about twenty two policemen were killed. Gandhi was shocked at this incident and felt that without adequate discipline and restraint on the part of the people, the Movement had proved to be a ‘Himalayan blunder’. He at once suspended the movement and sat on fast for three weeks.

Q4. What were the main aims of Civil Disobedience movement? What were the main features of this movement?

Ans: The Civil Disobedience Movement aimed at the complete refusal of cooperation to the British and hinder the functioning of the government.

The main features of the movement were:

(i) Gandhi protested against the Salt Law by making salt himself and throwing up a challenge to the British government. The movement spread and salt laws were challenged in other parts of the country.

(ii) The first Round Table Conference in London was boycotted by Congress.

(iii) Gandhi and thousands of freedom lovers (men, women, and children) were arrested.

(iv) It exposed the British rule in India in all its naked hideousness and lowered its prestige in the eyes of the world.

(v) The freedom of the Press was curtailed. Nationalist literature poems, stories, and novels were banned on a large scale.

(vi) To decrease civil administration expenditure.

Q5. Under what circumstances was the Quit India Movement launched? Do you consider the movement to be a milestone in India’s struggle for independence? Give reasons in support of your answer.

Ans: In September 1939, the Second World War broke out. M.K.Gandhi and J. Nehru both were strongly critical of Hitler and the Nazis. Therefore, they promised the British to provide the support of the Congress to their war efforts, in return they asked to grant India complete independence. The offer was not accepted by the British government. As a mark of protest the Congress ministers resigned in October 1939. Between 1940 and 1941, the Congress organised a series of individual satyagrahas to put pressure on the government.

At this time Britain had all party government, whose labour members were sympathetic to the demands of the Indians, but the Prime Minister Winston Churchill was conservative enough to liquidate Britain’s empire.

In 1942, Churchill was pressurised to send one of his ministers, Sir Stafford Cripps to negotiate with Indian political parties seeking their support in the war that Britain was waging in Europe. A Draft Declaration of the British Government was offered to India, which included the establishment of a dominion, the establishment of a constituent assembly and the rights of provinces to make separate constitutions. All this would be granted only after the war.

However, the Cripps mission failed and Gandhi decided to launch his third major movement against the British. Other factors which led to the Quit India Movement was the fear of Japan attacking India, terror in East Bengal and the fact that India had realised that the British could not defend the country anymore.

Accordingly, in August 1942, Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement, also known as the August Movement on the basis of the resolution passed on 8 August, 1942 in Bombay by the All India Congress Committee, declaring its demand for an immediate end of the British rule. The nation was inspired by the Gandhi’s slogan of ‘Do or Die’.

Immediately, the Congress was banned and Gandhi and most of the Congress leaders were swiftly attested; most of whom had to spend the next three years in jail, until World War II ended. The people, however, were unstoppable. There were harris and demonstrations all over the country.

The people attacked all symbols of the British government such as railway stations, law courts and police stations. Railway lines were damaged and telegraph lines were cut. In some places, people even set up their independent government. The movement was most widespread in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Bengal, Bombay, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. Places such as Ballia, Tamluk, Satara, Dharwar, Balasore and Talcher were freed from British rule and the people there formed their own governments.

Though the movement was short-lived, it demonstrated the depth that nationalist feeling had reached in the country and the great capacity for struggle and sacrifice that the people had developed. The movement marked a new high in terms of participation of the masses in the nationalist struggle for freedom. Students, women, peasants and workers played important roles.

Q6. Write a brief note on the Indian National Army.

Ans: The Indian National Army (Also known as the Azad Hind Fauj) was an armed force formed by Indian Nationalists in 1942, through the patronage of the Imperial Japanese Army, to secure independence for India.

In 1941, Subhas Chandra Bose, who, was twice elected as President of the Indian National Congress, was interned in his own house in Calcutta for his anti-British activities. But he eluded police vigilance and went to Afghanistan, Russia, Germany and ultimately to Burma and Malaya. In 1943, with the aid of expatriate nationalist leader Rash Behari Bose, the Indian National Army (INA), or the Azad Hind Fauz was revived.

The idea of the Indian National Army (INA) was first conceived by Captain Mohan Singh, an Indian officer of the British army in Malaya who had to surrender to the Japanese in the Second World War.

In March, 1942; a conference of expatriate Indians was held in Tokyo which led to the formation of the Indian Independence League. This was followed by a conference in Bangkok (June, 1942) where Rash Behari Bose was elected President of the League and a decision was taken to raise the Indian National Army or Azad Hind Fauz.

The slogan of INA was ‘Jai Hind’. It fought with the Japanese army against the British and Commonwealth forces in the campaigns in Burma, Imphal and Kohima. Bose’s famous quote, ‘give me blood and I shall give you freedom’ motivated his followers. However, the defeat of Japan and surrender in the war also led to the eventual surrender of INA.

Subhas Bose is reported to have been killed in an air crash in August 1945. Even though his strategy of winning freedom in cooperation with the Fascist powers was criticized, at the same time most of the Indian nationalist praised him for organizing the INA to set an inspiring example of patriotism before the Indian people and the Indian army. He was hailed as Netaji by the entire country.

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